Mackinac Island, USA

Looking down from the old fort, Mackinac Island, Mich
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Detroit Publishing Co.

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Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan was built by the British Army under the direction of Patrick Sinclair during the American Revolutionary War. Located on a bluff 150 feet above Mackinac Island Harbor, it replaced Fort Michilimackinac which had wooden palisades and was located on the shore of present day Mackinaw City. The Officers Stone Quarters, started in 1780 at Fort Mackinac, is the oldest building in the State of Michigan.
Fort Mackinac was turned over to the United States in 1796. But the fort and control of the Straits of Mackinac were recaptured without a battle during the War of 1812. British forces in Canada learned of the start of the war before the Americans and surprised the garrison with a much superior force of soldiers, European civilians and Native Americans on July 17, 1812. American forces attempted to recover the fort in 1814, but were defeated and also lost two sailing vessels used to blockade the harbor. Following the end of the war, Fort Mackinac was returned to the United States.
Straits of Mackinac & Mackinac Bridge: The Mighty Mac (also photos of island in 1918).

Fort Mackinac was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in 1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to the United States after the war. The fort remained active until 1895. During these years Mackinac Island was transformed from a center of the fur trade into a major summer resort. The stone ramparts, the south sally port and the Officer’s Stone Quarters are all part of the original fort built over 225 years ago. The other buildings in the fort are of more recent origin, dating from the late 1790s to 1885.
Mackinac State Historic Parks

Text and images below from “A lake tour to picturesque Mackinac via the D. & C”, Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Co., 1890

Bird’s eye view island of Mackinac

1. Fort Mackinac 2. Fort Holmes 3. Catholic Cemetery 4. Military Cemetery
5. Skull Cave 6. Quarry 1780 7. Limekiln 1780 8. Robinson’s Folly
9. Cliffs 10. Arch Rock 11. Sugar Loaf 12. Skull Rock
13. Battlefield 1814 14. Scott’s Cave 15. British Landing 16. Lover’s Leap
17. Devil’s Kitchen 18. Pontiac’s Lookout 19. Obelisk 20. Old Indian Burying Ground
21. Distillery, 1812 22. 1812 Plank’s Grand Hotel 23. Det. and Cleve Steam Nave Co’s Wharf

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Rouen, France

ROUEN. — Vue prize du Pont Transbordeur. — View taken from the transporting-bridge.
Date on back 1918
Publisher: Édouard Crété

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Transporter bridge destroyed 1940.

ROUEN. – Pont Corneille 

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Via Google Translate:
The bridge is made up of two flights of three arches that span the river. At the tip of Île Lacroix, in the middle of the bridge, a platform has been created. A lighthouse 15 meters high is initially envisaged there, then the obelisk of Louqsor, and finally a column commemorating the capture of the Trocadero . Finally, in 1834, a bronze statue of Corneille by Pierre-Jean David d’Angers was installed. Called “Pont de Pierre” during its construction, it took on several names over time: the “Pont Circonflexe” (because of its shape), the “Pont d’Angoulême”, the “Pont d’Orléans” in 1830 before becoming the “Pont Corneille” in 1848.

The 9 June 1940, the French Engineers destroyed it when the German army entered the city. . . . Rebuilt as the “Pierre-Corneille bridge”, the work of art was inaugurated onJuly 19, 1952

Port Said, Egypt

PORT-SAID, Vue générale de la Ville
General view of the city

1914 map
1919 map (nautical chart)

Related pages:
Arab Quarter
Tawfiqi Mosque
Suez Canal Company Offices
Canal & Navy House

Port Said dates from 1859 and its situation was determined by the desire of the engineers of the Suez Canal to start the canal at the point on the Mediterranean coast of the isthmus of Suez nearest to deep water, and off the spot where Port Said now stands there was found a depth of 26 ft. at about 2 m. from the shore. For many years after its foundation it depended entirely upon the traffic of the canal, being the chief coaling station of all ships passing through and becoming the largest coaling station in the world.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911

There were no local resources here. Everything Port Said needed had to be imported: wood, stone, supplies, machinery, equipment, housing, food and even water. Giant water storage containers were erected to supply fresh water until the Sweet Water Canal could be completed. One of the most pressing problems was the lack of stone. Early buildings were often imported in kit form and made great use of wood. A newly developed technique was used to construct the jetties called conglomerate concrete or “Beton Coignet”, which was named after its inventor Francois Coignet. Artificial blocks of concrete were sunk into the sea to be the foundations of the jetties. Still more innovative was the use of the same concrete for the lighthouse of Port Said, the only original building still standing in Port Said. In 1859 the first 150 laborers camped in tents around a wooden shed. A year later, the number of inhabitants had risen to 2000 — with the European contingent housed in wooden bungalows imported from northern Europe. By 1869, when the canal opened, the permanent population had reached 10,000. The European district, clustered around the waterfront, was separated from the Arab district, Gemalia, 400 meters (1,300 ft) to the west, by a wide strip of sandy beach where a tongue of Lake Manzala reached towards the sea. This inlet soon dried out and was replaced by buildings, over time there was no division between the European and Arab quarters.

At the start of the twentieth century, two things happened to change Port Said: in 1902, Egyptian cotton from Mataria started to be exported via Port Said; and in 1904 a standard gauge railway opened to Cairo. The result was to attract a large commercial community and to raise its social status. In particular a sizable Greek community grew up. In 1907, the quickly growing city had about 50,000 inhabitants, among whom were 11,000 Europeans “of all nations”.

Anybody strolling the streets of Port Said cannot help but be struck by the omnipresence of wood in the buildings. Most of them, dating back to the turn of the century, are fronted by three- or four-storey-high wooden galleries, or verandas as they were called at the time. This remarkable architecture is found nowhere else in Egypt – or anywhere else in the world, for that matter – and sadly, it is under threat.
Port Said: Decaying Wooden Verandas Tell the Story of a City.

In the decades after 1869, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea developed into the lifeline not only of the British, but also of the French and Dutch Empires; the harbor town of Port Said at the Mediterranean entrance of the canal became a quasi-obligatory stopover during the journey between the colonies and Europe.
Cosmopolitanism on the Move: Port Said around 1900

PORT-SAID – Bassin de la Compaignie et Panorama
[Company dock & panorama]
Publisher: Isaac Behar

PORT-SAID General View
Publisher: Cairo Postcard Trust