Market Cross, Malmesbury

Market Cross, Malmesbury
Publisher: Shurey’s Publications (1903-1927)
On back: This beautiful Series of Fine Art Post Cards is supplied free exclusively by Shurey’s Publications. The Publications are obtainable throughout Great Britain, the Colonies and Foreign Countries.”

In the centre of the town stands the Market Cross. Market crosses were used to mark a market square in market towns, since permission to hold markets was within the gift of the monarch. They arose out of the traditions of early medieval ‘Insular art’, that is the distinctive art forms that developed in the British Isles following the departure of the Romans. The tradition of elaborately carved free-standing crosses goes back to the 7th century.
Cotswold Journeys

The market cross stands in the centre of the town, at the north end of the High Street. It was built c.1490, possibly using limestone salvaged from the recently ruined part of Malmesbury Abbey, which then began just across the market square from the cross. An elaborately carved octagonal structure of the Perpendicular Period, it is recognised as one of the best preserved of its kind in England, and was made a Grade I listed building in 1949. A carving in relief of the Crucifixion and figures of several saints have survived the Reformation on the open lantern, although the lower niches for figures are now empty. Inside there is a lierne vaulted roof with carved bosses, springing from a central column with stone seating around it. There is a low wall or bench across all the outside arches except two. The building is over 40 ft. high, and today is nicknamed “the Birdcage”, because of its appearance, and still serves to shelter market traders by day and as a meeting point at night.

It was described by John Leland, who visited Malmesbury in 1542, as follows: Malmesbyri hath a good quik {lively} market kept every Saturday. There is a right fair and costeley peace of worke in the market place made all of stone and curiusly voultid for poore market folkes to stande dry when rayne cummith. Ther be 8 great pillers and 8 open arches: and the work is 8 square: one great piller in the midle berith up the voulte. The men of the toun made this peace of work in hominum memoria {within living memory}.

Old Curiosity Shop, London

The Old Curiosity Shop
Publlisher: Stengel & Co

Google Street View.

Dating from the 16th century, its sloping roof, overhanging second floor, and uneven Tudor gabling mark it as one of London’s oldest shops. Dwarfed and out of place amidst one of the world’s most prestigious universities, the little creaking shop, constructed from salvaged ship wood, survived not only the Great Fire of London in 1666, but the devastation of the Blitz. Living in neighboring Bloomsbury, Charles Dickens visited the quaint shop on a number of occasions. Although the name was added after the novel was released, it is thought to have become the inspiration for his 1841 novel, The Old Curiosity Shop. The Old Curiosity Shop of Dickens’s imagination was the home of a virtuous teenage orphan, Nell Trent, and her grandfather. The tragic tale took place in “one of those receptacles for old and curious things which seem to crouch in odd corners of this town and to hide their musty treasures from the public eye in jealousy and distrust.”
Atlas Obscura

The idea that Dickens was inspired by this very shop in Holborn is untrue – although he lived for many years in the area and knew of the building. In The Old Curiosity Shop, the author himself writes “the old house had been long ago pulled down, and a fine broad road was in its place”. The actual shop which inspired Dickens’ tale is widely believed to be either 10 Orange Street (behind the National Gallery) or 24 Fetter Lane (off Fleet Street).Nearly 30 years after book was published, the shop’s proprietor decided to cash in on Dickens’ popularity. A bookbinder and bookseller named Tesseyman (d.1877) renamed it The Old Curiosity Shop, proudly declaring it was the very one ‘immortalised by Charles Dickens’. It’s been claimed Tesseyman was given the idea by Dickens’ illustrator Clayton Kyd Clarke (1857-1937) following the author’s death in 1870. Tesseyman’s brother confirmed to the Pall Mall Gazette in 1884 that the Curiosity Shop sign had been painted on the façade “for purely business purposes, as likely to attract custom to his shop, he being a dealer in books, paintings, old china, and so on”.
Memoirs of a Metro Girl

