Archbishop’s Palace, Southwell


Old Palace Ruins, Southwell
Publisher: A. Wood, Bookseller & Stationer, Southwell

The former Palace of the Archbishop of York stands next door to the Minster, adjoining the present official residence of the Bishop of Southwell. The Palace as we see it today dates from the 14th Century and was wrecked during the Civil War. The ruined part can be admired up-close from the Palace Gardens. The surviving built part of the Palace – the Great Hall – was restored in the Edwardian era. The Hall retains its original proportions and the beams of the magnificent vaulted ceiling of the State Chamber are mostly medieval originals.
Southwell Minster

Originally built in the 15-century as a palace for the Archbishop of York, this historic castle was damaged extensively by Parliamentarians after the English Civil War. In the Georgian period, the remaining habitable parts of the Palace was home to a “respectable seminary for young ladies” as well as being used as the local magistrate’s court. In the late 19th century parts of the Palace were restored as an episcopal residency when the nearby Minster obtained cathedral status. Today, the restored part of the building is often filled with the sound of singing from the Song School, an integral part of Southwell Minster since the 13th century.

This part of the building is not open to the public but visitors are free to go to the first-floor stateroom, said to be the place where Cardinal Wolseley made his last desperate efforts to obtain the annulment of the first marriage of Henry VIII. In the 17th century, the palace was the first place of captivity of Charles I, who was captured by the Scottish Allies of Oliver Cromwell towards the end of the English Civil War.
Atlas Obscura

If the matter were still undecided, a very recent discovery would enable us to pronounce that Southwell had, at least, been the residence of Romans, by whatever appellation it might be celebrated, or by whatever size and magnificence it might be distinguished, in their time; for, in breaking up a piece of ground under the eastern side of of the archbishop’s palace, in the year 1793, to make a garden for one of the gentlemen of this church, a tessalated Roman floor was discovered of considerable extent, accompanied by several fragments of urns.
“Antiquities historical, architectural, chorographical and itinerary, in Nottinghamshire and the adjacent counties”, William Dickinson, 1801

We cannot avoid briefly noticing here the ruins of the ancient Palace of the Archbishops of York, which stand on the south side of the Church, and which cannot fail to excite admiration by their picturesque appearance, as well as the numerous and interesting historical associations with which they are connected, as well as the variety of tenants who have occupied it. It was the favourite residence of the great Cardinal Wolsey, who frequently retired hither for a time to forget the cares of government amidst its secluded and religious retreats. He passed here the greater part of the last year of his life, (1530), when his proud grandeur was fast fading away; and at the close of which year he was hurled from his lofty pinnacle of glory, to lay down his weary head in obscurity on the cold pillow of death.

Archbishop Sandys spent nearly the whole of his time here, after his translation to the See of York ; he was the last Archbishop that resided here. During the civil wars, the Commissioners of Scotland resided here, and held their consultations ; after which, it afforded a brief asylum to the unfortunate monarch Charles I. and his queen. It was occupied by the Parliamentary generals, and afterwards by Cromwell himself ; and General Monk, when he was returning from Scotland to restore the exiled king, slept under its roof. It was during these wars that it fell to ruin, all the contending parties of that period contributed to complete its destruction.

The rooms of state were on the east, the lodging apartments to the south, the offices on the west, and the north was occupied by the great hall and chapel, the former of which is now alone remaining. The large Gothic window on the south-east corner is said to have lighted an immense library. On the wall at the east end is an angel bearing the arms of Cardinal Kempe, Archbishop of York, in the reign of Henry VI. These are said to have been three corn sheaves in allusion to his origin, which was that of a husbandman’s son, in Sussex.
“The history and antiquities of the collegiate church of Southwell : illustrated by views of the interior and exterior, plans, sections, etc. of the edifice, William Bennett Killpack, 1839

Bargate, Southampton


The Bargate, South Side | Southampton
1900s
“The Charterhouse Series of Southampton Views”

The Bargate was built as a town gateway in c1180. It also has a Guildhall on the first floor. It originally joined on to the town wall. In the 1930s it was separated from the wall. Between the centre 2 windows is a statue of George III in Roman costume. This replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. A bell was added in 1605. This was the curfew and alarm bell for the city. This is one of the finest town gateways in England.
Historic England

