Stephanplatz Fountain, Karlsruhe, Germany


On back:
Karlsruhe — Der Stephansbrunnen
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Edmond von König, Heidleberg

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(Via Google Translate)
In 1903, the architect Hermann Billing , who was a member of the artists’ commission, was commissioned to create a fountain for the center of the square without a design competition. Billing planned a fountain basin under a columned hall, in the center of which is the figure of a spring nymph should be placed. The production of the bronze figure was entrusted to the young sculptor Hermann Binz (1876-1946).

However, the naked nymph met with opposition from the city council, so Billing and Binz modified the designs so that the nymph should be placed at the edge of the pool on a flat base and without the canopy. The columns then only carry a ring-shaped open entablature. The water was supposed to flow into the basin from gargoyles in the form of faces on the pillars, the faces were directed towards the nymph. That has been approved. When the construction of the fountain was completed in the summer of 1905, there were surprises, ridicule and rejections, because not everyone liked both the naked bronze figure and the faces. Binz had worked out the faces as caricatures of well-known Karlsruhe personalities, especially those city councilors who had rejected the first draft.
Wikipedia.

(Via Google Translate)
The fountain was designed in 1905 by the architect Hermann Billing . The original design envisaged a spring mermaid placed on a pedestal, in the spirit of Art Nouveau , but it did not yet include the rotunda with the male faces. The draft was hotly debated in the municipal council. The depiction of a naked woman in such a prominent position was felt by some council members to be inappropriate. Nevertheless, the draft was finally released and Hermann Billing was allowed to realize it, including artistic modifications. He did this together with the sculptor Hermann Binz. Since Billing was obviously annoyed by the discussion in the municipal council, he designed the fountain in such a way that the municipal council members, in addition to him and Binz, also look at the naked woman. Oberbaurat Reinhard Baumeister, who preferred to see a girl in traditional costume, is even scratched by a mermaid on the beard.
Stadtwiki Karksruhe

Student Karzer, Heidelberg, Germany


Heidelberg, Carzer
c.1930
Publisher: Jacobs Kunstanstalt

Google Street View (approximate).

A Karzer was a designated lock-up or detention room to incarcerate students as a punishment, within the jurisdiction of some institutions of learning in Germany and German-language universities abroad. Karzers existed both at universities and at gymnasiums (similar to a grammar school) in Germany until the beginning of the 20th century. Marburg’s last Karzer inmate, for example, was registered as late as 1931. Responsible for the administration of the Karzer was the so-called Pedell (English: bedel), or during later times Karzerwärter (a warden). While Karzer arrest was originally a severe punishment, the respect for this punishment diminished with time, particularly in the 19th century, as it became a matter of honour to have been incarcerated at least once during one’s time at university. At the end of the 19th century, as the students in the cell became responsible for their own food and drink and the receiving of visitors became permitted, the “punishment” would often turn into a social occasion with excessive consumption of alcohol.
Wikipedia.

Established in the 1600s as a means of allowing students to police other students, the karzers were simple rooms where young academics would be sent for minor offenses such as drunken conduct, insulting authorities or staging a duel. The accused would be forced to lodge in the jail for anywhere from a few days to a few weeks, but was still allowed to attend classes and other primary academic functions. Over the years, being thrown into the karzer became a sort of rite of passage for the students, who would actively seek punishment. Eventually visitors were allowed and the jails devolved into party palaces, where the locked-up students would invite people over to celebrate their incarceration, marking the walls with graffiti, often from their respective fraternity houses.

No longer in use, the Heidelberg karzer has been preserved in its original state, including iron frame beds and wooden tables decorated by the etched writings of former students. The walls too have been left perfectly alone, still covered in the centuries-old scrawl of proud delinquents.
Atlas Obscura

(Via Google Translate)
The institution of student detention in Heidelberg dates back to the 14th century, the time when the university was founded, when it still had its own jurisdiction over students. With the establishment of a student prison in the 16th century , imprisonment became common. In Heidelberg, these legal relationships lasted until the beginning of the 20th century.