Indeed, it is so old that it is now a listed building and is widely considered to be London’s oldest shop, despite there being no evidence of its actually having been a shop prior to the Victorian era. And one thing that becomes more than apparent when studying the building’s history is that it is a true miracle that the building has survived the march of time and progress, given that, at various times in its long existence, there have been numerous occasions when its imminent demise has been announced and it has come within a hair’s breadth of being demolished. . . . The general consensus is that the buildings now known as “The Old Curiosity Shop” were built in the 1500s as two tiny dwellings. The land on which they stood was later gifted to Charles II’s mistress, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth (1649 – 1734), for whom Portsmouth Street is named, and the two tiny dwellings were knocked into one larger dwelling and turned into a dairy.
London Walking Tours

Leeds Castle, Kent

Leeds Castle | near Maidstone

Google Street View.

The Royal Manor was originally built in 857AD and owned by a Saxon royal family. After the Norman Conquest, work began on building the first stone castle on the site. In 1278 the Castle became a royal palace for Edward I and his Queen, Eleanor of Castile. Major improvements were made to the castle during the reign of Edward I. The Barbican, constructed during this time, is unique in that it is made up of three parts, each having its own entrance, drawbridge, gateway and portcullis. The medieval Keep, incorporating the Great Hall, is called the Gloriette, in honour of Queen Eleanor.

In 1321, King Edward II gave the castle to his Royal Steward. When Edwards’ Queen Isabella arrived at the Castle seeking shelter however, she was refused admission and even fired upon by archers. Edward II was not amused and successfully lay siege to the castle. Six years later Edward was murdered but Queen Isabella kept the castle until she died in 1358.
Historic UK

Her grandson was King Henry VII, the first of the Tudor dynasty, and it was his son, King Henry VIII who ordered major alteration to the castle between 1517 and 1523. The castle was hereby transformed from a fortified stronghold to a magnificent royal palace. In 1552, after nearly 30 years of Royal ownership, Leeds Castle was granted to Sir Anthony St Leger for a yearly rental of £10, in recompense for his services to King Henry VIII in subjugating the uprising in Ireland. During the next two centuries, the castle changed its ownership numerous times. Unlike many other castles, Leeds was left relatively undamaged during the Civil War. It suffered however, major damages during the 1660s, as it was used as a place of detention for French and Dutch prisoners of war, who at one point set fire to the Gloriette, causing destruction which was only repaired in 1822.
Castles Today

After the 7th Lord Fairfax’s death in 1793, the castle was passed onto various distant relatives until in 1821 Fiennes Wykeham Martin inherited and commissioned architect William Baskett to survey the castle. The report was devastating. The mill and barbican were in ruins, the gatehouse and inner gatehouse in disrepair, the Maiden’s Tower was in imminent danger of collapse, the main Jacobean house was decaying and the Gloriette was more or less a ruin. Wykeham Martin decided to demolish the main house and replace it with one in the Tudor style. The resulting New Castle, externally changed little today, was finished by 1823, an extraordinarily swift process. The gaping hole that had disfigured the Gloriette since 1665 was repaired and the internal walls rebuilt in stone and the moat was cleared and cleaned. Unfortunately the cost of the rebuild caused Wykeham Martin financial difficulties and he was forced to sell the contents of the Castle at auction.
Leeds Castle

Leeds Castle is a very peculiar structure. It stands upon three rocky knolls, of which two are islands in a lake of 15 acres, and the third occupies the central part of the artificial bank by which, as at Kenilworth and Caerphilly, and in some degree at Framlingham and Ragland, the waters are or were retained. . . . The domestic buildings occupied the north end of the two wards, and are replaced by a modern house, excepting only a vaulted cellar, which may be late Norman, and is certainly the oldest known masonry in the place, and a bracket which supported the ancient oven, and is placed near what is described as “Una coquina juxta pedem pontis de la Gloriet,” which kitchen was not long since removed. In this ward also, or rather partly in this and partly in the outer ward, near a building of the age of Henry VIII., is a very remarkable bath,—“balnea domini regis apud Ledes,” as it is designated, which was constructed for the use of Edward I. in 1291–2. This is now used as a boathouse.
Mediæval Military Architecture in England, Vol. II, George Thomas Clark, 1884