These fortifications gradually grew, ranging in date from the Norman period to the early 15th century, by which time the medieval town of Southampton was completely encircled by a lofty wall, averaging about 25ft feet to 30ft in height and extending nearly one-and-a-quarter miles in circumference. The defensive walls formed a rectangle, stretching north and south, following the line of the western shore and rounded off at the southwest corner. Built mainly of Isle of Wight limestone, the walls incorporated seven main gateways and were strengthened by 29 towers. The Bargate or North Gate dates from Norman times, its earliest feature the half-round arch dating from about 1175-1200, forming the core.
Northern Dail Echo: Pictures of Bargate through the years – the symbol of Southampton

The Bargate was built c. 1180, constructed of stone and flint. Alterations were made to the building around 1290, when large drum towers were added to the north side, with arrow slit windows. A two-storey extension was made to the south side towards the end of the 13th century, with four windows lighting the upstairs room. Work was also carried out to the interior of the upper room during the 13th century, when the stone fireplaces were installed. The embattled north front was added to the building around 1400. A survey of the town’s guns in 1468 reported that the Bargate held two breach loader guns and a brass muzzle loader. It is not clear when the Bargate started being used as a prison but the first records of it date from 1439. . . . A bell was added to the southwest corner of the building to 1579. The current bell is inscribed 1605 and was used as the city’s curfew and alarm bell. In 1644 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were repainted. The room above the gate itself was probably added shortly after 1400 and the town steward books mention a banquet held there in 1434. It was originally used as the city’s guildhall, until the 1770s. It was at this point that the city began to grow to the north of the gate. Also during the 18th century, five panels containing painted shields and the sundial were added to the building and in the middle of the century the old wooden lions were replaced with new lead sculptures.

Additional archways were added in 1764 and 1774. In 1765, a passage was cut through the eastern side of the arch for pedestrians. A further passage through the western side was added later. The construction of these passages ended (for a time) the Bargate’s use as a prison. In 1809 a statue of George III in Roman dress was added the middle of the four windows of the southern side. It replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. The statue was a gift to the town from John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne and is made from Coade stone. Following the establishment of Southampton’s police force in February 1836, the upper room was used as a prison. The current guildhall within the Bargate was constructed in 1852 and was designed to be used as a criminal court. In addition to this the Bargate continued to be the site of meetings of Southampton’s court leet until 1856. In 1881 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were moved into the building for protection.
Wikipedia

St Philip’s Cathedral, Birmingham


Cathedral, Birmingham.
c.1905
Publisher: John Evelyn Wrench

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Once amongst fields, Birmingham Cathedral was originally St Philip’s parish church. At the centre of the growing town of Birmingham, it was designed by Warwickshire
architect Thomas Archer in the new English Baroque style and consecrated in 1715. As Birmingham emerged as an influential industrial centre and city of a thousand trades, with waves of people coming to live and work here, the need for a new cathedral became apparent. In 1905 the Bishop of Birmingham, Charles Gore, chose St Philip’s to be the cathedral of the new diocese of Birmingham.

Birmingham Cathedral


Birmingham, St Phillip’s Cathedral.
On back:
St Phillip’s Church. The Cathedral of Birmingham was erected in 1710 and enlarged in 1874. It contains some beautiful stained glass windows designed by Sir E. Burne-Johns, who was a native of this city.
c.1910
Publisher: Raphael Tuck & Son

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Durham Cathedral, Durham


Durham Cathedral
c.1910
Publisher: J.W. Ruddock & Sons

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The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Durham, the fourth-ranked bishop in the Church of England hierarchy. The present Norman era cathedral had started to be built in 1093, replacing the city’s previous ‘White Church’. In 1986 the cathedral and Durham Castle were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Durham Cathedral’s relics include: Saint Cuthbert’s, transported to Durham by Lindisfarne monks in the 800s; Saint Oswald’s head and the Venerable Bede’s remains.
Wikipedia

Bishop’s Palace, Wells


Wells, Bishop’s Palace, The Drawbridge.
c.1910
Publisher: T.W. Phillips, City Studio, Wells