The colorful murals only date from the last decades of the use of the prison. At that time, serving out the prison sentence in the prison for students was just fun , which made them proud to have been imprisoned here, to have immortalized themselves on the walls with their names and likeness and the badges of their respective student fraternity. At that time, which was strongly influenced by student fraternities, it was customary to arrest the imprisoned students separately according to the type of fraternity ( corps , fraternity , country association, etc.). Otherwise, students from different fraternities could start quarrels among themselves, which could have led to tumultuous conditions during incarceration.
Wikipedia.

Old Palace, Berlin


Berlin. Palais Kaiser Wilhelm I.
c.1900

The Old Palace (German: Altes Palais), also called Kaiser Wilhelm Palace (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Palais), is a former Royal Prussian residence on Unter den Linden boulevard in Mitte, the historic heart and city center of Berlin. It was built between 1834 to 1837 by order of Prince William of Prussia, who later became German Emperor William I, according to plans by Carl Ferdinand Langhans in Neoclassical style. Damaged during the Allied bombing in World War II, the Old Palace was rebuilt from 1963 to 1964 as part of the Forum Fridericianum. . . . The Prussian crown prince Frederick William hired one of the most prominent architects of Germany, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, to design a memorial complex for Frederick the Great. However, after being disappointed with the expensive plans of Schinkel, he accepted the modest concept of the architect Carl Ferdinand Langhans in Neoclassical-style. As the construction of the palace was completed in 1837, the then crown prince William I began using the building as his residence until his death in 1888. The palace was built with a pergola, a mezzanine and a vestibule.
Wikipedia.

(Via Google Translate)
Langhans erected the building in the years 1834 to 1837 in the classical style. It has 13 window axes facing the street with a covered portico -like driveway surrounded by an eagle frieze. Eagles fly at the corners. A green pergola was added to the Opernplatz. Wilhelm’s living and working rooms were on the lower floor of the left part of the building, facing the street and a green inner courtyard at the back, while Augusta’s were on the upper floor, connected by an intimate spiral staircase. The vestibule was located in the central part, the representative staircase and the social rooms above. In the right part, which extended as a much longer side wing from Oranische Gasse to Behrenstraße, there were festival rooms, including the large circular dance hall. Towards Behrenstraße, around a second inner courtyard, were the service and living quarters of the staff, horse stables and a coach house . In everyday operation, the entrance on the narrow Oranische Gasse served as the main entrance and right of way. . . . During the imperial period , the palace developed into one of the most important sights in Berlin. Wilhelm always appeared at the “historic corner window” of his study on the ground floor to watch the guard procession Unter den Linden at the Neue Wache diagonally opposite.
Wikipedia.

Teichmann fountain, Bremen, Germany


Bremen | Teichmannsbrunnen
c.1910

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The Teichmann fountain was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1899. The multipartite bronze ensemble was situated in a square fountain basin; the frame was made of Niedermendig basalt lava. A ship, threatened by mermaids and marine animals was depicted being pulled over the rocks by a Triton. A sailor on the helm was visible in the back part of the ship, the bow bore an upright Mercury with an olive branch and a bag of money. The edge of the boat bore the name “Teichmann”. The fountain was deconstructed between the 20th and 23rd April 1940 for the German metal donation programme.
Kunst im öffentlichen raum Bremen

Teichmann-Brunnen in Bremen, 1906, (from Wikimedia Commons)

Teichmann Fountain, a boat with Mercury, Neptune and Nixies in bronze by Rudolf Maison was a gift of Kaufmann Gustav Adolph Teichmann (died 1892) to replace an old well and stood from 28 November 1899 until melted down for scrap metal in 1940.
Wikipedia.

Friedrichstraße station, Berlin


Friedrichs-Bahnof. Zum Franziskener
c.1900
Publisher: F. Schüler. Berlin

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Berlin Friedrichstraße is a railway station in the German capital Berlin. It is located on the Friedrichstraße, a major north-south street in the Mitte district of Berlin, adjacent to the point where the street crosses the river Spree. . . In 1878, the first station was built after plans by Johannes Vollmer between the Friedrichstraße and the river Spree as part of the Berlin Stadtbahn construction. The architect was working on the neighbouring Hackescher Markt station at the same time. Just as the elevated viaduct the station is integrated into, the station rests on large arches built with masonry. The station had two platforms with two tracks each, covered by a large, curved train shed which rested on steel trusses of different length to cover the curvature of the viaduct underneath. The main entrance was on the northern side, the pick-up for horse carriages on the south side. Station opening was on 7 February 1882, as part of the ceremonial opening of the Berlin Stadtbahn. Long distance trains started on 15 May the same year.
Wikipedia.

