Lansdown Crescent, Bath


Lansdown Crescent, Bath
Postmarked 1905
Publisher: M.J. Ridley, Bournemouth

Lansdown Crescent is a well-known example of Georgian architecture in Bath, Somerset, England, designed by John Palmer and constructed by a variety of builders between 1789 and 1793. The buildings have a clear view over central Bath, being sited on Lansdown Hill near to, but higher than, other well-known Georgian buildings including the Royal Crescent, St James’s Square, Bath and The Circus, Bath. It forms the central part of a string of curved terraces, including Lansdown Place East and West, and Someset Place, which were the northernmost boundary of the development of Georgian Bath.

The crescent was laid out by John Palmer who ensured that the three-storey fronts of the buildings were of uniform height and had matching doors and windows. The attic rooms are under a parapet and slate mansard roof. Other builders were then able to construct the houses behind the facade. The commission was from Charles Spackman, leading to the original name of the terrace being Spackman’s Buildings. . . . The crescent, which is a grade I listed building, comprises 20 houses, each originally having four floors together with a basement and sub-basement levels below ground.
Wikipedia

Archbishop’s Palace, Southwell


Old Palace Ruins, Southwell
Publisher: A. Wood, Bookseller & Stationer, Southwell

The former Palace of the Archbishop of York stands next door to the Minster, adjoining the present official residence of the Bishop of Southwell. The Palace as we see it today dates from the 14th Century and was wrecked during the Civil War. The ruined part can be admired up-close from the Palace Gardens. The surviving built part of the Palace – the Great Hall – was restored in the Edwardian era. The Hall retains its original proportions and the beams of the magnificent vaulted ceiling of the State Chamber are mostly medieval originals.
Southwell Minster

Originally built in the 15-century as a palace for the Archbishop of York, this historic castle was damaged extensively by Parliamentarians after the English Civil War. In the Georgian period, the remaining habitable parts of the Palace was home to a “respectable seminary for young ladies” as well as being used as the local magistrate’s court. In the late 19th century parts of the Palace were restored as an episcopal residency when the nearby Minster obtained cathedral status. Today, the restored part of the building is often filled with the sound of singing from the Song School, an integral part of Southwell Minster since the 13th century.

This part of the building is not open to the public but visitors are free to go to the first-floor stateroom, said to be the place where Cardinal Wolseley made his last desperate efforts to obtain the annulment of the first marriage of Henry VIII. In the 17th century, the palace was the first place of captivity of Charles I, who was captured by the Scottish Allies of Oliver Cromwell towards the end of the English Civil War.
Atlas Obscura

If the matter were still undecided, a very recent discovery would enable us to pronounce that Southwell had, at least, been the residence of Romans, by whatever appellation it might be celebrated, or by whatever size and magnificence it might be distinguished, in their time; for, in breaking up a piece of ground under the eastern side of of the archbishop’s palace, in the year 1793, to make a garden for one of the gentlemen of this church, a tessalated Roman floor was discovered of considerable extent, accompanied by several fragments of urns.
“Antiquities historical, architectural, chorographical and itinerary, in Nottinghamshire and the adjacent counties”, William Dickinson, 1801

We cannot avoid briefly noticing here the ruins of the ancient Palace of the Archbishops of York, which stand on the south side of the Church, and which cannot fail to excite admiration by their picturesque appearance, as well as the numerous and interesting historical associations with which they are connected, as well as the variety of tenants who have occupied it. It was the favourite residence of the great Cardinal Wolsey, who frequently retired hither for a time to forget the cares of government amidst its secluded and religious retreats. He passed here the greater part of the last year of his life, (1530), when his proud grandeur was fast fading away; and at the close of which year he was hurled from his lofty pinnacle of glory, to lay down his weary head in obscurity on the cold pillow of death.

Archbishop Sandys spent nearly the whole of his time here, after his translation to the See of York ; he was the last Archbishop that resided here. During the civil wars, the Commissioners of Scotland resided here, and held their consultations ; after which, it afforded a brief asylum to the unfortunate monarch Charles I. and his queen. It was occupied by the Parliamentary generals, and afterwards by Cromwell himself ; and General Monk, when he was returning from Scotland to restore the exiled king, slept under its roof. It was during these wars that it fell to ruin, all the contending parties of that period contributed to complete its destruction.