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The Bishop’s Palace and accompanying Bishops House at Wells in the English county of Somerset, is adjacent to Wells Cathedral and has been the home of the Bishops of the Diocese of Bath and Wells for 800 years. . . . Construction began around 1210 by Bishop Jocelin of Wells but principally dates from 1230. Bishop Jocelin continued the cathedral building campaign begun by Bishop Reginald Fitz Jocelin, and was responsible for building the Bishop’s Palace, as well as the choristers’ school, a grammar school, a hospital for travellers and a chapel within the liberty of the cathedral. He also built a manor house at Wookey, near Wells. The chapel and great hall were built between 1275 and 1292 for Bishop Robert Burnell. The windows had stone tracery. Stone bosses where the supporting ribs meet on the ceiling are covered with representations of oak leaves and the Green Man.
. . .
In the 14th century, Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury continued the building. He had an uneasy relationship with the citizens of Wells, partly because of his imposition of taxes, and surrounded his palace with 5 metres (16 ft) crenellated walls,[8] a moat and a drawbridge. The three-storey gatehouse, which dates from 1341, has a bridge over the moat. The entrance was protected by a heavy gate, portcullis and drawbridge, operated by machinery above the entrance, and spouts through which defenders could pour scalding liquids onto any attacker.
. . .
In the 1550s, Bishop Barlow sold the lead from the roofs of the great hall. It can be seen in an engraving of 1733 but was largely demolished around 1830 by Bishop Law. He created a “more picturesque ruin” by removing the south and east walls and laying out and planting the area previously occupied by the great hall. The palace was used as a garrison for troops in both the English Civil War and Monmouth Rebellion after which it was used as a prison for rebels after the Battle of Sedgemoor. Bishop Kidder was killed during the Great Storm of 1703, when two chimney stacks in the palace fell on him and his wife, while they were asleep in bed A central porch was added around 1824 and, in the 1840s and 1850s, Benjamin Ferrey restored the palace and added an upper storey. He also restored the chapel using stained glass from ruined French churches.
Wikipedia

Swans float peacefully in the moat of the Bishop’s Palace, while parents push prams along the moat walk and chat, while the high wall separating the Bishop’s Palace grounds from the busy market place cuts off the noise of hustle and bustle in the outside world. It is a scene of peace and tranquil beauty. But it was not also so peaceful; indeed, the presence of the moat tells its own story, for in the Middle Ages the powerful Bishops of Bath and Wells were locked in bitter conflict with the townsfolk of Wells. The Bishops, fearful for their safety, thought it prudent to protect their palace with a wide moat and allow access only by way of a drawbridge which could be lifted in case of threat. But back to the swans; in the 1870s the daughters of Bishop Hervey taught the resident swans to ring a bell for food, and the tradition continues today.
Britain Express

Bird’s eye view of the Bishop’s Palace, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849

The present dwelling-house or palace, which remains to a great extent perfect, though with many alterations of a minor kind, has the lower story vaulted with a good Early English groined vault, with ribs, carried upon slender pillars and corbels ; the parallelogram is divided lengthwise by a solid wall at about one-third of the width, the outer or narrow part of which on the ground floor now forms the entrance- hall and passage to the staircase at one end and the chapel at the other. In this vestibule is a fireplace of the time of Henry VIII., which has probably replaced an original one. The entrance doorway has been moved one bay southward, and a modern porch built over it . . . At the north- west corner of the building there is a square projection on the north side, the walls in the ground floor of which are of immense thickness, and it was probably intended for a tower, which the situation seems to indicate. The ground room is vaulted like the rest of the substructure. The room over this (now the Bishop’s study), has had an oriel window thrown out at the end, and a newel staircase made in the angle formed by the projection and the main building. . . . The upper story of this long range of building is divided in the same manner as the lower one by a solid wall running the whole length, and separating one third of the width as a long gallery, in which there are two modern fireplaces, the chimneys of which are probably original; this upper gallery has also been originally divided into two rooms. The larger division is subdivided into three apartments, the partitions are modernized, and as the roof and ceilings are also modern, there is no guide as to what the original arrangements were, but it seems probable that they were the same as at present. . . .

General Plan, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849

All the principal apartments of the palace are still, and were from the beginning, on the first floor, and the entrance to them was always by a staircase in the same situation as the present one, although that is Jacobean work. The omission of the end bay of the vaulting, and the existence of a square pier on one side and none on the other, where the end of the vault is carried on a corbel only, proves that the original state staircase was in this situation, and ascended by a sweep round this end of the entrance hall. The square tower by the side of this, and in the north-east angle of the court, contains the servants’ staircase. The present stair- case is modern, and the tower is an addition to the original work, but it does not seem to be much later; the doorway is of the fifteenth century and the porch modern, but the windows are very like Joceline’s work, and are clearly not modern. The kitchen and offices were partly rebuilt by Bishop Bagot, but on the old site, with some of the old walls and the old chimney-stack remaining. There have evidently always been some rooms between the kitchen and the staircase. The buttery and pantry are usually on a level with the hall, even when that is on the first floor and the kitchen on the ground floor, and there is then a straight staircase from the hall to the kitchen, passing between the buttery and the pantry, as at St. Mary’s Hall, Coventry, and many other ancient houses. But in this instance it appears that there was a screen only at the servants’ end of the hall, and that these offices were down- stairs.