The Castles of England: their story and structure, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896-7, pp.24

The Leeds Castle which Horace Walpole visited in 1752 is not altogether the place we see now, with its towers and walls rising so splendidly from the lake, which water Walpole, in his misleading way, calls “the only handsom object;” for in 1822, in place of the sixteenth century mansion erected on the central island by Sir Richard Smith, the existing buildings were constructed in the Tudor style, a great part of the inner bailey and of the keep having been the work of Henry YIII. The Len stream flowing through the property afforded the one great element of defence on which our ancestors chiefly relied ; here some twenty acres surrounding the castle might by means of sluices be turned into a lake if occasion required.

The situation of this fortress was a most suitable one in the days of water defence : it occupies two natural rock islands in the lake, a third artificial one being formed at the land end by the bank and sluices which controlled the water, and on which were placed the barbicans and the castle mill. The whole of the centre island was reveted with an outer or curtain wall, 15 feet high, rising from the waters, liaving four rounded bastion towers, and drawbridges at each end, admitting at the S. end from the barbican island, and giving passage at the N. point to the furthermost island, called the Old Castle or ” Gloriette,” which was the keep of the fortress. . . . The domestic buildings, which occupied the N. end of this island, are now replaced by a fine modern mansion, having vaulted Norman cellarage. On the E. side is the Maidens’ Tower of Henry VIII., before alluded to, and also the interesting bathhouse built by Edward I. in 1292, and now used as a boathouse. Baths were an innovation at the close of the thirteenth century, which Edward may have brought in from the East.

Entering the citadel from the modern mansion, one passes by the entrance through the Curfew Tower, which contains an ancient bell, that has sounded the eight o’clock curfew for four and a hall centuries and does so still . . . The bridge had formeiy two openings, with lifting bridges operated on by a central tower of two storeys ; it was called the Pons Glorietta. On the left, in entering the keep, is the chapel, built by Edward I. in 1380, having good Early English windows. The walls of these buildings rise out of the water to a considerable height, and are placed round a small central court. Much of the work is of the fourteenth century. This part was severely injured by a fire during its occupation by Evelyn’s Dutch sailors, so that a good deal is modern. There is, however, the great dining-hall of Henry VlII.’s castle, now converted into the kitchen, while the ancient kitchen has become a larder. Overhead is the Queen’s bed-chamber, with a line mantel- piece and an immense bed.
The Castles of England: their story and structure, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896-7, pp.27-8

Old Manor House, Sheffield, South Yorkshire

Sheffield: The Old Manor House.
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

Google Street View.

Sheffield Manor Lodge, also known as Sheffield Manor or locally as Manor Castle, is a lodge built about 1516 in what then was a large deer park southeast of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, to provide a country retreat and further accommodate George Talbot, the 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, and his large family. . . . The remains of Sheffield Manor Lodge include parts of the kitchens, long gallery, and the Grade II* listed Turret House (also called “Queen Mary’s Tower”), which contains fine sixteenth-century ceilings. Some evidence points to the Turret House being built by 1574, when the Earl of Shrewsbury’s accounts record payments for masonry work on the “Tyrret” at Sheffield Manor. It has three storeys of two rooms. The stair at one corner rises above the building onto the roof. This seems to have been designed as a viewing platform and is comparable with the “Hunting Tower” at Chatsworth House. . . After Sheffield Manor fell into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk, it was neglected, sold to tenant farmers, and largely dismantled in 1706. Some remaining walls and a window were removed to the grounds of Queen’s Tower in Norfolk Park by Robert Marnock in 1839.

