Bargate, Southampton

The Bargate, South Side | Southampton
“The Charterhouse Series of Southampton Views”

The Bargate was built as a town gateway in c1180. It also has a Guildhall on the first floor. It originally joined on to the town wall. In the 1930s it was separated from the wall. Between the centre 2 windows is a statue of George III in Roman costume. This replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. A bell was added in 1605. This was the curfew and alarm bell for the city. This is one of the finest town gateways in England.
Historic England

These fortifications gradually grew, ranging in date from the Norman period to the early 15th century, by which time the medieval town of Southampton was completely encircled by a lofty wall, averaging about 25ft feet to 30ft in height and extending nearly one-and-a-quarter miles in circumference. The defensive walls formed a rectangle, stretching north and south, following the line of the western shore and rounded off at the southwest corner. Built mainly of Isle of Wight limestone, the walls incorporated seven main gateways and were strengthened by 29 towers. The Bargate or North Gate dates from Norman times, its earliest feature the half-round arch dating from about 1175-1200, forming the core.
Northern Dail Echo: Pictures of Bargate through the years – the symbol of Southampton

The Bargate was built c. 1180, constructed of stone and flint. Alterations were made to the building around 1290, when large drum towers were added to the north side, with arrow slit windows. A two-storey extension was made to the south side towards the end of the 13th century, with four windows lighting the upstairs room. Work was also carried out to the interior of the upper room during the 13th century, when the stone fireplaces were installed. The embattled north front was added to the building around 1400. A survey of the town’s guns in 1468 reported that the Bargate held two breach loader guns and a brass muzzle loader. It is not clear when the Bargate started being used as a prison but the first records of it date from 1439. . . . A bell was added to the southwest corner of the building to 1579. The current bell is inscribed 1605 and was used as the city’s curfew and alarm bell. In 1644 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were repainted. The room above the gate itself was probably added shortly after 1400 and the town steward books mention a banquet held there in 1434. It was originally used as the city’s guildhall, until the 1770s. It was at this point that the city began to grow to the north of the gate. Also during the 18th century, five panels containing painted shields and the sundial were added to the building and in the middle of the century the old wooden lions were replaced with new lead sculptures.

Additional archways were added in 1764 and 1774. In 1765, a passage was cut through the eastern side of the arch for pedestrians. A further passage through the western side was added later. The construction of these passages ended (for a time) the Bargate’s use as a prison. In 1809 a statue of George III in Roman dress was added the middle of the four windows of the southern side. It replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. The statue was a gift to the town from John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne and is made from Coade stone. Following the establishment of Southampton’s police force in February 1836, the upper room was used as a prison. The current guildhall within the Bargate was constructed in 1852 and was designed to be used as a criminal court. In addition to this the Bargate continued to be the site of meetings of Southampton’s court leet until 1856. In 1881 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were moved into the building for protection.

Newport Arch, Lincoln

Newport Arch, Lincoln
Publisher: Cotswold Publishing Co. Ltd, Wotton-under-Edge

Newport Arch is a 3rd-century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. It is a Scheduled monument and Grade I listed building and is reputedly the oldest arch in the United Kingdom still used by traffic. The arch was remodelled and enlarged when the city, then Lindum Colonia a Roman town, became capital of the province Flavia Caesariensis in the 4th century. Though unique in the United Kingdom, it is nevertheless one of many original Roman arches still open to traffic, other examples being two gates through the city walls of the Roman town of Diocletianopolis (now Hisarya, Bulgaria), as well as numerous examples in Turkey. As the north gate of the city, it carried the major Roman road Ermine Street northward almost in a straight line to the Humber.

In the fourth century, the city walls were strengthened, and at that time Newport probably consisted of a central arch for traffic, flanked by two smaller pedestrian arches. An upper floor topped the archway, and the whole structure was flanked by twin towers. The whole structure would have risen to a height of 26 feet above ground level. The arch as we see it today is merely the upper section of the inner arch; the outer section was destroyed in the 17th century. There is no record of any attack upon the arch or the city walls during Roman times, though the gates here were attacked in the 13th century, during the Battle of Lincoln Fair.
Britain Express

Newport Arch, “Cassell’s Illustrated History of England”, Vol I, c.1873, p.22

One of the most perfect and interesting of Roman remains is the archway at Lincoln, known as “Newport Gate,” and styled by Dr. Stukely “the noblest remnant of this sort in Britain.” It was the north gate of the Roman city of Lindum, and from it a military way, called the Ermine Street, leading to Winteringham on the Humber, may now be traced, and it still forms the principal entrance into the city from the north. It is supposed to have had a large central arch, and two smaller ones at the sides, that on the west having been destroyed, the larger being about fifteen feet, and the lesser ones seven feet in width. It is built of square stone, out as far as the top of the arch, of remarkably large size. It is without ornament of any kind, but is said by Rickman to have had architrave and impost mouldings. That of the architrave, if it ever existed, has entirely disappeared ; but there is, or was lately, a small portion of the impost moulding remaining, on the west side of the large arch.
“Cassell’s Illustrated History of England”, 1865, p.20