The partitions in this part of the palace are entirely modern, and I have not been able to obtain any plan of the old arrangements, so that I can only guess what they were. . . . This corner of the palace seems to have been almost rebuilt by him, and the old wall of enclosure of Bishop Ralph was built upon, and had windows pierced through it. The internal arrangement of this part of the house was entirely altered in the time of Bishop Beadon, about 1810, when the floors were taken out, and what had been two stories made into three. The tower at the angle, with a stair-turret, is part of the work of Bishop Clerk, in the time of Henry VIII. This tower, or turret, is square on one side and a half octagon on the other, a very unusual plan.

An upper story was also added to the whole of the west front over the long gallery by Bishop Bagot, about 1840, to contain additional bedrooms, and the present dormer windows were then added by Mr. Ferrey with so much ingenuity and in such good taste that it is almost impossible to distinguish them from the old work, and the effect of the front is thought by many persons to have been improved by the alteration. The buttresses were then restored, but Mr. Ferrey states that the toothing of the old buttresses remained quite distinct in the walls when the rough-cast was taken off.
“The Architectural Antiquities of the City of Wells”, John Henry Parker, 166, pp. 6-9

Bishop’s Palace, Wells, North View“Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
The Gate-house, built by Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury, A.D> 1329-1363“Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
East or Garden Front of Bishop Jocelyn’s Palace, A.D. 1205-1244 (The Oriel Window inserted) “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
The work of Bishop Jocelyn, A.D. 1205-1244, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
N. Elevation, West End & General Plan“Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Chimneypiece in the entrance “Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Elevation & section of S. W. Turret “Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Plans and details of S.W. Turret“Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895


Cockington Forge
c.1910

The Forge has stood at the heart of the village for centuries, and any visitor can see how it’s earned its reputation as being one of the most photographed buildings in the country. Although often cited as being constructed in the 14th century, a forge had been on the site before that. In 1345 a fire destroyed large sections of the building, causing it to be re-built in the style you see today, so it was actually re-constructed in the 14th century. It is thought that Rose Cottage, now a popular tea rooms, was the traditional home of the blacksmith, and was passed on along with the forge. The first records of the forge’s blacksmiths start with a Mr Davey in 1615, whose daughter married his apprentice. From there, however, it is difficult to track down any other occupants. We know that the last blacksmith started working at the forge in the late 1940s, and held the position until 1971, when under the economic strain of a steadily decreasing workload, it was forced to close.

The Forge has stood at the heart of the village for centuries, and any visitor can see how it’s earned its reputation as being one of the most photographed buildings in the country. Although often cited as being constructed in the 14th century, a forge had been on the site before that. In 1345 a fire destroyed large sections of the building, causing it to be re-built in the style you see today, so it was actually re-constructed in the 14th century. It is thought that Rose Cottage, now a popular tea rooms, was the traditional home of the blacksmith, and was passed on along with the forge. . . . It seems likely that the front wall pre-dates the fire, being the only wall to be made almost entirely of cob, a building material made up of clay, sand, straw (which sticks out in places), water, and earth, and a popular choice for homes in the village.
Cockington Forge

Tonbridge Castle, Kent


Tonbridge Castle
1930s
“Excel Series”

Google Street VIew

A fire in 1088 destroyed the first castle at Tonbridge, and the evocative remains we see today are of a later castle which was considered to be one of the finest examples of a Motte and Bailey Castle in Kent. Little survives of its curtain walls, nor its keep but the splendid gatehouse built in the 13th-century remains remarkably intact, and serves as a stark reminder of 900 years of history involving kings, queens, archbishops, plotters and peacemakers, all of whom have dwelt within the castles once sturdy walls.
Pictures of England

