Bargate, Southampton


The Bargate, South Side | Southampton
1900s
“The Charterhouse Series of Southampton Views”

The Bargate was built as a town gateway in c1180. It also has a Guildhall on the first floor. It originally joined on to the town wall. In the 1930s it was separated from the wall. Between the centre 2 windows is a statue of George III in Roman costume. This replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. A bell was added in 1605. This was the curfew and alarm bell for the city. This is one of the finest town gateways in England.
Historic England

These fortifications gradually grew, ranging in date from the Norman period to the early 15th century, by which time the medieval town of Southampton was completely encircled by a lofty wall, averaging about 25ft feet to 30ft in height and extending nearly one-and-a-quarter miles in circumference. The defensive walls formed a rectangle, stretching north and south, following the line of the western shore and rounded off at the southwest corner. Built mainly of Isle of Wight limestone, the walls incorporated seven main gateways and were strengthened by 29 towers. The Bargate or North Gate dates from Norman times, its earliest feature the half-round arch dating from about 1175-1200, forming the core.
Northern Dail Echo: Pictures of Bargate through the years – the symbol of Southampton

The Bargate was built c. 1180, constructed of stone and flint. Alterations were made to the building around 1290, when large drum towers were added to the north side, with arrow slit windows. A two-storey extension was made to the south side towards the end of the 13th century, with four windows lighting the upstairs room. Work was also carried out to the interior of the upper room during the 13th century, when the stone fireplaces were installed. The embattled north front was added to the building around 1400. A survey of the town’s guns in 1468 reported that the Bargate held two breach loader guns and a brass muzzle loader. It is not clear when the Bargate started being used as a prison but the first records of it date from 1439. . . . A bell was added to the southwest corner of the building to 1579. The current bell is inscribed 1605 and was used as the city’s curfew and alarm bell. In 1644 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were repainted. The room above the gate itself was probably added shortly after 1400 and the town steward books mention a banquet held there in 1434. It was originally used as the city’s guildhall, until the 1770s. It was at this point that the city began to grow to the north of the gate. Also during the 18th century, five panels containing painted shields and the sundial were added to the building and in the middle of the century the old wooden lions were replaced with new lead sculptures.

Additional archways were added in 1764 and 1774. In 1765, a passage was cut through the eastern side of the arch for pedestrians. A further passage through the western side was added later. The construction of these passages ended (for a time) the Bargate’s use as a prison. In 1809 a statue of George III in Roman dress was added the middle of the four windows of the southern side. It replaced a wooden statue of Queen Anne. The statue was a gift to the town from John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne and is made from Coade stone. Following the establishment of Southampton’s police force in February 1836, the upper room was used as a prison. The current guildhall within the Bargate was constructed in 1852 and was designed to be used as a criminal court. In addition to this the Bargate continued to be the site of meetings of Southampton’s court leet until 1856. In 1881 the panels featuring Bevis of Hampton and Ascapart were moved into the building for protection.
Wikipedia

Buxton, Derbyshire


General View of Buxton
Postmarked 1905

Google Street View (approximate)

One thousand feet up in the clouds (OK, drizzle), with barely a street not at a 45-degree angle, Buxton is a town built like a fitness class. Work that body. It’s been a spot encouraging the restitution of health for centuries. The Romans spotted the Jacuzzi-warm water bubbling out of the hills, awfully good for settling the tum; but it was the Georgians who turned Buxton into the Bath-of-the-north, with columns, crescents, domes and, if they’d been invented then, neoclassical hot tubs, too.
The Guardian: Let’s move to Buxton, Derbyshire: it’s good for mind, body and soul

Built on the River Wye, and overlooked by Axe Edge Moor, Buxton became a spa town for its geothermal spring, which gushes at a steady 28 °C. The spring waters are piped to St Ann’s Well, a shrine since medieval times at the foot of The Slopes, opposite the Crescent and near the town centre. The well was called one of the Seven Wonders of the Peak by the philosopher Thomas Hobbes in his 1636 book “De Mirabilibus Pecci: Being The Wonders of the Peak in Darby-shire”. The Dukes of Devonshire became involved in 1780, when the William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire used profits from his copper mines to develop it as a spa in the style of Bath. Their ancestor Bess of Hardwick had brought one of her four husbands, the Earl of Shrewsbury, to “take the waters” at Buxton in 1569, shortly after he became the gaoler of Mary, Queen of Scots, and took Mary there in 1573. She called Buxton “La Fontagne de Bogsby” and stayed at the site of the Old Hall Hotel. The area features in the works of W. H. Auden, Jane Austen and Emily Brontë. Buxton’s profile was boosted by a recommendation from Erasmus Darwin of the waters there and at Matlock, addressed to Josiah Wedgwood I. The Wedgwood family often visited Buxton and commended the area to their friends. Two of Charles Darwin’s half-cousins, Edward Levett Darwin and Reginald Darwin, settled there. The arrival of the railway in 1863 stimulated growth: the population of 1,800 in 1861 exceeded 6,000 by 1881.
Wikipedia