A considerable portion of the north gate of Lincoln — the Newport Arch — is standing, but is buried to the extent of about 8 ft. in the soil and debris accumulated since Roman times. The structure is about 34 ft. deep and has a single passage for the road, 17½ ft. wide. The inner or back portal of this passage is still intact, and is nearly 16 ft. in the clear and rises to a height of about 22½ ft. above the Roman level. Its arch is of a single ring of large limestone voussoirs rising from imposts which appear to have been moulded. The outer or front arch has long since disappeared. On the east side is a postern for pedestrians, 7 ft. wide and contracting to about 5 ft. at the north end, and 15 ft. high from the Roman level. On the west side there was a similar postern about a century ago. The whole structure is of good masonry, and it appears to have projected considerably beyond the north face of the town wall.
“Romano-British Buildings and Earthworks”, John Ward, 1911, p. 72

West Gate, Southampton

West Gate, Southampton.

Southampton’s town walls are a sequence of defensive structures built around the town in southern England. . . . In 1338 Southampton was raided by French forces; the town’s defences proved inadequate, particularly along the quays on the west and south of the city. Edward III ordered some immediate improvements to Southampton’s town walls but it was not until the 1360s that substantial work began. Over the coming decades the town was entirely enclosed by a 2 km (1.25-mile) long stone wall, with 29 towers and eight gates. With the advent of gunpowder weapons in the 1360s and 1370s, Southampton was one of the first towns in England to install the new technology to existing fortifications and to build new towers specifically to house cannon.

Southampton’s town walls remained an important defensive feature during the 15th century, the gatehouses sometimes being used as important civic facilities, including acting as the town’s guildhall and housing the town’s gaol. From the end of the 17th century their importance steadily declined and the walls were slowly demolished or adapted for other uses throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. . . he West Gate still stands three storeys high and was originally defended by two portcullises; the windows on the west side of the gate are the original medieval designs.

Mediaeval City Wall built of stone rubble about 20 feet in height. It incorporates the Arcade, and arcaded screen wall built against existing Norman merchants houses forming a series of deep arched recesses to give a rampart wall at the top, 19 arches in all, and the West Gate. This Mid C14 gateway has simple chamfered outer arches and a pointed tunnel-vault. It has 2 portcullis grooves. The 2 upper storeys have C16 gunports. Embattled parapets. Through this gate the army of Henry V marched to the ships for Agincourt in 1415 and the Pilgrim Fathers embarked from West Quay on “the Mayflower” on August 15th, 1620.
Hstoric England

The West Gate was one of the town’s principal gates in the medieval period as it led directly onto the West Quay, the town’s only commercial quay. Its earliest name, Florence Stout’s Gate, dates it to the later 14th century. A grant of 1399 shows Florence Stout in occupation of a tenement and an adjoining quay, with no mention of gate or wall. This appears to be a property to the south of the gate. The gateway was built in three sections surmounted by crenellations. The gate has a long tunnel and was defended by a heavy door and a double portcullis. In the 18th century a slate roof was added and the upper rooms were used as a dwelling, sometimes known as the Pigeon House. Local 19th century photographer Thomas Hibberd James stated that the West Gate made a lovely little cottage. The entrance was reached by way of the steps to the Guard House (Westgate Hall), to the left of the gate. In 1745 the portcullis, now an obstruction to traffic, was removed. The grooves in the road made by the portcullis are still visible.

West Gate (or Westgate) is a gate tower on the western town wall, opening onto the former West Quay. It consists of a gate passage with two floors above, the lower floor entered from the wall-walk to the south, at the top of a flight of steps against the south side of the tower. The western elevation has distinctive splayed gunports on each floor, and a blocked gunloop in the north and south wall. There may have been a gate of sorts here in the late 13th century but no evidence has yet been found for one. The present gate was perhaps built after 1339, and appears to have existed by 1360. However the surviving form suggests it was rebuilt or substantially remodelled for artillery defence in the late 14th century, probably in the 1380s, contemporary with the adjoining town wall to the north and south, although some writers consider the gunports to be 16th century insertions. In 1454 it was known as Middleton Tower, built over the Westhithe Gate; it had four defensive loops, assigned in the defence terrier of that year.
Heritage Gateway

Watch Tower, Eston Nab, North Yorkshire

Watch Tower, Eston Nab.
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Brittain & Wright, Stockton-on-Tees

Google Street View (approximate).