Following the Norman Conquest, Richard Fitz Gilbert was granted land in Kent to guard the crossing of the River Medway. He erected a simple Motte-and-bailey castle on the site. To dig the moat and erect the motte 50,000 tonnes of earth were moved. In 1088, the de Clare family (descendants of Fitz Gilbert) rebelled against King William II. His army besieged the castle. After holding for two days the castle fell and as punishment the king had both the castle and the town of Tonbridge burnt to the ground. Before 1100, the de Clares replaced the wooden castle with a stone shell keep. This was reinforced during the thirteenth century, and in 1295 a stone wall was built around the town. The twin-towered gatehouse was built by Richard de Clare, third Earl of Hertford or his son Gilbert. Construction of the gatehouse took 30 years, being completed in 1260.
Wikipedia

Around 1253 Henry III granted Earl Richard the right to build town walls and crenellate Tonbridge, and the castle as we see it today began to take shape. . . .
The castle was slighted (made unusable) during the Civil War, and during the 18th century stone from the castle was used to build bridges and locks along the River Medway. By 1780 the ruinous castle site was described as ‘an ancient castle and vineyard’. Around 1791 Thomas Hooker built a mansion onto the gatehouse, the best surviving feature of the castle. Part of Hooker’s mansion now houses council offices. Despite the fact that much of the medieval fortress has been lost, there is still quite a lot for visitors to see. The most obvious and impressive feature is the imposing gatehouse, an almost perfect example of a keep-gatehouse, meant to be defensible on its own if the rest of the castle fell to attackers.
Britain Express

Close to the railway station of “Tunbridge Town,” there exists an architectural fragment, which may be often mistaken for an entire Castle, but was merely the entrance gateway to a fortress of very great extent. At the time of the Domesday Survey, lands were held here by Richard de Tonebridge, a Norman follower and uncle of the Conqueror, who created him Earl of Clare, and settled several lordships upon him. De Tonebridge exchanged his lands at Byon, in Normandy, with the Archbishop of Canterbury for a tract of equal extent at Tunbridge, Here he erected a Castle, and assembled his retainers and vassals. These were called into active service soon after the death of William I, for Earl Richard espoused the cause of Robert Curtoise, in opposition to William Rufus, who had seized the crown. The latter immediately marched an army to Tunbridge, to compel obedience and allegiance to his relative ; and the Earl, after a short struggle, was compelled to submit.
. . .
The remains of the Castle are on the northern bank of the Medway, which formerly was made to flow not only around the whole Castle in a broad moat, but also around the base of the keep. The exterior walls enclosed about six acres. Part of the outer walls remain; also the lower portion of the water-tower, the mound of the Keep, and the entrance gatehouse. The latter is flanked by two circular towers, and had a drawbridge in front, of the time of King John or Henry III. This Anglo-Norman fortress, by the side of the railway of our times, is a very suggestive scene.
“Abbeys, castles, and ancient halls of England and Wales”, John Timbs, 1872, p.302

Tonbridge, “The castles of England, their story and structure”, Vol I, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896

At Duke Edward’s death [1520] his lands remained in the hands of the Crown, and in a Survey held at the time the castle of Tonbridge is thus spoken of : “In the Lordship of Tonbridge in Kent is a castle which hath been and yet is a strong fortress, for the three parts thereof ; and the fourth part on the S. side being fortified with a deep running water, was intended to have been made for lodgings, and so resteth on 26 feet height, builded with ashlar, and no more done thereunto. The other three parts of the castle being continued with a great gatehouse, on the first entrys, a dungeon and two towers are substantially builded, with the walls and embattling with good stone, having substantial roots of timber, and lately well covered with lead. And as unto the said gatehouse, it is as strong a fortress as few be in England, standing on the X. side, and having a conveyance (passage) to a fair square tower, called Stafford Tower, and from thence to another fine fair tower, standing upon the water, nigh to the Town Bridge, being builded eight square, and called the Water Tower. This castle was the strongest fortress, and most like unto a castle of any other that the duke had in England or Wales.”
. . .
The remains of this great fortress are now chiefly confined to its gatehouse, standing near the Medway, of Early Decorated style– 1280 to 1300 ; the entrance gateway being flanked by two huge semicircular fronted towers, while two smaller circular towers support the angles in rear. It is tolerably perfect : the entrance vault is perforated in a curious way for defence. Below the ground floor of the guard-rooms in the front towers were vaults and a dungeon, entered only from the rooms above by traps, unlighted, and ventilated only by sloping air flues. On the first floor are two chambers and the portcullis room, and above these is the hall, a state apartment, the whole size of the gatehouse. The curtain wall of the N. front, extending on the W. to the keep, had a low Watergate, by which supplies could be brought in from the river on the S. The curtain wall enclosing the enceinte has already been described ; it was generally lo feet in thickness. At the corner of the wall nearest to the town bridge existed another tower, from which led a wall, built across the mouth of the moat flowing to the gatehouse, to keep the water at a proper level. Between this and the keep was another small tower, containing two rooms. Along the waterside is seen a sallyport, and W. of this are foundations of buildings added after the time of Edward I.