Newport Arch, Lincoln


Newport Arch, Lincoln
c.1910
Publisher: Cotswold Publishing Co. Ltd, Wotton-under-Edge

Newport Arch is a 3rd-century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. It is a Scheduled monument and Grade I listed building and is reputedly the oldest arch in the United Kingdom still used by traffic. The arch was remodelled and enlarged when the city, then Lindum Colonia a Roman town, became capital of the province Flavia Caesariensis in the 4th century. Though unique in the United Kingdom, it is nevertheless one of many original Roman arches still open to traffic, other examples being two gates through the city walls of the Roman town of Diocletianopolis (now Hisarya, Bulgaria), as well as numerous examples in Turkey. As the north gate of the city, it carried the major Roman road Ermine Street northward almost in a straight line to the Humber.
Wikipedia

In the fourth century, the city walls were strengthened, and at that time Newport probably consisted of a central arch for traffic, flanked by two smaller pedestrian arches. An upper floor topped the archway, and the whole structure was flanked by twin towers. The whole structure would have risen to a height of 26 feet above ground level. The arch as we see it today is merely the upper section of the inner arch; the outer section was destroyed in the 17th century. There is no record of any attack upon the arch or the city walls during Roman times, though the gates here were attacked in the 13th century, during the Battle of Lincoln Fair.
Britain Express

Newport Arch, “Cassell’s Illustrated History of England”, Vol I, c.1873, p.22

One of the most perfect and interesting of Roman remains is the archway at Lincoln, known as “Newport Gate,” and styled by Dr. Stukely “the noblest remnant of this sort in Britain.” It was the north gate of the Roman city of Lindum, and from it a military way, called the Ermine Street, leading to Winteringham on the Humber, may now be traced, and it still forms the principal entrance into the city from the north. It is supposed to have had a large central arch, and two smaller ones at the sides, that on the west having been destroyed, the larger being about fifteen feet, and the lesser ones seven feet in width. It is built of square stone, out as far as the top of the arch, of remarkably large size. It is without ornament of any kind, but is said by Rickman to have had architrave and impost mouldings. That of the architrave, if it ever existed, has entirely disappeared ; but there is, or was lately, a small portion of the impost moulding remaining, on the west side of the large arch.
“Cassell’s Illustrated History of England”, 1865, p.20

A considerable portion of the north gate of Lincoln — the Newport Arch — is standing, but is buried to the extent of about 8 ft. in the soil and debris accumulated since Roman times. The structure is about 34 ft. deep and has a single passage for the road, 17½ ft. wide. The inner or back portal of this passage is still intact, and is nearly 16 ft. in the clear and rises to a height of about 22½ ft. above the Roman level. Its arch is of a single ring of large limestone voussoirs rising from imposts which appear to have been moulded. The outer or front arch has long since disappeared. On the east side is a postern for pedestrians, 7 ft. wide and contracting to about 5 ft. at the north end, and 15 ft. high from the Roman level. On the west side there was a similar postern about a century ago. The whole structure is of good masonry, and it appears to have projected considerably beyond the north face of the town wall.
“Romano-British Buildings and Earthworks”, John Ward, 1911, p. 72

West Gate, Southampton


West Gate, Southampton.
c.1910

Southampton’s town walls are a sequence of defensive structures built around the town in southern England. . . . In 1338 Southampton was raided by French forces; the town’s defences proved inadequate, particularly along the quays on the west and south of the city. Edward III ordered some immediate improvements to Southampton’s town walls but it was not until the 1360s that substantial work began. Over the coming decades the town was entirely enclosed by a 2 km (1.25-mile) long stone wall, with 29 towers and eight gates. With the advent of gunpowder weapons in the 1360s and 1370s, Southampton was one of the first towns in England to install the new technology to existing fortifications and to build new towers specifically to house cannon.