The rooms of state were on the east, the lodging apartments to the south, the offices on the west, and the north was occupied by the great hall and chapel, the former of which is now alone remaining. The large Gothic window on the south-east corner is said to have lighted an immense library. On the wall at the east end is an angel bearing the arms of Cardinal Kempe, Archbishop of York, in the reign of Henry VI. These are said to have been three corn sheaves in allusion to his origin, which was that of a husbandman’s son, in Sussex.
“The history and antiquities of the collegiate church of Southwell : illustrated by views of the interior and exterior, plans, sections, etc. of the edifice, William Bennett Killpack, 1839

Bargate, Southampton


The Bargate, South Side | Southampton
1900s
“The Charterhouse Series of Southampton Views”

The Bargate was built as a town gateway in c1180. It also has a Guildhall on the first floor. It originally joined on to the town wall. In the 1930s it was separated from the wall. Between the centre 2 windows is a statue of George III in Roman costume. This replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. A bell was added in 1605. This was the curfew and alarm bell for the city. This is one of the finest town gateways in England.
Historic England

These fortifications gradually grew, ranging in date from the Norman period to the early 15th century, by which time the medieval town of Southampton was completely encircled by a lofty wall, averaging about 25ft feet to 30ft in height and extending nearly one-and-a-quarter miles in circumference. The defensive walls formed a rectangle, stretching north and south, following the line of the western shore and rounded off at the southwest corner. Built mainly of Isle of Wight limestone, the walls incorporated seven main gateways and were strengthened by 29 towers. The Bargate or North Gate dates from Norman times, its earliest feature the half-round arch dating from about 1175-1200, forming the core.
Northern Dail Echo: Pictures of Bargate through the years – the symbol of Southampton

The Bargate was built c. 1180, constructed of stone and flint. Alterations were made to the building around 1290, when large drum towers were added to the north side, with arrow slit windows. A two-storey extension was made to the south side towards the end of the 13th century, with four windows lighting the upstairs room. Work was also carried out to the interior of the upper room during the 13th century, when the stone fireplaces were installed. The embattled north front was added to the building around 1400. A survey of the town’s guns in 1468 reported that the Bargate held two breach loader guns and a brass muzzle loader. It is not clear when the Bargate started being used as a prison but the first records of it date from 1439. . . . A bell was added to the southwest corner of the building to 1579. The current bell is inscribed 1605 and was used as the city’s curfew and alarm bell. In 1644 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were repainted. The room above the gate itself was probably added shortly after 1400 and the town steward books mention a banquet held there in 1434. It was originally used as the city’s guildhall, until the 1770s. It was at this point that the city began to grow to the north of the gate. Also during the 18th century, five panels containing painted shields and the sundial were added to the building and in the middle of the century the old wooden lions were replaced with new lead sculptures.

Additional archways were added in 1764 and 1774. In 1765, a passage was cut through the eastern side of the arch for pedestrians. A further passage through the western side was added later. The construction of these passages ended (for a time) the Bargate’s use as a prison. In 1809 a statue of George III in Roman dress was added the middle of the four windows of the southern side. It replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. The statue was a gift to the town from John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne and is made from Coade stone. Following the establishment of Southampton’s police force in February 1836, the upper room was used as a prison. The current guildhall within the Bargate was constructed in 1852 and was designed to be used as a criminal court. In addition to this the Bargate continued to be the site of meetings of Southampton’s court leet until 1856. In 1881 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were moved into the building for protection.
Wikipedia

Stepping Stones, Jesmond Dene, Newcastle on Tyne, Tyne & Wear


Stepping Stones, Jesmond Dene, Newcastle-on-Tyne
Postmarked 1908
Publisher “B & D London”

Google Street VIew (approximate)