The early hunting lodge was regularly extended – at least six building phases have been identified prior to the early 16th century. George Talbot, the fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, was the first Lord of the Manor to take an active personal interest in local affairs, and expanded and upgraded the existing lodge considerably, so that by the beginning of the 1500s quite an extensive complex of buildings, a grand Tudor manor house, was in existence. . . . During the 1570s, the sixth Earl and his wife undertook a major programme of remodelling the manor house, adding a new prestigious brick wing and, in 1574, the Turret House – a new gatehouse and the only building that remains today.
Sheffield Manor Lodge

After the death of George Talbot, the Earls rarely visited the site and the land was leased to tenant farmers. It fell to the Duke of Norfolks in 1660 who have owned the land ever since. In 1708 most buildings were demolished and used for local building works. One tower stood until 1793 when it collapsed during a storm. The Turret House remains to this day having been used as part of farm buildings. . . . In the 1870s, the 15th Duke of Norfolk restored the Turret House, removing the surrounding farm buildings. The stained glass windows on the upper floors date from this Victorian restoration.
Sheffield Manor Lodge

Sheffield: Queen’s Room, Old Manor House
Publisher: The Photochrom Co Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

Google Street View (approximate).

The principal remains at Sheffield consist of a few walls and chimney stack and the so-called Turret House, the building especially erected by Shrewsbury in 1574 for, it is believed, the safe keeping of the Queen. It was restored by the late Duke of Norfolk in 1872, after it had been discovered among some farm buildings. It is square, three storeyed, and stands outside the defences of the Castle. Tiles of French origin were discovered here round the fireplace of what has long been known as Queen Mary’s Room. This battlemented Tudor building, with a lead-covered roof, has a turret from which it takes its name and three chimney stacks. It faces the main entrance to the Manor Lodge or House. A stone stairway leads from the ground floor to the turret. Mary would be under constant observation in this compact dwelling and also separated from Shrewsbury’s household. During the early part of her stay in Sheffield she was free of the splendid park, but afterwards took her exercise on the leaden roof.
“In The Steps of Mary, Queen Of Scots”, Marjorie Bowen (1952)

Moot Hall, Adeburgh, Suffolk

Moot Hall, Aldeburgh
Publisher: Shurey’s Publications (1903-1927)
On back: This beautiful Series of Fine Art Post Cards is supplied free exclusively by Shurey’s Publications, comprising “Smart Novels,” “Yes or No.” and “Dainty Novels.” The finest 1d. Magazine is “Weekly Tale-Teller.”

Google Street View.

The Aldeburgh Moot Hall is a Grade I listed timber-framed building, used for council meetings for over 400 years. The Town Clerk’s office remains there and it houses the local museum. It was built in about 1520 and altered in 1654. The brick and stone infilling of the ground floor is later. The hall was restored and the external staircase and gable ends were rebuilt in 1854–1855 under the direction of R. M. Phipson, chief architect of the Diocese of Norwich, in which Aldeburgh then stood.

The Moot Hall in Aldeburgh is believed to be one of the best preserved Tudor public buildings in Britain. . . . There is no exact date for the construction of this building, but best-guess estimates put it at 1550. Moot Hall sits on the seafront in Aldeburgh, with a huge pebble beach behind it stretching out to a cold, grey sea. It is quite remarkable to look at, with its timber frame, red bricks and tiled roof looking somewhat incongruous next to the colourful seaside villas and wooden shacks, lobster pots and fish stalls that fill the area. Now famous as a music and arts holiday destination, Moot Hall harks back to a time when Aldeburgh was a prosperous Tudor town of traders and ship builders.
Archaeology Travel