Southampton’s town walls remained an important defensive feature during the 15th century, the gatehouses sometimes being used as important civic facilities, including acting as the town’s guildhall and housing the town’s gaol. From the end of the 17th century their importance steadily declined and the walls were slowly demolished or adapted for other uses throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. . . he West Gate still stands three storeys high and was originally defended by two portcullises; the windows on the west side of the gate are the original medieval designs.
Wikipedia

Mediaeval City Wall built of stone rubble about 20 feet in height. It incorporates the Arcade, and arcaded screen wall built against existing Norman merchants houses forming a series of deep arched recesses to give a rampart wall at the top, 19 arches in all, and the West Gate. This Mid C14 gateway has simple chamfered outer arches and a pointed tunnel-vault. It has 2 portcullis grooves. The 2 upper storeys have C16 gunports. Embattled parapets. Through this gate the army of Henry V marched to the ships for Agincourt in 1415 and the Pilgrim Fathers embarked from West Quay on “the Mayflower” on August 15th, 1620.
Hstoric England

The West Gate was one of the town’s principal gates in the medieval period as it led directly onto the West Quay, the town’s only commercial quay. Its earliest name, Florence Stout’s Gate, dates it to the later 14th century. A grant of 1399 shows Florence Stout in occupation of a tenement and an adjoining quay, with no mention of gate or wall. This appears to be a property to the south of the gate. The gateway was built in three sections surmounted by crenellations. The gate has a long tunnel and was defended by a heavy door and a double portcullis. In the 18th century a slate roof was added and the upper rooms were used as a dwelling, sometimes known as the Pigeon House. Local 19th century photographer Thomas Hibberd James stated that the West Gate made a lovely little cottage. The entrance was reached by way of the steps to the Guard House (Westgate Hall), to the left of the gate. In 1745 the portcullis, now an obstruction to traffic, was removed. The grooves in the road made by the portcullis are still visible.
Sotonopedia

West Gate (or Westgate) is a gate tower on the western town wall, opening onto the former West Quay. It consists of a gate passage with two floors above, the lower floor entered from the wall-walk to the south, at the top of a flight of steps against the south side of the tower. The western elevation has distinctive splayed gunports on each floor, and a blocked gunloop in the north and south wall. There may have been a gate of sorts here in the late 13th century but no evidence has yet been found for one. The present gate was perhaps built after 1339, and appears to have existed by 1360. However the surviving form suggests it was rebuilt or substantially remodelled for artillery defence in the late 14th century, probably in the 1380s, contemporary with the adjoining town wall to the north and south, although some writers consider the gunports to be 16th century insertions. In 1454 it was known as Middleton Tower, built over the Westhithe Gate; it had four defensive loops, assigned in the defence terrier of that year.
Heritage Gateway

High Street, Wooler, Northumberland


High Street, Wooler
c.1910, with an older image
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View.

Situated only 6 miles east from the foot of Cheviot is the town of Wooler, an ancient market town and parish. It is 46 miles north-northwest of Newcastle and only 16 miles from Berwick, in Glendale, well known for its picturesque scenery of rolling hills and glens. Wooler is the only market town in Glendale, which was one of the Northumberland baronies created after the Norman conquest. . . . The town was burned down in 1722, and rebuilt to a better standard. By 1821 Wooler contained a population of 1830 people and 315 houses, and held weekly markets for the sale of grains, especially corn. There were also two annual markets held for the sale of sheep, horses and cattle. The surrounding area was at that time mostly agricultural, as it is today, with sheep farming carrying out an important role.
Northumberland Communities

All that remains of the old fountain is a commemoration stone which reads: ‘ This fountain was erected by public subscription in grateful acknowledgement of the many services rendered to this town and neighbourhood by the late William Wightman’. . . . William Wightman was clerk to the forerunner of Glendale Council and he was largely responsible for the laying on a proper water supply to Wooler in the late 1850’s, thus providing clean, safe drinking water to its inhabitants.
“Wooler fountain plan abandoned”, Northumberland Gazette

Common, Tunbridge Wells, Kent


Tunbridge Wells from the Common

Google Street View (approximate).