Jesmond Dene is the jewel in the crown of Newcastle’s parks and green spaces. The Dene is packed full of historic and natural features and masses of wildlife, flowers and ancient woodland for everyone to enjoy. The River Ouseburn was used to power the mills of the industrial revolution. You will find evidence of the area’s industrial heritage within the Dene today. By 1862 William Armstrong had purchased most of the Dene and had built his house (Jesmond Dene House) and transformed the dene into his private garden, creating waterfalls, a grotto and planting many exotic trees and shrubs. In 1883 Armstrong gifted his garden back to the people of Newcastle and it was officially opened to the public in 1884. . . . Jesmond Dene is an ancient woodland and of geological interest. The dominant tree species are English, with a mix of exotic species. Wildlife can be found in abundance – with otters, kingfishers and dippers known to have breeding sites on the river.
Urban Green, Newcastle

Turning left, we descend into a quarry which on a fine summer’s day is a veritable suntrap. The quarry, shown as Blaeberry Crags on earlier maps, was worked for sandstone which is of a very high quality and is said to have made grindstones which were shipped all over the world. Leaving the quarry by the lower path we can see on our left, high in the bankside a seam of coal – not of very high quality, but a reminder of the number of small drift mines once along the bank of the Ouseburn. From here we rejoin the Ouseburn and keeping to the left bank, pass North Lodge, with stepping stones directly in front, and continue to Jesmond Dene Waterfall with its bridge and ruined mill. The Waterfall, an awe-inspiring sight when in full spate, was constructed in the late 1800s by the then Lord Armstrong to provide a more picturesque view. Below it stands the old Water Mill, one of many mills which bordered the Ouseburn in years past.
Jesmond Dene

St Philip’s Cathedral, Birmingham


Cathedral, Birmingham.
c.1905
Publisher: John Evelyn Wrench

Google Street View

Once amongst fields, Birmingham Cathedral was originally St Philip’s parish church. At the centre of the growing town of Birmingham, it was designed by Warwickshire
architect Thomas Archer in the new English Baroque style and consecrated in 1715. As Birmingham emerged as an influential industrial centre and city of a thousand trades, with waves of people coming to live and work here, the need for a new cathedral became apparent. In 1905 the Bishop of Birmingham, Charles Gore, chose St Philip’s to be the cathedral of the new diocese of Birmingham.

Birmingham Cathedral


Birmingham, St Phillip’s Cathedral.
On back:
St Phillip’s Church. The Cathedral of Birmingham was erected in 1710 and enlarged in 1874. It contains some beautiful stained glass windows designed by Sir E. Burne-Johns, who was a native of this city.
c.1910
Publisher: Raphael Tuck & Son

Google Street View

Durham Cathedral, Durham


Durham Cathedral
c.1910
Publisher: J.W. Ruddock & Sons

Google Street View

The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Durham, the fourth-ranked bishop in the Church of England hierarchy. The present Norman era cathedral had started to be built in 1093, replacing the city’s previous ‘White Church’. In 1986 the cathedral and Durham Castle were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Durham Cathedral’s relics include: Saint Cuthbert’s, transported to Durham by Lindisfarne monks in the 800s; Saint Oswald’s head and the Venerable Bede’s remains.
Wikipedia

Market Cross, Malmesbury


Market Cross, Malmesbury
c.1910
Publisher: Shurey’s Publications (1903-1927)
On back: This beautiful Series of Fine Art Post Cards is supplied free exclusively by Shurey’s Publications. The Publications are obtainable throughout Great Britain, the Colonies and Foreign Countries.”

In the centre of the town stands the Market Cross. Market crosses were used to mark a market square in market towns, since permission to hold markets was within the gift of the monarch. They arose out of the traditions of early medieval ‘Insular art’, that is the distinctive art forms that developed in the British Isles following the departure of the Romans. The tradition of elaborately carved free-standing crosses goes back to the 7th century.
Cotswold Journeys

The market cross stands in the centre of the town, at the north end of the High Street. It was built c.1490, possibly using limestone salvaged from the recently ruined part of Malmesbury Abbey, which then began just across the market square from the cross. An elaborately carved octagonal structure of the Perpendicular Period, it is recognised as one of the best preserved of its kind in England, and was made a Grade I listed building in 1949. A carving in relief of the Crucifixion and figures of several saints have survived the Reformation on the open lantern, although the lower niches for figures are now empty. Inside there is a lierne vaulted roof with carved bosses, springing from a central column with stone seating around it. There is a low wall or bench across all the outside arches except two. The building is over 40 ft. high, and today is nicknamed “the Birdcage”, because of its appearance, and still serves to shelter market traders by day and as a meeting point at night.