The term ‘Moot Hall’ was used only from the nineteenth century as part of the Victorian mock-Tudor restoration. The building was always referred to in earlier documents as the ‘Town Hall’. The word ‘Moot’ derives from the Saxon word for ‘a meeting’. . . .In the 16th century an open-sided polygonal market cross stood across to the North of the Moot Hall, and there was also a large market hall nearby. Fresh food and other everyday commodities would have been sold from these stalls by peripatetic traders: vegetables and fruit, bread, meat and fish. Although no one knows exactly what was sold from the Town Hall shops, records number several shoemakers and tailors working in the town, together with barbers, coopers, grocers, beer-brewers a shipwright and a ‘hockemaker’ (the maker of those all-important hooks for suspending vessels over the fire). The original layout of the ground floor included dividing walls between six shops – each shop would have been self-contained and entered by its own door. Large arched windows which contained no glass but were closed by inside shutters at night provided necessary light.
Suffolk Secrets

Town Hall, Fordwich, England

Town Hall, Fordwich

Google Street View.

Fordwich Town Hall was built in 1544 as a meeting place for the council of England’s smallest town. It has served continuously in this role for nearly 500 years. Fordwich – population less than 400 – is legally a town because in 1184 King Henry II granted it a “Merchant Gild Charter”. This reflected its importance as the nearest port to Canterbury.
Wheels of Time

St John’s Gate, Canterbury, England

Canterbury. St John’s Gate
Publisher: E. Crow & Son, Canterbury

Google Street View (from other side)

The hospital of St. John is situated on the west side of Northgate Street, and is entered by a fine wooden arch, under an interesting house.
“The archaeological album; or, Museum of national antiquities”, Wright, Thomas, 1845

St John’s Hospital

This is possibly the oldest group of almshouses in England as it was founded by the first Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc, in about 1085. It was originally built for around 80 inmates, drawn from the lame, the weak and the infirm, who would have been cared for by the priests from the nearby priory of St Gregory the Great, no longer existing. The splendid gatehouse fronting Northgate dates from Tudor times and inside, the charming green is surrounded by four 19th century houses accommodating 24 residents

Canterbury History and Archaeological Society

Haddon Hall, Bakewell, Derbyshire

Haddon Hall
Postmarked 1908
Pubisher: Francis Frith

This delightful house was begun by Peveril, the illegitimate son of William the Conqueror (see Peveril Castle). Of that early fortress, almost nothing remains beyond some parts of the Eagle Tower and the Chapel. Peveril and his descendants held Haddon for a century before the property passed to the Vernon family, and later to the Manners, Dukes of Rutland. The house is constructed on a wooded crag above the River Wye. The entrance is through a gatehouse of weathered grey stone defended by an imposing tower. Once past the gatehouse, the visitor sees a cobbled courtyard flanked by ranges presenting a jumble of Tudor and medieval styles with Jacobean embellishments.
Britain Express

Google Maps

Google Street VIew (approximate)

Plan of Haddon Hall, 1909 (from Wikimedia Commons

Haddon Hall, the private residence of Lord and Lady Edward Manners, is set in the Peak District in the valley of the River Wye. With nine hundred years of history, it is one of the oldest houses in the country and moreover one of the only houses in England to have remained in one family’s ownership for its entire existence. Haddon is unique as it remained empty for nearly two hundred years. This extraordinary period, when time stood still in the Hall, allowed it to remain unaltered during the modernising period of the Georgians and Victorians. So venturing into Haddon is like stepping back in time, since from the 1700s the family preferred to live at their main seat, Belvoir Castle in Leicestershire.

The Medieval Banqueting Hall remains furnished with its original Dais table, behind which hangs a tapestry gifted to the family by visiting Henry VIII.
Haddon Hall 

Haddon Hall, Banqueting Hall
Dated on back: 12 July 1920
Publisher: Francis Frith & Co, Reigate

Read more

Thornbury Castle, Thornbury, Gloucestershire

Thornbury Castle from the Church
Pubilsher: A. Prewett & Son, Thornbury

Google Street View (approximate).

