Mackinac Island, USA


Looking down from the old fort, Mackinac Island, Mich
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Detroit Publishing Co.

Google Street View.

Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan was built by the British Army under the direction of Patrick Sinclair during the American Revolutionary War. Located on a bluff 150 feet above Mackinac Island Harbor, it replaced Fort Michilimackinac which had wooden palisades and was located on the shore of present day Mackinaw City. The Officers Stone Quarters, started in 1780 at Fort Mackinac, is the oldest building in the State of Michigan.
Fort Mackinac was turned over to the United States in 1796. But the fort and control of the Straits of Mackinac were recaptured without a battle during the War of 1812. British forces in Canada learned of the start of the war before the Americans and surprised the garrison with a much superior force of soldiers, European civilians and Native Americans on July 17, 1812. American forces attempted to recover the fort in 1814, but were defeated and also lost two sailing vessels used to blockade the harbor. Following the end of the war, Fort Mackinac was returned to the United States.
Straits of Mackinac & Mackinac Bridge: The Mighty Mac (also photos of island in 1918).

Fort Mackinac was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in 1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to the United States after the war. The fort remained active until 1895. During these years Mackinac Island was transformed from a center of the fur trade into a major summer resort. The stone ramparts, the south sally port and the Officer’s Stone Quarters are all part of the original fort built over 225 years ago. The other buildings in the fort are of more recent origin, dating from the late 1790s to 1885.
Mackinac State Historic Parks

Text and images below from “A lake tour to picturesque Mackinac via the D. & C”, Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Co., 1890

Bird’s eye view island of Mackinac

1. Fort Mackinac 2. Fort Holmes 3. Catholic Cemetery 4. Military Cemetery
5. Skull Cave 6. Quarry 1780 7. Limekiln 1780 8. Robinson’s Folly
9. Cliffs 10. Arch Rock 11. Sugar Loaf 12. Skull Rock
13. Battlefield 1814 14. Scott’s Cave 15. British Landing 16. Lover’s Leap
17. Devil’s Kitchen 18. Pontiac’s Lookout 19. Obelisk 20. Old Indian Burying Ground
21. Distillery, 1812 22. 1812 Plank’s Grand Hotel 23. Det. and Cleve Steam Nave Co’s Wharf

Read more

Safi, Morocco


SAFI. – La Grande Mosquée et la Rade
[The Grand Mosque and the Roadstead (harbour)]

Google Street View.

Built in the 12th century by the Almoravids as a place of worship, the Great Mosque of Safi has had a turbulent history. It has seen different civilizations come and go, it has been destroyed, rebuilt, and fallen into disrepair again, and for a period even served as a horse stable. Now, nearly nine centuries later, this important part of the Moroccan cultural heritage has been renovated and returned to its former glory. Just one mystery remains: why is the minaret separate from the rest of the mosque?
Marocopedia (video)

(Via Google Tranlate)
In the 15th century, Safi opened up to European trade. The Portuguese even appreciated its natural harbor so well that they seized it in 1488, by a combined operation, by land and by sea, mounted from their base in Mogador (Essaouira). Around the city, they raise a wall and build a fortress by the sea. But this occupation does not last long, because from 1541, the Portuguese who have just lost the city of Agadir evacuate Safi voluntarily. This does not interrupt trade with Europe, which on the contrary is intensifying. The French have their part in it. After 1541, the city played a major role in Morocco, as one of the safest and largest seaports in the country. . . . After Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah built the city of Mogador , he prohibited foreign trade in all Moroccan ports except his newly built city. Consequently, Safi ceased to play a leading role in Moroccan trade.
Wikipedia.

Solidor Tower, Saint-Servan, France


Cote d’Emeraude – Emerald Coast
Les Bords de la Rance – The Banks of the Rance
1688. — Saint-Servan-sur-Mer
La Cale – La Tour Solidor, édifiée en 1384 par le Duc Jean IV – G. F.
The Slip – Solidor Tower
[built 1384 by Duke Jean IV]
c.1910
Publisher: Guerin, St Malo

Google Street View.

Solidor Tower (in French tour Solidor) is a strengthened keep with three linked towers, located in the estuary of the river Rance in Brittany. It was built between 1369 and 1382 by John V, Duke of Brittany (i.e. Jean IV in French) to control access to the Rance at a time when the city of Saint-Malo did not recognize his authority. Over the centuries the tower lost its military interest and became a jail. It is now a museum celebrating Breton sailors exploring Cape Horn.
Wikipedia.