In the south-eastern section of the hillfort, where a modern monument marks its position there are the remains of a square, stone beacon. This is situated within a small quadrangular enclosure and is believed to have been erected in the early 19th century when it served as a beacon or lookout post during the Napoleonic wars.
Historic England

With the advent of ironstone mining in Eston Hills, the beacon was used as a house and survived until 1956. It was then demolished and later rebuilt into its present form. A plaque on the side of the monument reads:

This monument is placed here to mark the
site of the beacon tower which was erected
by Thomas Jackson of Lackenby about 1800 as
a look-out post against invasion during the
Napoleonic wars and which again served the same
purpose in the second world war of 1939–1945.
It stands within a Bronze Age fortified
camp whose outer defences can be seen.
Erected in 1956.

Christchurch Gateway, Canterbury, Kent

Precinct Gate, Canterbury
Publisher: “E.S. London”

Entrance to the Cathedral Precincts
Cathedral postcards

Google Street View.

The gateway was built in 1517 under the auspices of Prior Goldston II, and was restored by Caroe in the 1930’s. It is a square building 19 feet across, in Perpendicular style, with octagonal turrets and is much loftier than the Norman gateways. Lierne-vaulted ground floor entered through a wide four-centred arch and a foot-arch. Rooms on two storeys above the vault of the gate. The lower floor has bands of shields on quatrefoils, the upper floor has half-legnth angels carrying shields. The heraldic shields commemorate Prince Arthur, the eldest son of Henry VII who died in 1502. The large wooden doors are of seventeenth century date.

The gate stands on the spot of a much earlier gateway which is known for a document dated 1257 records a dwelling opposite to the Church Gate of that period, and is said to have been the old gateway to the cemetery.
Kent County Council

The Norman gateway was built in 1517 by Prior Goldstone. The christ figure and the original gates were destroyed in 1642(48) *Richard Culmer. The original turrets were taken down in 1830. The carving and artwork of the gate was restored in 1932/33 and the turrets rebuilt in 1937
(“the battlements were removed in the present centery to allow some residents in the vicinity to see the time by the Cathedral clock.”)
Historic Canterbury

In 1642–1643, during the English Civil War, Puritan iconoclasts caused significant damage during their “cleansing” of the cathedral. Included in that campaign was the destruction of the statue of Christ in the Christ Church Gate and the demolition of the wooden gates by a group led by Richard Culmer. The statue would not be replaced until 1990 but the gates were restored in 1660 and a great deal of other repair work started at that time; that would continue until 1704. . . . The original towers of Christ Church Gate were removed in 1803 and were replaced in 1937. The statue of Christ was replaced in 1990 with a bronze sculpture of Christ by Klaus Ringwald.

The main visitor entrance to Canterbury Cathedral precinct is through this highly decorated gateway, which was originally built to celebrate the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales, to Catherine of Aragon in 1502. Arthur, unfortunately, died a few months later, and the gate was not finished for another 20 years.
It was worth the wait, however, as Christ Church Gateway is an extraordinary monument; it is highly embellished and decorated with heraldic motifs, including coats of arms and mythical beasts.At the centre, above the gateway arch, is a very large figure of Christ. This is a modern statue, replacing the original statue which was damaged during the Civil War by Parliamentary troops. Apparently, the troops decided to use the statue for target practice, then, not content with the damage they had inflicted, attached ropes to the statue and pulled it down.

Britain Express

Christchurch Gateway Showing Restored Towers, Canterbury.
Publisher: Shoesmith & Etheridge

Christchurch Gate, Canterbury
Publisher: Valentine & Sons

Westgate, Canterbury, England

Canterbury Westgate
Postmarked 1909
Publisher: Francis Frith

The Westgate is a medieval gatehouse in Canterbury, Kent, England. This 60-foot (18 m) high western gate of the city wall is the largest surviving city gate in England. Built of Kentish ragstone around 1379, it is the last survivor of Canterbury’s seven medieval gates, still well-preserved and one of the city’s most distinctive landmarks.

The largest and arguably the finest of the country’s surviving medieval gateways was built during the 100 Years’ War to defend Canterbury from foreign incursion, and to demonstrate the city’s wealth and importance. The 60-foot (18m) stronghold did not stand alone, as it does now, but was approached over a drawbridge and flanked by impressive walls. Time passed, the military threat lessened, and Westgate was converted into the city gaol. This function, too, came to an end; after a brief period as an archive, it became a museum at the start of the 20th century. Brought back into active service in both World Wars, it played a crucial role in the city’s air defences.
One Pound Lane

Canterbury, West Gate
Publisher: E. Crow, Canterbury

Google Street View.