The two commons at Tunbridge Wells and Rusthall, linked by Langton Road, are managed by the Tunbridge Wells Commons Conservators, and funded by the Borough Council, ensuring free public access over 256 acres of hilly, often heavily wooded terrain with a large number of open spaces. These much-loved commons are famous for their large sandstone outcrops such as Toad Rock and Wellington Rocks, and also feature cricket grounds, lakes, ponds, woods, heathland and the remains of the old racecourse. They are hugely important in adding to the high quality of life that Tunbridge Wells is famous for. Having always played an important part in the history and development of Tunbridge Wells, a number of churches and Victorian buildings and pubs surround the commons, adding to its charm as the perfect place for a long walks, ball games and picnics. The commons was originally lowland heath with very little tree cover until the end of the 19th century, when grazing died out, and tree cover increased, obscuring some views over the commons.
Explore Kent

The town of Tunbridge Wells began with a chalybeate spring. Chalybeate means it contains iron. Rainwater fell on ground containing iron deposits, soaked through them then rose in a spring. The iron deposits in the spring water stained the ground around the spring a rusty colour. The spring stood by a common where local people grazed their livestock. In the early 17th century people believed that they would be healed from diseases if they bathed in or drank from certain spas. In the year 1606 a nobleman, Lord North, who was staying at Edridge was out for a ride. He came across the spring with rust-colored edges and wondered if it had health-giving properties. (At the time he was suffering from tuberculosis or some similar disease). He drank some of the spring water and was, he said, healed from his illness. When he returned to London he told all his rich friends about the spring and soon many people flocked to drink from it. After 1608 wells were dug and a pavement was laid but there were no actual buildings at Tunbridge until 1636. In that year 2 houses were built, one for ladies and one for gentlemen. In the late 17th century these developed into coffee houses. A coffee house was a place where you could drink coffee (a new drink at the time) or chocolate and read a newspaper.
Local Histories


Tunbridge Wells from the Common
Postmarked 1906.
Publisher: Valentine

Watch Tower, Eston Nab, North Yorkshire


Watch Tower, Eston Nab.
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Brittain & Wright, Stockton-on-Tees

Google Street View (approximate).

In the south-eastern section of the hillfort, where a modern monument marks its position there are the remains of a square, stone beacon. This is situated within a small quadrangular enclosure and is believed to have been erected in the early 19th century when it served as a beacon or lookout post during the Napoleonic wars.
Historic England

With the advent of ironstone mining in Eston Hills, the beacon was used as a house and survived until 1956. It was then demolished and later rebuilt into its present form. A plaque on the side of the monument reads:

This monument is placed here to mark the
site of the beacon tower which was erected
by Thomas Jackson of Lackenby about 1800 as
a look-out post against invasion during the
Napoleonic wars and which again served the same
purpose in the second world war of 1939–1945.
It stands within a Bronze Age fortified
camp whose outer defences can be seen.
Erected in 1956.
Wikipedia.

Eaglescliffe, County Durham


Eaglescliffe VIllage
(underneath says “Jervaulx Abbey, Wensley Dale”)
c.1910
Publishers: Brittain & Wright, Stockton-on-Tees

Google Street View.

First recorded in the 11th Century, Egglescliffe was a small village on the Co. Durham side of the tidal River Tees, with a Parish Church dating back in parts to the 12th Century. The Ancient Parish consisted of three townships, of which one became the Civil Parish of Egglescliffe in 1894, when our Parish Council was formed. In 1825 the Stockton & Darlington Railway was opened through the Parish. Two years later the victim of the World’s first recorded fatality on a public railway was buried in the Churchyard here. A further railway line 25 years later entered the Parish by the 48-arch Yarm Viaduct to a new station called “Eaglescliffe”. A new settlement, Eaglescliffe Junction, partly in the Parish, grew up round the Station.
Egglescliffe & Eaglescliffe Parish Council

Knaresborough, North Yorkshire


Knaresborough from Castle Hill
Postmarked 1903

Google Street View.

With its cobbled alleys, a once royal castle, annual bed race and the enduring curiosity of Mother Shipton’s Cave and its petrifying well, it is fair to say that Knaresborough is both charming and unique. Packed with history and character, the North Yorkshire market town is a hotbed for tourists – and no trip is complete without taking in its impressive viaduct.
Yorkshire Post

Knaresborough Viaduct is a viaduct in the North Yorkshire town of Knaresborough, England. The viaduct carries the Harrogate line over the River Nidd in the town. The viaduct was supposed to have opened in 1848, but the first construction collapsed into the river very near to completion, which necessitated a new viaduct and delayed the opening of the line through Knaresborough by three years.
Wikipedia.

Viaduct. 1851. Engineer Thomas Grainger for the Leeds and Thirsk Railway Gritstone. Approximately 100 metres long and 30 metres high, carrying 2 tracks on 4 arches. 2 central round arches span the river, the 2 flanking arches span the Long Walk (south bank) and Waterside (north bank). Round cut-waters carried up as buttresses with projecting bands and small half-towers at top. Embattled parapet. Work on the viaduct was begun in 1847, but the bridge collapsed in 1848. The replacement cost £9,803 to construct.
Historic England