The Solidor tower was built from 1369 to 1382 on a rocky ledge overlooking the outlet of the Rance, Saint-Malo. It is precisely a dungeon composed of three towers connected by curtain walls (fortified walls). The building built on behalf of the Duke of Brittany controlled the river and the estuary at a time when the town of Saint-Malo was beyond its control. A tax on goods transiting through the Rance was also levied at the Solidor Tower. The site already fortified beforehand included a chatelet which was transformed into barracks. In 1588, the tower passed under the control of the inhabitants of Saint-Malo and in 1756, the drawbridge was replaced by a real stone bridge. During the Revolution, the initial vocation of the tower became obsolete, it was transformed into prison.
France-Voyage

Grosser Garten, Dresden, Germany


Palais (Altertums-Museum)
Dresden – Königl Grosser Garten
Palais-Teich
1910s
Publisher: Rudolf Brauneis, Dresden

Google Street View

The Großer Garten is a Baroque style park in central Dresden. It is rectangular in shape and covers about 1.8 km². Originally established in 1676 on the orders of John George III, Elector of Saxony, it has been a public garden since 1814. Pathways and avenues are arranged symmetrically throughout the park. The Sommerpalais, a small Lustschloss is at the center of the park.Ori ginally established outside the old walls of the city, the park was surrounded by urban areas by the second half of the 19th century. Dresden Zoo and Dresden Botanical Garden were added late in the 19th century.
Wikipedia.

The most impressive park in the region, the Grand Garden, is located at the heart of the Saxon capital. The 147-hectare garden, inspired by its French counterparts, was commissioned by Elector John George III in 1678. The two main avenues converge at the Palace that is now used as a venue for festivals and exhibitions. The Palace is surrounded by the baroque section of the garden. The remaining part is designed as an English landscape park with winding paths, small forests and bodies of water.
Grosser Garten Dresden


“Plan des Großen Gartens von 1850”,(from Wikimedia Commons).

Pontoon Bridge, Nowshera, Pakistan


Pontoon Bridge — Nowshera
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons

Google Street View (location).

Nowshera, or Nowshahra, a town and cantonment in Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province of India, situated on the right bank of the Kabul river 27 m. E. of Peshawar. Pop. (1901) 9518. It is the headquarters of a brigade in the 1st division of the northern army, and also the junction for the frontier railway that runs to the station of Mardan and continues to Dargai and Malakand on the route to Chitral.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911

The Kābul river is crossed by a permanent bridge of boats, whence roads lead to Mardān and Chārsadda. The iron road and railway bridge across the river was opened on December 1, 1903.
“Imperial Gazetteer of India”, vol. 18, 1908

Monte Estoril, Portugal


Estoril–Portugal | Monte Estoril
Postmarked & dated 1911
Publisher: S. R., Lisbon

Google Street View (approximate).

As Cascais grew, its beach a playground for aristocrats, the neighbouring localities prospered, mostly as beach resorts. Monte Estoril became a resort for high finance types while Estoril, through local investment, became a popular resort, and earned a casino and hotels
Time Out

Monte Estoril originated at the beginning of the 20th century as a result of the railways that connected the city of Lisbon to the village of Cascais. In 1910, when the Portuguese Republic was established, Monte Estoril was already a place of choice for the aristocracy due to its privileged location and beautiful landscapes.
“The Varied Architecture of Monte Estoril” (From Portugal with Love)

Pirita, Estonia


Pirita
Postmarked 1925
Publisher: “M T S”

Google Street View.

The Pirita district evolved around a convent built in the fifteenth century whose remarkable ruins characterise the area even today. The two-kilometre sandy beach, shores of the Pirita River, river valley, and coastal pine forest complete with an adventure park are ideal places for physical activity and leisure. The yacht harbour and restaurant on the mouth of Pirita River embody the carefree flow of life in Pirita.
Visit Tallin

A bit further out from Kadriorg is another district that provides an escape from the downtown bustle – Pirita. The sprawling district is actually within Tallinn’s boundaries, only a 10 – 15 minute ride from the city centre. When you get here though, you’d never believe you were in the same universe as the rest of Tallinn; suddenly you’re surrounded by dense forest, fresh air and, best of all, the blissful sound of silence. When most Tallinners think of Pirita, they think of the popular beach, which can get packed with thousands of nearly naked bodies on any sunny weekend. But there’s much more to Pirita than suntan lotion and bare skin. The region has a history that goes back at least as far as the early 15th century, when the now-famous Pirita convent was founded on the banks of the Pirita River. Pirita stayed fairly rural through the centuries, but after World War II, partitions of land were given out to Estonians to build homes on, and Pirita began to evolve into the residential district it is today.
In Your Pocket

The Gorge, Victoria, Canada


The Gorge, Victoria, B.C.
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Valentine & Sons, Montreal & Toronto

Google Street View (approximate).