It was described by John Leland, who visited Malmesbury in 1542, as follows: Malmesbyri hath a good quik {lively} market kept every Saturday. There is a right fair and costeley peace of worke in the market place made all of stone and curiusly voultid for poore market folkes to stande dry when rayne cummith. Ther be 8 great pillers and 8 open arches: and the work is 8 square: one great piller in the midle berith up the voulte. The men of the toun made this peace of work in hominum memoria {within living memory}.
Wikipedia

Bishop’s Palace, Wells


Wells, Bishop’s Palace, The Drawbridge.
c.1910
Publisher: T.W. Phillips, City Studio, Wells

Google Street VIew

The Bishop’s Palace and accompanying Bishops House at Wells in the English county of Somerset, is adjacent to Wells Cathedral and has been the home of the Bishops of the Diocese of Bath and Wells for 800 years. . . . Construction began around 1210 by Bishop Jocelin of Wells but principally dates from 1230. Bishop Jocelin continued the cathedral building campaign begun by Bishop Reginald Fitz Jocelin, and was responsible for building the Bishop’s Palace, as well as the choristers’ school, a grammar school, a hospital for travellers and a chapel within the liberty of the cathedral. He also built a manor house at Wookey, near Wells. The chapel and great hall were built between 1275 and 1292 for Bishop Robert Burnell. The windows had stone tracery. Stone bosses where the supporting ribs meet on the ceiling are covered with representations of oak leaves and the Green Man.
. . .
In the 14th century, Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury continued the building. He had an uneasy relationship with the citizens of Wells, partly because of his imposition of taxes, and surrounded his palace with 5 metres (16 ft) crenellated walls,[8] a moat and a drawbridge. The three-storey gatehouse, which dates from 1341, has a bridge over the moat. The entrance was protected by a heavy gate, portcullis and drawbridge, operated by machinery above the entrance, and spouts through which defenders could pour scalding liquids onto any attacker.
. . .
In the 1550s, Bishop Barlow sold the lead from the roofs of the great hall. It can be seen in an engraving of 1733 but was largely demolished around 1830 by Bishop Law. He created a “more picturesque ruin” by removing the south and east walls and laying out and planting the area previously occupied by the great hall. The palace was used as a garrison for troops in both the English Civil War and Monmouth Rebellion after which it was used as a prison for rebels after the Battle of Sedgemoor. Bishop Kidder was killed during the Great Storm of 1703, when two chimney stacks in the palace fell on him and his wife, while they were asleep in bed A central porch was added around 1824 and, in the 1840s and 1850s, Benjamin Ferrey restored the palace and added an upper storey. He also restored the chapel using stained glass from ruined French churches.
Wikipedia

Swans float peacefully in the moat of the Bishop’s Palace, while parents push prams along the moat walk and chat, while the high wall separating the Bishop’s Palace grounds from the busy market place cuts off the noise of hustle and bustle in the outside world. It is a scene of peace and tranquil beauty. But it was not also so peaceful; indeed, the presence of the moat tells its own story, for in the Middle Ages the powerful Bishops of Bath and Wells were locked in bitter conflict with the townsfolk of Wells. The Bishops, fearful for their safety, thought it prudent to protect their palace with a wide moat and allow access only by way of a drawbridge which could be lifted in case of threat. But back to the swans; in the 1870s the daughters of Bishop Hervey taught the resident swans to ring a bell for food, and the tradition continues today.
Britain Express

Bird’s eye view of the Bishop’s Palace, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849