“Berlin Friedrichstraße station: the prospective train shed; view east towards Friedrichstraße. The engraving is a copy, enlivened with staffage figures, of the original architectural drawing published 1885” (from Wikimedia Commons).
Floor plan, 1885 Technische Universität Berlin, Architekturmuseum

So when the East Germans built the wall that sealed off West Berlin, they made sure to add metal and glass barriers to divide the platforms of Friedrichstrasse as well. The station became an international oddity, in that it was located entirely in East Berlin, but some of its train platforms and all of its underground services were only for West Berliners. Passengers would often have to make a border crossing when moving from one story of the building to the other. For the next 28 years, it was, effectively, a three-dimensional border, one drawn not between north and south or east and west, but between up and down.
Conde Nast Traveller

(Via Google Translate)
In 1882, the architects Kayser & Groszheim set up the restaurant complex “Zum Franziskaner” in the Stadtbahn arches no. 198-206 east of Friedrichstraße station at Georgenstraße 12 a/13. “This magnificent facility is at the same time the first artistically executed example of the gigantic pubs that have been appearing since the mid-1970s, known as ‘beer churches’ in Berlin folk jokes, in which mostly local beer was served. […] Drawn in the wildest forms of the German Renaissance The exterior architecture of the ‘Franziskaner’ refrains from any attempt to fit harmoniously into the massive and clumsy masonry of the Stadtbahn arches,
The “Zum Franziskaner” beer palace existed here until 1913, after which other establishments have operated at the site to this day
.
Sammlung Online

“Berlin Friedrichstraße station, east-façade”, 1898 (from Wikimedia Commons).

Marktplatz, Erlangen, Germany


Erlangen, Marktplatz
Dated 1914
Publisher: Eigentum Gebr. Metz, Tübingen

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360o view

(Via Google Translate)
Since 1694, a weekly market has been held in front of the majestic backdrop of the Margrave Castle on the market and castle square. Simply squarely good, because the square was planned with 91 x 91m when planning the new town. It already had names like “Green Fruit Market”, “Obstmarkt” or Victualien Market”. One thing has never changed. Since then, the square has been the central point of contact and offers a wide selection of fresh food.
Mein Erlangen

“Marktplatz Erlangen, Empfang von Studenten, die aus Protest eine Woche in Altdorf bei Nürnberg verbrachten. Im Hintergrund das am 14. Januar 1814 ausgebrannte und 1821 bis 1825 wieder aufgebaute Schloss” [Reception of students who spent a week in protest in Altdorf near Nuremberg. In the background is the castle that was burnt on Jnaury 1914 and rebilt between 1821 and 1825], 1822 (from Wikimedia Commons
(Via Google Translate)
The Schloßplatz in Erlangen, together with the neighboring market square, forms today’s center of the city. Together they are part of Erlangen’s pedestrian zone and the venue for numerous markets (weekly market, Christmas market, etc.) and festivals (Spring Festival, etc.). The two squares were laid out in 1686 as Grande Place to the west of the newly built Erlangen Palace according to plans by the margravial master builder Johann Moritz Richter. The 91 × 91 meter square Grande Place was crossed in the middle by the main street. At the corners there were originally wells seven meters deep, which no longer exist today.

In 1745, the Grande Place was divided up to provide different functions with their own space. The eastern part was used as a palace square for representation and parades. The western part was used for trade and was successively named Grüner Markt, Obst Marckt, Grüner Obstmarkt, Obstmarkt and Viktualienmarkt before it was given its current name , Marktplatz .

The statue of the university founder, Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , has stood in the center of the Schloßplatz since 1843. . . . The Margrave Monument is the first statue in Germany to honor a university founder. It was donated by King Ludwig I in 1843 to mark the 100th anniversary of the Friedrich Alexander University . The design was made by the Bavarian court sculptor Ludwig Schwanthaler , and Johann Baptist Stiglmaier was responsible for the execution. The memorial shows the Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth larger than life, wearing a suit of armour, a magnificent cloak and holding the founding document of the university.
Wikipedia.