The manor house was forfeited at the execution for treason of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, following the Rebellion of 1483, but was restored to the family and inherited by his son Edward, 3rd Duke, in 1498, who made it his principal seat. Plans were laid for the creation of an ambitious and outwardly fortified house and a licence to fortify, crenellate, and embattle the manor house was granted in 1510. With the hall and chapel of the existing manor house forming the east range of an inner courtyard, Buckingham set about building an elaborate palace-castle, which demonstrated the involvement of masons of the highest quality, and was apparently inspired by Richmond Palace, at that time England’s most splendid royal residence. To complement his bold plans for the castle, Buckingham enclosed 1500 acres of parkland between 1510 and 1517.

Edward, Duke of Buckingham, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII following an investigation for treason in 1521 – the Duke’s ostentatious behaviour and wealth, as evidenced by his lavish building programme, having exacerbated the suspicion with which he was viewed – and the estate was confiscated, remaining in Crown ownership until 1554. Henry sent surveyors to make a record of his new acquisition shortly after Buckingham’s death, and their account provides a detailed description of the castle and estate. Although works were not recommenced, the buildings were maintained and periodically used; Princess Mary visited during the 1520s, and Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn stopped on a royal progress in 1535. Thornbury Castle was restored to the Staffords in 1554 when it was granted to Buckingham’s son, Lord Henry Stafford, by Queen Mary. The upkeep of the castle proved too expensive, however, and it fell into ruin, eventually coming into the ownership of a branch of the Howard family in 1637 and remaining in their hands until the 1960s.

The east range, comprising the original medieval hall and chapel, was demolished at some point before 1732. No pictorial representations survive of the range, which is described in a detailed estate inventory made in the late C16; archaeological investigation has demonstrated the survival of this part of the castle as a buried feature. Although part of the castle – principally the section of the west range to the south of the gatehouse – served as lodgings and a farmhouse in the C18 and early C19, much of the building was ruinous, and it was not until the C19 that it was brought back into use as a high-status residence
Historic England

Thornbury Castle, West
“M. P. C. Series”

“The ancient castles of England and Wales”, William Woolnoth & E.W. Brayley, jun, 1825

In the following reign a mansion was built there, on the site, as it is supposed, of the more ancient edifice, by Ralph, Lord Stafford. Part of this building was taken down in 1511, by Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, when he conmenced the erection of a new and splendid pile. The attainder and death of the Duke, who was betrayed by his domestics, and sacrificed to the resentment of Wolsey in 1522, prevented the completion of the design ; and this castellated palace has been permitted to decay in its unfinished state. Leland visited Thornbury Castle soon after the Duke of Buck- ingham was beheaded, and he informs us, that the principal front, towards the west, was then nearly finished ; and another, towards the south, completely so : the stately gateway had risen only to the first floor. . . . From a Survey made in the year 1582, it is evident that the whole southern side of the proposed quadrangle was then habitable, and that it consisted of many spacious apartments. A Tower at the south-western angle, which appears to have been the only one ever finished, contained, on the ground-floor, the Duchess’s closet ; on the second story were the Duke’s jewel and bed-chambers ; another chamber occupied the third story ; and over that was a room called the Treasury, wherein the evidences or records were preserved. The chimnies are very curiously and beautifully constructed ; they consist of brick, wrought into spiral columns, the bases of which are charged with the cognizances of the Stafford family. The principal timbers of this edifice were removed in the time of Queen Elizabeth; and the Hall and Chapel, with a range of other buildings, were demolished in the last century.
“The ancient castles of England and Wales”, William Woolnoth & E.W. Brayley, jun, 1825

“History of Thornbury Castle”, Richard Ellis, 1839
Plan of Office on South Side and General Ground Plan, “History of Thornbury Castle”, Richard Ellis, 1839

Mr. Gage, however, in his paper in the Archoeologia states that the survey was made in the reign of James the 1st. He refers to Rudder’s History of Gloucester- shire, who says, “I have been favoured with a more particular description of this Castle, written as conjecture about the time of King James the 1st.” That our readers may the better understand, and be enabled to apply this survey to the present condition of the Castle we annex a ground plan ; the index to which specifies the principal rooms therein described.