The present dwelling-house or palace, which remains to a great extent perfect, though with many alterations of a minor kind, has the lower story vaulted with a good Early English groined vault, with ribs, carried upon slender pillars and corbels ; the parallelogram is divided lengthwise by a solid wall at about one-third of the width, the outer or narrow part of which on the ground floor now forms the entrance- hall and passage to the staircase at one end and the chapel at the other. In this vestibule is a fireplace of the time of Henry VIII., which has probably replaced an original one. The entrance doorway has been moved one bay southward, and a modern porch built over it . . . At the north- west corner of the building there is a square projection on the north side, the walls in the ground floor of which are of immense thickness, and it was probably intended for a tower, which the situation seems to indicate. The ground room is vaulted like the rest of the substructure. The room over this (now the Bishop’s study), has had an oriel window thrown out at the end, and a newel staircase made in the angle formed by the projection and the main building. . . . The upper story of this long range of building is divided in the same manner as the lower one by a solid wall running the whole length, and separating one third of the width as a long gallery, in which there are two modern fireplaces, the chimneys of which are probably original; this upper gallery has also been originally divided into two rooms. The larger division is subdivided into three apartments, the partitions are modernized, and as the roof and ceilings are also modern, there is no guide as to what the original arrangements were, but it seems probable that they were the same as at present. . . .

General Plan, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849

All the principal apartments of the palace are still, and were from the beginning, on the first floor, and the entrance to them was always by a staircase in the same situation as the present one, although that is Jacobean work. The omission of the end bay of the vaulting, and the existence of a square pier on one side and none on the other, where the end of the vault is carried on a corbel only, proves that the original state staircase was in this situation, and ascended by a sweep round this end of the entrance hall. The square tower by the side of this, and in the north-east angle of the court, contains the servants’ staircase. The present stair- case is modern, and the tower is an addition to the original work, but it does not seem to be much later; the doorway is of the fifteenth century and the porch modern, but the windows are very like Joceline’s work, and are clearly not modern. The kitchen and offices were partly rebuilt by Bishop Bagot, but on the old site, with some of the old walls and the old chimney-stack remaining. There have evidently always been some rooms between the kitchen and the staircase. The buttery and pantry are usually on a level with the hall, even when that is on the first floor and the kitchen on the ground floor, and there is then a straight staircase from the hall to the kitchen, passing between the buttery and the pantry, as at St. Mary’s Hall, Coventry, and many other ancient houses. But in this instance it appears that there was a screen only at the servants’ end of the hall, and that these offices were down- stairs.

The partitions in this part of the palace are entirely modern, and I have not been able to obtain any plan of the old arrangements, so that I can only guess what they were. . . . This corner of the palace seems to have been almost rebuilt by him, and the old wall of enclosure of Bishop Ralph was built upon, and had windows pierced through it. The internal arrangement of this part of the house was entirely altered in the time of Bishop Beadon, about 1810, when the floors were taken out, and what had been two stories made into three. The tower at the angle, with a stair-turret, is part of the work of Bishop Clerk, in the time of Henry VIII. This tower, or turret, is square on one side and a half octagon on the other, a very unusual plan.

An upper story was also added to the whole of the west front over the long gallery by Bishop Bagot, about 1840, to contain additional bedrooms, and the present dormer windows were then added by Mr. Ferrey with so much ingenuity and in such good taste that it is almost impossible to distinguish them from the old work, and the effect of the front is thought by many persons to have been improved by the alteration. The buttresses were then restored, but Mr. Ferrey states that the toothing of the old buttresses remained quite distinct in the walls when the rough-cast was taken off.
“The Architectural Antiquities of the City of Wells”, John Henry Parker, 166, pp. 6-9

Bishop’s Palace, Wells, North View“Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
The Gate-house, built by Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury, A.D> 1329-1363“Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
East or Garden Front of Bishop Jocelyn’s Palace, A.D. 1205-1244 (The Oriel Window inserted) “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
The work of Bishop Jocelyn, A.D. 1205-1244, “Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society”,1849
N. Elevation, West End & General Plan“Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Chimneypiece in the entrance “Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Elevation & section of S. W. Turret “Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895
Plans and details of S.W. Turret“Examples of Gothic architecture”, Agustus Pugin, Augustus Welby Pugin & Edward James Willson, 1895

Council House, Birmingham


Council Chambers, Birmingham
Postmarked 1908

Birmingham City Council House in Birmingham, England, is the home of Birmingham City Council, and thus the seat of local government for the city. It provides office accommodation for both employed council officers, including the Chief Executive, and elected council members, plus the council chamber, Lord Mayor’s Suite, committee rooms and a large and ornate banqueting suite, complete with minstrel’s gallery. . . . In 1852, Birmingham Town Council had inherited the old Public Office on Moor Street, from their predecessors the Street Commissioners, which the council used as their meeting place. It soon became apparent that this building dating from 1807 was not adequate for the needs of the growing town (which became a city in 1889) and that larger premises would be needed. . . . A design competition was established and the council received 29 entries, which was disappointing in comparison to the 179 entries Sheffield and Birmingham received. However a decision was delayed by further financial difficulties. The council was then split over the Gothic entry by Martin & Chamberlain and the classical entry by Yeoville Thomason.