Customs House, Dublin


The Customs House, Dublin
Early 1920s

The Custom House in Dublin is regarded as one of the jewels in the city’s architectural crown. A masterpiece of European neo-classicism, it took 10 years to build and was completed in 1791. It cost the then not inconsiderable sum of 200,000 sterling. It was the greatest achievement of James Gandon who had been brought over from England to carry out the work. Gandon had been chosen by John Beresford, Chief Revenue Commissioner and a small coterie of the Irish ascendency who were then in the process of enhancing the streets and public buildings of Dublin.
Government of Ireland

Construction started in 1781, and for his assistants Gandon chose Irish artists such as Meath stone-cutter Henry Darley, mason John Semple and carpenter Hugh Henry. Every available mason in Dublin was engaged in the work. When it was completed and opened for business on 7 November 1791, it had cost £200,000 to build – a considerable sum at the time. The four facades of the building are decorated with coats-of-arms and ornamental sculptures (by Edward Smyth) representing Ireland’s rivers. Another artist, Henry Banks, was responsible for the statue on the dome and other statues. . . . As the port of Dublin moved further downriver, the building’s original use for collecting customs duties became obsolete, and it was used as the headquarters of the Local Government Board for Ireland.

During the Irish War of Independence in 1921, the Irish Republican Army burnt down the Custom House, to disrupt British rule in Ireland by destroying tax records. Gandon’s original interior was completely destroyed in the fire and the central dome collapsed. . . . After the Anglo-Irish Treaty, it was restored by the Irish Free State government. The results of this reconstruction can still be seen on the building’s exterior today – the dome was rebuilt using Irish Ardbraccan limestone which is noticeably darker than the Portland stone used in the original construction.
Wikipedia.

“The new picture of Dublin : or Stranger’s guide through the Irish metropolis, containing a description of every public and private building worthy of notice”, Philip Dixon Hardy, 1831

This great edifice is jointly the House of Customs and Excise ; and, besides all the offices necessary for these purposes, contains dwelling houses for the Chief Commissioners, Secretaries, &c. The doors on each side of the portico in the south front, lead into passages running the whole depth of the building, with a range of offices down them on one side. The great stair-case, with its Ionic colonnade, is deservedly admired. The Long-Room is a superb apartment, 70 feet by 65, ornamented with composite columns, and enlightened by two large circular lanterns. The Trial and Board-rooms, in the north front, are also very handsome apartments ; but the Long-room is the only one worthy the visitor’s notice.
. . .
On the east of the Custom-house is a wet dock, capable of containing forty sail of vessels ; and along the quay that bounds it on the east and north is a range of capacious and commodious houses. . . . To the north-east of the former docks and stores an extensive piece of ground has been enclosed with a wall fifty feet in height, three sides of which are to be occupied with stores. Inside of this a new dock, measuring 650 feet by 300, has been formed, with a basin 300 feet by 250. In a line with the Custom-house, to the east, stands the Tobacco-store, which covers nearly an acre of ground, and in the construction of which no materials of a combustible nature have been used.
“The new picture of Dublin : or Stranger’s guide through the Irish metropolis, containing a description of every public and private building worthy of notice”, Philip Dixon Hardy, 1831

Front Elevation & plan “Monumental classic architecture in Great Britain and Ireland during the eighteenth & nineteenth centuries”, Albert Edward Richardson, 1914

The ground selected for the new building had not even been purchased at this time, but when this was arranged the difficulties that presented themselves dismayed Gandon the more he advanced. He relates soon after his arrival — “At last I ventured, but at very early hours in the morning, to walk over the grounds,” and the necessity for being cautious will be understood when it is told that a meeting v/as held to devise some way of preventing the project from being carried into effect, and the Sunday after the site had been marked out, hundreds of the people met there, and it was feared that the trenches, which had been dug, would be filled up. On this occasion, however, the mob, perhaps rendered good humoured by the amount of whiskey and gingerbread consumed during the day, only amused themselves by swimming in the water with which the trenches were filled. Later, however, in response to a meeting convened by the Corporation and headed by some of the leading citizens, the people paid another visit to the place and pulled down a fence that had been erected on the river side.
“Sketches of old Dublin”, Ada Peter, 1907