Containing these Rooms following.

“The house or Castle of Thornbury aforesaid, is standing, and being within two miles of the river Seaverne which runeth on the north thereof, and is bounded, and adjoyned unto the Church-yard of the Parish Church of Thornbury aforesaid on the south part ; the Park there, called New Park on the U North and East part ; and one small parcel of ground called the Petties, on the West part.

“At the first entry towards the said Castle is a fair base Court, containing by estimation 2½ Acres, compassed about with buildings of stone for servants’ lodging, to the height of 14 or 15 feet left unfinished without timber or covering, set forth with windows of freestone, some having bars of iron in them, some none. At the entry into the Castle, on the West side of the same, are two Gates a large, and a lesser, with a Wyck gate. On the left hand there is a Porters Lodge, containing three rooms, with a dungeon underneath the same, for a place of imprisonment. Next adjoyning unto the same is a fair room, call’d the Dukes Wardropp, with a Chimney therein. Within the same is a fair room, or lodging Chamber, with a Cellar or Vault underneath the same. Over all which are four lodging Chambers with Chimneys.

“On the right hand of the said gates are two fair rooms, called the Duchess’s Wardropp, and over them are two fair Chambers, called the Steward’s Chambers, Within all which is a court quadrant, paved with Stone, containing by estimation half an Acre, encompassed with the Castle buildings, and leading from the gates aforesaid to the great Hall, at the entry whereof is a porch, and to the right hand of a small room called the [sic orig.] On the left or North side of the said Court is one fair wet Larder, a dry Larder, a Privy, a Bakehouse, and Boyling house, with an entry leading from all the same rooms of Office, to the Great Kitchen ; over ail which are Chambers for ordinary Lodging, and over the same again is one long room, called the Cock-loft. The Great Kitchen having two fair flues or Chimneys, and one lesser Chimney, and within the same Kitchen is a privy Kitchen, over which is a lodging chamber over which is a lodging chamber for Cooks. On the back side of which last recited building, are certain decay ‘d buildings, sometimes used for a Bakehouse, and Armery, with certain decay’d lodgings over the same.

“From the great Kitchen (leading to the great Hall) is an Entry on the one side, whereof is a decay’d room called the Scullery, with a large flue or Chimney therein, and a Pantry to the same adjoyning. On the other side of the entry are two old decay’ d rooms, heretofore used for Clerks, on the back side whereof is a little Court adjoining to the said Kitchen, and in the same is a fair well or pump for Water, partly decay’d; between which decay’d cellars, at the lower end of the said Hall is a Buttery, over all which recited rooms are four Chambers, called the Earl of Stafford’s lodgings, partly decay’d, with one room call’d the Clerk’s Treasury thereunto adjoyning.

“From the lower end of the great Hall is an entry leading to the Chapel : at the corner of the entry is a cellar. . . . The lower part of the principal building of the Castle is called the New-building at the West end there of is a fair Tower : in which lower building is contained one great Chamber, with a chimney in the same, the ceiling and timber work thereof decay’d, being propped up with certain pieces of other timber ; within the same is one other fair Chamber with a chimney therein; and within the same again is one other fair lodging Chamber with a chimney therein called the Duchess’s lodgings with one little room or closet between the two last recited Chambers: within all which is one room, being the foundation or lowermost part of the said Tower, called the Duchess’s Closet, with a Chimney therein, from the which said Duchess’s lodging, leadeth a fair Gallery paved with brick, and a Stayer at the end thereof, ascending to the Duke’s lodging being over the same, used for a privy way. From the upper end of the great Hall, a stayer ascending up towards the great Chamber, at the top whereof are two lodging rooms. Leading from the Stayers head to the great Chamber, is a fair room paved with brick ; and a chimney in the same, at the end whereof doth meet a fair gallery leading from the great chamber to the Earl of Bedford’s lodging on the one side, and to the Chapel on the other side ; the great Chamber very fair, with a chimney therein. Within the same is one other fair chamber, called the dining chamber, and a chimney therein likewise and within that again is one other Chamber with a chimney therein also, called the Privy Chamber and within the same again is one other Chamber or Closet, called the Duke’s Jewell Chamber. Next unto the privy Chamber, on the inner part thereof, is a fair round* Chamber, being the 2nd Story of the Tower, called the Duke’s bed chamber (like unto the same,) being the 3rd Story of the Tower, and so upwards, to answer a like chamber, over the same, called the same again, where the Evedeuts do lye. 1 All which last recited buildings, called the New buildings, are builded fair with freestone, covered with lead, and [sic orig.]