Thomason’s design was chosen; his design featured a central section with a huge hexastyle Corinthian order porte-cochere carrying a balcony with an arch and tympanum high above, flanked by piers and columns which in turn carried a large carved pediment. However, amendments to the art gallery entrance and clock tower were made. The clock and tower are known locally as “Big Brum”. Construction commenced on the building in 1874 when the first stone was laid by the then mayor Joseph Chamberlain. The building was completed in 1879 and cost £163,000 (equivalent to £16,940,000 in 2020). A debate was held to decide the name of the building: the options were The Municipal Hall, Council House and Guildhall. The Council House was extended almost immediately, in 1881–85. The architect was again Yeoville Thomason. This was a combined art gallery, museum, and the home of the corporation’s Gas Department, whose budget subsidised the building, as legislation limited the expenditure of ratepayers’ taxes on the arts.
Wikipedia

Within the projecting corner are the Council Chamber and Lord Mayor’s Parlour; within the main entrance is the impressive main staircase. Everything in this central bay is sumptuous, from the six regal lions surmounting the balustrade over the portico, to the panels of rich carving between the upper storey windows, to the lush foliage on the cornice above. The dome is larger than it seems from below; the pediment, designed by Thomason himself and executed by R. L. Boulton & Sons, shows Britannia with her arms outstretched to reward the Manufacturers of Birmingham with laurel wreaths. N.B., Richard Lockwood Boulton (c.1832-1905), an admirer of Ruskin, also worked on the carvings on Northampton Town Hall . . . The main staircase rises from the entrance past an elegant lift on the right, installed to take Edward VII up on his visit of 1909. It divides into two at the half-landing. Here, Thomas Woolner’s touching statue of a young Queen Victoria stands opposite John Henry Foley’s more formal statue of Prince Albert. Above rises the inner part of the dome, nicely described as rising “on eight ribs with rosettes decorating the intervening panels, and spectacular squinches with three setbacks” — “squinches” being the supports, here recessed with intricate carving on each of the arches, for the heavy dome. The banqueting rooms at the front are especially grand.
Victorian Web (with photos)


Cockington Forge
c.1910

The Forge has stood at the heart of the village for centuries, and any visitor can see how it’s earned its reputation as being one of the most photographed buildings in the country. Although often cited as being constructed in the 14th century, a forge had been on the site before that. In 1345 a fire destroyed large sections of the building, causing it to be re-built in the style you see today, so it was actually re-constructed in the 14th century. It is thought that Rose Cottage, now a popular tea rooms, was the traditional home of the blacksmith, and was passed on along with the forge. The first records of the forge’s blacksmiths start with a Mr Davey in 1615, whose daughter married his apprentice. From there, however, it is difficult to track down any other occupants. We know that the last blacksmith started working at the forge in the late 1940s, and held the position until 1971, when under the economic strain of a steadily decreasing workload, it was forced to close.

The Forge has stood at the heart of the village for centuries, and any visitor can see how it’s earned its reputation as being one of the most photographed buildings in the country. Although often cited as being constructed in the 14th century, a forge had been on the site before that. In 1345 a fire destroyed large sections of the building, causing it to be re-built in the style you see today, so it was actually re-constructed in the 14th century. It is thought that Rose Cottage, now a popular tea rooms, was the traditional home of the blacksmith, and was passed on along with the forge. . . . It seems likely that the front wall pre-dates the fire, being the only wall to be made almost entirely of cob, a building material made up of clay, sand, straw (which sticks out in places), water, and earth, and a popular choice for homes in the village.
Cockington Forge