House of Denis Papin, Blois, France


BLOIS. – Maison de Denis Papin
1900s

Google Street View

Google Street View from other direction

The construction at 13 rue Pierre de Blois, known as Hôtel de Villebresme, or more recently, and for no justifiable reason, as the house of Denis Papin, in honour of the city’s inventor of the steam engine (hang on, wasn’t that James Watt?) and the pressure cooker, were built in the 15th and perhaps early 16th centuries. The two buildings on either side of Rue Pierre de Blois, constructed for a member of the Villebresme family, owners of Château de Fougères sur Bièvre, are linked by a wooden footbridge above street level, with prismatic mouldings, gothic decor, monstrous heads and acrobat.
Loire Daily Photo

Via Google Translate:
15th-16th century: entire construction for a member of the Villebresme family (the name Denis Papin’s house is recent and fanciful), two buildings located on either side of rue Pierre de Blois connected by a wooden footbridge spanning the street, prismatic moldings, gothic decor, engoulants, acrobats; 19th century: reduction of the property (part of the north building integrated during the construction of number 7 place Saint-Louis, building is annexed to number 16 large degrees Saint-Louis), resumption of the windows on the ground floor and the distributions (corridor, staircase).
Ministere de la Culture


Ground floor plan, Hotel de Villebresme known as Denis Papin’s House, Ministere de la Culture

Daprès une tradition locale Denis Papin serait né dans une maison iselée, située sur la place Saint-Louis . . . Aucune pièce décisive, à notre connaissance, ne vient confirmer expressément cette tradition; mais plusieurs circonstances la rendent vraisemblable. La façade orientale de cette maison la seule qui soit à peu près intacte, annonce une construction du xvi e siècle; et, d’autre part, un acte de 1661 (2), nous apprend que le père de Denis Papin demeurait dans la paroisse Saint-Solemne (aujourd’hui Saint- Louis).

[(Google Translate) According to a local tradition, Denis Papin was born in an isolated house, located on the Place Saint-Louis . . . No decisive piece, to our knowledge, expressly confirms this tradition; but several circumstances make it probable. The eastern facade of this house, the only one which is almost intact, announces a construction of the 16th century; and, on the other hand, an act of 1661 (2), tells us that the father of Denis Papin lived in the parish of Saint-Solemne (today Saint-Louis).]
La famille de Denis Papin, Louis Belton, 1880

Escolta Street, Manila


Manila, P.I.
On back:
MANILA, PHILIPINE ISLANDS
Escolta is the main street of Binondo, or new Manila, and is a well-paved thoroughfare, lighted by electricity. Large dry goods and other retail stores line its sides and throngs of pedestrians, market women, carts and carriages, add to its picturesqueness.
Postmarked 1909

One of the oldest streets in Manila, Escolta was created in 1594. Its name was derived from the Spanish word escoltar, meaning “to escort”. In Walter Robb’s essay Main Street, he states, “The gates of the walled city were closed at sunset, when curfew rang from the towers of all its churches; they were not opened again until dawn. Low, massive, stone-arched, typically medieval as you see them today, these gates were all furnished out with ponderous drawbridges lowered and raised by rude capstans, with strong porcullises of square iron bars which settled into place as the drawbridges rose upright.” After some individuals went missing “along the sandy path to the bridge,” Robb continues, a delegation petitioned the governor to station a detachment of halberdiers “along the path as a guard until after the city gates were closed.” “The governor assented, detailing a grizzled officer to arrange the escort, the escolta, in such a manner as to protect the path for a period of six months; and from this the winding path by the riverside got its name, la escolta, the escort, long before it was widened to the dignity of a street.”

Escolta was known for its concentration of immigrant merchants, mainly from Fujian, China, who came to make their fortune during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. The street was lined with shops and boutiques selling imported goods from China, Europe and elsewhere in Latin America that arrived in the nearby port of San Nicolas. By the late 19th century, Escolta flourished into a fashionable business district hosting the city’s tallest buildings as well as the Manila Stock Exchange. The shops were replaced by modern department stores and an electric tram line known as tranvia plied the street. Escolta served as the city’s primary commercial district until its decline in the 1960s when the center of business gradually shifted to Makati.
Wikipedia.