Canterbury, West Gate
Publisher: Photochrom Co. Ltd, London & Tunbridge Wells

From the mid 19th century, the town of Dover had rapidly expanded with new developments . . . To enable the general public to get around were the horse-drawn omnibus services that operated on the mostly cobbled or untarred and dusty streets. One omnibus service, founded in 1876, was run by Frank Sneller (1855-1900) and based in Cherry Tree Avenue. There was also Back’s horse omnibus, which ran between the South Eastern Railway Station at Beach Street and Buckland Bridge, while another service was owned by Henry Alfred Smith, who operated from the Terminus Hotel in Beach Street and parts of town.
Google Street View.

Phoenix Tower, Chester, England

King Charles Tower, Chester
Postmarked 1908
On back: “This beautiful set of Fine Art Postcards is supplied free exclusively by Shurey’s Publications comprising “Smart Novels”, “Yes or No” and “Dainty Novels”. The Publications are obtainable through Great Britain, the Colonies and Foreign Countries”

Google Street View.

Phoenix Tower stands at the northeast corner of the city walls in Chester, England. The tower is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building. It has also been known as Newton Tower and King Charles’ Tower.The structure probably originated in the 13th century. During the later part of the 16th century the tower was leased to two city guilds, the Painters and Stationers, and the Barbers and Chandlers, who sublet it to other guilds. By 1612 the fabric of the tower was in a poor condition, and the lead had been lost from its roof. It was restored by the two guilds, and above the door they placed a plaque containing the date 1613 and a carving of a phoenix, the emblem of the Painters. In the Civil War, during the Siege of Chester in 1645, the tower had a gun in each storey, and it was damaged in the conflict. A plaque on the tower states that King Charles I stood on the tower on 24 September 1645 as he watched his soldiers being defeated at the Battle of Rowton Heath. The historian Simon Ward has expressed doubts about this and has suggested that the king may have stood instead on a tower of Chester Cathedral, which he considers is confirmed by evidence that a captain standing beside him was killed by a stray shot.

The guilds resumed possession of the tower in 1658, and repaired it. They ceased possession by about 1773, after which the city carried out repairs. However, by 1838, the tower was described as being in a dilapidated condition. By this time, the city was promoting it as a tourist attraction because of its reputed connection with King Charles. In the late 1850s, the lower chamber was being used by a print-seller, and later in the century the tower was made a private museum.

The King Charles Tower, otherwise known as the Phoenix Tower, or the Newton Tower, it is one of the impressive towers on the circuit of Chester’s city walls. The tower is of medieval origin and occupies the site of, or is very close close to, the original Roman North East Tower. The tower is a grade I listed building. The present structure probably originated in the thirteenth century. The red sandstone tower stands to a height of around 70 feet (21 metres) and is in four stages, the lower two of which are below the walkway on the wall. Each of the upper stages contains a chamber. At the level of the walkway, in the third stage, is a round-headed doorway.
The Guide to Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and the Wirral

As late as 1571, Braun’s map of Chester shows that the walls boasted no fewer than seventeen towers. Sadly, a mere handful survive today and of these, the Phoenix Tower is probably the best known. By the mid-17th century, the tower was in a ruinous condition, but was nontheless taken on as the meeting place of two of the city guilds- the Company of Barber Surgeons, Tallow Chandlers and Wanchandlers, the other was that of the Painters, Glaziers, Embroiderers & Stationers- on the understanding that they would put it in good order and subsequently maintain it. Because of the battering it had received during the Civil War siege, the upper parts of the tower had to be largely rebuilt.
. . .
The Phoenix Tower was, in earlier times, generally known as the Newton Tower, that being the name of the suburb overlooked from the wall at this point, and, more notably, later as the King Charles Tower to commemorate the events of September 1645, during the English Civil War, when King Charles I, together with the mayor, Sir Francis Gamul, stood on the roof and witnessed the rout of his army by Parliamentary forces after the Battle of Rowton Moor (or Rowton Heath). The inscription upon the tower states: ‘KING CHARLES STOOD ON THIS TOWER SEPT 24th 1645 AND SAW HIS ARMY DEFEATED ON ROWTON MOOR’. Actually, it would have been impossible to see the field of battle from here- what they probably witnessed was later action on Hoole Heath and fugitives from the fray being pursued and harried through the eastern suburbs.
Chester: A Virtual Stroll Around The Walls

Westgate, Winchester

The Westgate, Winchester

Google Street View.

Westgate Museum

The Westgate is one of two surviving fortified gateways in Winchester, England (the other is Kingsgate). The earliest surviving fabric is of Anglo-Saxon character. The gate was rebuilt in the 12th century and modified in the 13th and late 14th centuries, the latter including a portcullis in the western façade and two inverted-keyhole gunports (for use with hand-held cannon), the earliest in the country. The gate was in use until 1959 when the High Street was routed around it.