The old Norman shell-keep was oval, measuring 86 feet and 76 feet in its two diameters, its thick walls being stayed with strong buttresses ; it stood 100 feet above the river and 70 above the court, and the great mound of it covers an acre. Inside, beyond the modern house, are some fragments of Norman architecture. Along the river front on the S., where the domestic buildings stood, are some remains of a stone staircase, and culverts from the garderobes, still existing ; and on the S.E. is the bastion tower, rebuilt by the Staffords, commanding the town approaches and bridge ; half-way between this and the port was a chapel, in another bastion facing E., but there are no remains of this. At the end of the last century the piers of the drawbridge existed, and a water tower on the S.W. commanding the sluices.
“The castles of England, their story and structure”, Vol I, James Dixon Mackenzie, 1896, p. 51-2

Churchyard cross, Ombersley


Old Stone Cross, Ombersley Village near Worcester
Dated & postmarked 1911

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The church was built in 1829, at a cost of £1,600; is in the decorated English style; consists of nave, aisles, and chancel, with tower and lofty spire; and contains about 900 sittings. The chancel of the old church still stands, and is used as the Sandys burial-place. The churchyard contains an ancient cross.
Parishmouse: Ombersley Worcestershire Family History Guide

Churchyard cross. Late C15; restored early C18 and late C19. Sandstone ashlar. Raised on four-stepped plinth; square, moulded base with quatre- foil panelled sides, late C19 octagonal shaft chamfered out to square base and above to square moulded capital, of probable late C17 date, having a sundial on its south face; early C18 pyramidal capping and ball finial.
Historic England

George W Gillingham, vicar of Ombersley (1934-1953), described the old village cross in his book, “Ombersley: An Historical and Sporting Guide” (1948):
“Originally it was the very centre of everything. The market was held close by. The old roads from Worcester and Droitwich met almost beneath it and then went their divers ways. The old church stood within a few yards and the worshipers passed close by it for Divine Service. It was used as a station for processions and outdoor preaching. Important public pronouncements were made from its steps.”

When the schools were in the village centre and the weather was arm and sunny, the girls were allowed to sit on the steps to do their knitting and sewing. Without doubt the Old Village Cross, or at least parts of it, are ancient. The base is four steps of sandstone blocks. The plinth has quatrefoil carvings and is thought to be c14th. The shaft, which is probably not the original one, has chamfered edges top and bottom and is topped with sandstone block that once was a sundial. Gillingham thought it was the third shaft because he assumed the first would have been smashed during the Reformation. However, whether the original was destroyed and a second one replaced before 1825 remains pure speculation or supposition.

Indeed, Gillingham’s description of the shaft’s chamfered edges and sundial match that made in 1825 by Dr. Peter Prattinton, renowned and avid collector of Worcestershire history and antiquities. A hundred years later we see the same shaft in a watercolour painted by Frank Moss Bennet. On the third step on the west side is a niche that, at some time long passed and on market days, may have held a pot of vinegar. This, it is thought, was used to disinfect money. The same story is also told about the plague stone, now displayed on the old weighbridge site.
Ombersely WW1 Remember Research Collection Form

In the churchyard is a tall cross raised on a platform of four steps; the 15th-century square base is moulded and its faces are panelled with quatrefoils. The shaft is octagonal, chamfered out to the square above and below, and supports a red sandstone head, surmounted by a hollow-sided pyramid. The cornice and the pyramid are 18th-century work and the lower part of the head probably 17th-century. A dial is set on the south face.
“A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 3”, British History Online

West Gate, Southampton


West Gate, Southampton.
c.1910

Southampton’s town walls are a sequence of defensive structures built around the town in southern England. . . . In 1338 Southampton was raided by French forces; the town’s defences proved inadequate, particularly along the quays on the west and south of the city. Edward III ordered some immediate improvements to Southampton’s town walls but it was not until the 1360s that substantial work began. Over the coming decades the town was entirely enclosed by a 2 km (1.25-mile) long stone wall, with 29 towers and eight gates. With the advent of gunpowder weapons in the 1360s and 1370s, Southampton was one of the first towns in England to install the new technology to existing fortifications and to build new towers specifically to house cannon.