“On the East side of the said Castle is one other Garden, containing by Estimation 1/2 of an acre, adjoining upon the Earl of Bedford’s lodging ; at the West corner whereof is a little void Court of waste ground. On the North side of the Castle adjoyning upon the Chapel, is a little Orchard, containing by estimation half an Acre, well set with trees of divers kind of fruits. All which Castle Buildings, Courts, Orchards, and Gardens Aforesaid are wall’d round about with a wall of Stone, part ruined and decay’d in divers places thereof, containing in circuit and quantity, by estimation, 12 Acres of ground or thereabouts. On the East side of the said Castle, adjoining to the utter side of the Wall thereof is one fair Orchard quadrant, containing by estimation 4 Acres, paled about well, and thick set with fruit trees of divers kinds of fruit. “

Since the period of this Survey, all the older parts of the Castle, comprising a great number of rooms as therein mentioned, have been wholly destroyed
“History of Thornbury Castle”, Richard Ellis, 1839, pp. 24-32

Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent

Knole Park
Publisher: “This is No. 21 of a series of 30 cards issued with the larger packets of the brands manufactured by Godfrey Phillips Ltd., and Associated Companies”

Google Street View.

Knole is a country house and former archbishop’s palace owned by the National Trust. It is situated within Knole Park, a 1,000-acre (400-hectare) park located immediately to the south-east of Sevenoaks in west Kent. The house ranks in the top five of England’s largest houses, under any measure used, occupying a total of four acres. The current house dates back to the mid-15th century, with major additions in the 16th and, particularly, the early 17th centuries. Its grade I listing reflects its mix of late-medieval to Stuart structures and particularly its central façade and state rooms.

“Knole from Jan Kip and Leonard Knyff’s ‘Britannia Illustrata'”, 1709 (from Wikimedia Commons).

What we see today is a remarkably preserved and complete early Jacobean remodelling of a medieval archiepiscopal palace. From an even older manor house, it was built and extended by the Archbishops of Canterbury after 1456. It then became a royal possession during the Tudor dynasty when Henry VIII hunted here and found the place a useful residence for his daughter – later to become Mary I – during his divorce from her mother, Catherine of Aragon. Elizabeth I is also said to have visited. From 1603, Thomas Sackville made it the aristocratic treasure house for the Sackville family, who were prominent and influential in court circles. Knole’s showrooms were designed to impress visitors and to display the Sackville family’s wealth and status. Over more than 400 years, his descendants rebuilt and then furnished Knole in three further bursts of activity.
. . .
The Sackvilles gradually withdrew into the heart of the house, leaving many rooms unused and treasures covered. This helps to explain the relative lack of modernisation at Knole and the preservation of its collections. The significance of the collections at Knole was recognised early on, and the beds, tapestries and furniture were established in the showrooms as early as 1730, where they have remained ever since. Country-house visiting became increasingly fashionable in the 18th century and there was already a significant number of visitors to Knole at this point, creating a divide between the showrooms and the rest of the house.
National Trust