Welcome to Calle de la Escolta—definitely the main haunt of the fashionable set in the early 20th century. Weekends have become much more exciting with many new establishments embellishing the avenue. Trendy business and shopping spots are opening here and there, thanks to American investors setting up shop. . . . The Salon de Pertierra, established by the Spaniard it was named after, was the first cinema in the Philippines, and brought Manileños their first silent foreign films. It would later be overshadowed by more modern movie theaters such as the Capitol and Lyric Theaters in the mid-30s. Save for the calesas on almost every street corner and a few buildings showcasing the original architecture retained from the Spanish period, it would have been easy to forget Escolta was in the Philippines. The heavily Westernized strip took a page from the streets of modernized America. The horse-drawn tranvia resembled the tourist trams of San Francisco, while the signage could easily be likened to the lit-up letters on New York’s Broadway.
Esquire: The Glory Days of Escolta, Manila’s ‘Queen of the Streets

Escolta Street in Binondo, Manila has a long history of being the business and cultural hub of the Philippines. It started all the way back from the late 16th century as it became the concentration of immigrant merchants, mainly from Fujian, China during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Eventually, Binondo, especially the Calle Escolta, its main thoroughfare, evolved into a “melting pot” of people and cultures, where Chinese apothecaries stood alongside British and German drugstores, and also where Hispanic-led companies founded their headquarters there in the 1800’s. It flourished through the centuries from its birth and became the country’s premier central business, art, entertainment and lifestyle district at the turn of the 20th century up to the 1960’s
Escolta

The Tower, Insitute Park, Worcester, USA


The Tower, Insitute Park
Worcester, Mass
c.1910
Publisher: J. I. Williams, Worcester, Mass

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In 1865, Ichabod Washburn and a Templeton, MA tinware entrepeneur, John Boynton, founded the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. Stephen Salisbury II, who donated a major portion of his land for the Institute, was named the first president of the Institute’s Board of Trustees. The Institute would later be known as Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). The collaboration between Boynton, who taught science, and Washburm who taught vocational skills, led to the university’s philosophy of “theory and practice.”

Stephen Salisbury II and his wife Rebecca Scott Dean had one heir, Stephen Salisbury III (1835-1905) who, like his father, became a wealthy civic leader. In 1887 Stephen III donated 18 acres of his family’s farmland that had once served as pasture to the City of Worcester to become a public park. “Institute Park” would benefit students of the Institute as well as all Worcester citizens. The park operated in the tradition of an Olmstedian landscape park serving as a tranquil refuge against a rapidly industrializing Worcester. Salisbury paid for the park’s upkeep and many of its structures, some of which still stand today. Salisbury limited the implementation of flowers and shrubbery to allow open space on which park visitors could roam.
Friends of Institute Park

The park began as a tract of 18 acres that had once been farmland and pasture. Salisbury took it upon himself to pay for the grading of the land and the construction of many paths that led to every corner of the park. Once completed, many structures were erected on the site. Among these were a boathouse, a tower (see Figure 2-6), a bandstand, a bridge to one of the islands in Salisbury Pond, and four gazebos, all financed by Mr. Salisbury . . . In 1892, Stephen Salisbury III oversaw construction of the Norse Tower. It was almost an exact replica of the Old Stone Windmill in Newport, Rhode Island. The Institute Park tower stood 30 feet high and 23 feet in diameter. The tower was only open for 15 years until a fence was built around it due to its deteriorating condition. It reopened in 1929 after the top 18 feet were torn down and reconstructed, but it was only able to stay open for 10 years because it once again became a hazard

The Stone Tower was “located on the highest point of land directly north of the Polytechnic Institute” . A plateau was built up for the tower to be placed upon. When constructed, the tower was made “from granite-rubble and its walls are upheld by arches which in their turn rest upon piers eight feet in height. The structure itself is twenty-three feet in diameter with a clear elevation of thirty feet. There are three small windows at varying altitudes; and at the top, two gargoyles protrude a considerable distance, discharging rain water upon the rocky bed below. A winding iron stairway inside provides for ascent to the floor at the summit, where will be found seats arranged upon three sides; the space remaining being surrendered to the landing of the stairway”
“Institute Park: A History and a Future”, Leonard J. DelVecchio, Michael Swett & Joel Tarbell, partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Science, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2003, pp. p. 13, 14 & 28