Southampton’s town walls remained an important defensive feature during the 15th century, the gatehouses sometimes being used as important civic facilities, including acting as the town’s guildhall and housing the town’s gaol. From the end of the 17th century their importance steadily declined and the walls were slowly demolished or adapted for other uses throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. . . he West Gate still stands three storeys high and was originally defended by two portcullises; the windows on the west side of the gate are the original medieval designs.
Wikipedia

Mediaeval City Wall built of stone rubble about 20 feet in height. It incorporates the Arcade, and arcaded screen wall built against existing Norman merchants houses forming a series of deep arched recesses to give a rampart wall at the top, 19 arches in all, and the West Gate. This Mid C14 gateway has simple chamfered outer arches and a pointed tunnel-vault. It has 2 portcullis grooves. The 2 upper storeys have C16 gunports. Embattled parapets. Through this gate the army of Henry V marched to the ships for Agincourt in 1415 and the Pilgrim Fathers embarked from West Quay on “the Mayflower” on August 15th, 1620.
Hstoric England

The West Gate was one of the town’s principal gates in the medieval period as it led directly onto the West Quay, the town’s only commercial quay. Its earliest name, Florence Stout’s Gate, dates it to the later 14th century. A grant of 1399 shows Florence Stout in occupation of a tenement and an adjoining quay, with no mention of gate or wall. This appears to be a property to the south of the gate. The gateway was built in three sections surmounted by crenellations. The gate has a long tunnel and was defended by a heavy door and a double portcullis. In the 18th century a slate roof was added and the upper rooms were used as a dwelling, sometimes known as the Pigeon House. Local 19th century photographer Thomas Hibberd James stated that the West Gate made a lovely little cottage. The entrance was reached by way of the steps to the Guard House (Westgate Hall), to the left of the gate. In 1745 the portcullis, now an obstruction to traffic, was removed. The grooves in the road made by the portcullis are still visible.
Sotonopedia

West Gate (or Westgate) is a gate tower on the western town wall, opening onto the former West Quay. It consists of a gate passage with two floors above, the lower floor entered from the wall-walk to the south, at the top of a flight of steps against the south side of the tower. The western elevation has distinctive splayed gunports on each floor, and a blocked gunloop in the north and south wall. There may have been a gate of sorts here in the late 13th century but no evidence has yet been found for one. The present gate was perhaps built after 1339, and appears to have existed by 1360. However the surviving form suggests it was rebuilt or substantially remodelled for artillery defence in the late 14th century, probably in the 1380s, contemporary with the adjoining town wall to the north and south, although some writers consider the gunports to be 16th century insertions. In 1454 it was known as Middleton Tower, built over the Westhithe Gate; it had four defensive loops, assigned in the defence terrier of that year.
Heritage Gateway

Doune Castle, Doune, Stirling


Doune Castle, Baron’s Hall
Publisher: “F W H”

Google Street View.

Doune Castle was rebuilt in the late 14th century by Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife and son of King Robert II. . . . His new palace consisted of a large square tower-keep with a projecting round tower to one side; through the basement of this building ran the entrance passageway to the courtyard, and above this was the Duke’s inner hall. Adjacent to this four storey building was the block containing the Great Hall, above three vaulted cellars. These two buildings took up the whole of the north front of the castle. Surviving on the western side is the kitchen tower; other buildings took up the rest of the courtyard walls.
The Castle Guy

The magnificent castle of Doune, which is one of the best examples of the quadrangular architecture of the fifteenth century, was built by Murdoch, Duke of Albany, and was, like Falkland, forfeited to the crown in 1424. It had superseded an earlier structure, the seat of the Earls of Menteith, which came into the possession of Robert, the great Duke of Albany, on his marriage to Margaret, Countess of Menteith. In 1431 it was the dwelling-place of James, Duke of Rothesay, the heir to the throne, then six months old, for whose use forty-eight pounds of almonds were sent to it.
“Royal palaces of Scotland”, Helen Douglas-Irvine & Robert S. Rait, 1911

Doune Castle “The baronial and ecclesiastical antiquities of Scotland, Vol 2”, Robert William Billings, 1845

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