The body of water known simply as “The Gorge” to Victoria locals is a narrow tidal inlet that connects Victoria Harbour to Portage Inlet. The Gorge Waterway is defined as the inlet between Craigflower Bridge and the Selkirk trestle. The Gorge has a rich history as an important spiritual place and food-gathering area for First Nations, and as a recreation area for Victoria residents.
Capital Regional District

The current Gorge Bridge connecting Saanich and Esquimalt along Tillicum Road was built in 1967, but that crossing had been used by First Nations for long before that. The first Gorge Bridge was constructed in 1848 by Roderick Finlayson, and consisted of five large Douglas fir logs laid across the narrows. Six other bridges followed, with the current version completed in 1967.
Interpretive sign captures history of Gorge Bridge (Victoria News)

The Gorge Bridge crosses “the Gorge”, the narrowest section of the 10-kilometre-long Gorge Waterway. The Gorge was the geographical centre of many attractionsand activities found along the Gorge Waterway during its historical heyday from 1880 to 1930 – a time when the waterway was renowned as one of Victoria’s main scenic attractions.” .  .  . To the east of the bridge there once were posh waterside mansions, bathhouse facilities for swimming and competition, the finish line for the Three Mile Swim, and dangerous high-diving towers. Steam-powered launches once cruised up the waterway from Victoria carrying tourists to view the “reversing falls”, visit Esquimalt’s Gorge Amusement Park, and enjoy the two waterside taverns.  .  .  . To the west of the bridge, day-trippers from town enjoyed the Gorge Amusement Park (now Esquimalt Gorge Park) that opened in 1905 with rollercoaster rides, outdoor dances, variety shows and the ever-popular Japanese Tea Garden. . . . To reduce the steep approach, the fifth bridge was built at a greater height and was made five feet wider. The bridge officially opened July 6, 1899, and remained in service for 34 years.
Gorge Bridge, The Geographic Centre of the Gorgea

Češka Studánka (spring), Cerchov, Czech Republic


Češka Studánka na Čerchově
Publisher: Nakl. V. Rybařik

Google Street View.

CS:
Okolí bylo upraveno Klubem ceských turistu roku 1901. V létech 1939-1945 a 1950-1990 bylo místo neprístupné. Obnoveno bylo roku 1968 (jen na chvíli) a naposledy v roce 1990 KCT Domažlice. Studánka je kryta altánkem a každorocne zde probíhá turistické setkání spojené se zamykáním a odemykáním studánky.

EN:
Vicinity of the spring was adjusted by The Czech Hiking Club (KCT) in 1901. Between the years 1939-1945 and 1950-1990 the place lay inside an inaccessible border zone. In 1968 the place was restored for a short time. The final restoration of the natural spring was realized by KCT Domažlice in 1990. Today the source is covered by an arbour. An annual tourist gathering is held there. This action is associated with a tradition of symbolical locking and unlocking of the spring.
Waymarking

(Translated with Google Translate)
Čerchov (German Schwarzkopf) with an altitude of 1042 m, the highest peak of the Bohemian Forest and the symbol of Chodsko, lies approximately 15 km southwest of Domažlice and less than 2 km from the German border. A mythical mountain in a mythical environment, where the Chod family used to guard the border and one of the few areas that remained Czech in the typically German border area until World War II. . . . A strong spring and a repaired gazebo await us in a place called Česká studánka . The well was renovated by the Czech Tourists Club as early as 1901, but was inaccessible for many years thanks to the border zone.
Toulky

Castillo San Cristobal, San Juan, Puerto Rico


Fort San Cristobal, San Juan
Postmarked 1911, copyright 1909
Publisher: Waldrop Photographic Co, San Juan, Porto Rico

Google Street View

The devastating effects of the attacks by the English in 1598 and the Dutch in 1625 forced the Spaniards to expand the fortification system of San Juan. They lengthened the city walls and constructed a sentry box or “garita” (Garita del Diablo) on the coast to the east of El Morro and also a small artillery platform on top of a hill named San Cristóbal. . . . Following the principles of the French-influenced “Vauban-style fortress” (featuring irregular and triangular shaped bastions) and a “Defense in Depth” strategy, San Cristóbal was built with a deep dry moat and a series of tunnels. These tunnels protected soldiers from enemy fire and allowed the safe movement of troops, weapons and supplies. This enabled the defenders to engage the enemy before they reached the city gate if attacked by land. Gunpowder could be placed in other tunnels, called “countermines” to explode beneath the feet of an attacking enemy. Countermining tunnels served to destroy parts of the battlefield and also had the potential to block enemy access to the fortress through them.

The main plaza of San Cristóbal was the heart of the fort. It is where troops drilled, were inspected and assembled for formal events. Eleven casemates border the plaza. Casemates are large vaulted, bombproof rooms designed with gun ports for cannon. The arch in the ceiling provided strength to support gun desks above and withstand the concussion of shells exploding overhead. Casemates also housed officers’ quarters, barracks, storage areas, the kitchen and latrine. Thick-walled gunpowder magazines were built close by the plaza, casemates and tunnels and were designed to provide optimal conditions for the storage of the powder. Artillery ramps provided access to the main firing battery and the dry moat.
National Park Service

Castillo San Cristóbal is a fortress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was built by the Spanish to protect against land-based attacks on the city of San Juan. It is part of San Juan National Historic Site. Castillo San Cristóbal is the largest fortification built by the Spanish in the New World. When it was finished in 1783, it covered about 27 acres of land and partly encircled the city of San Juan. Entry to the city was sealed by San Cristóbal’s double gates. After close to a hundred years of relative peace in the area, part of the fortification (about a third) was demolished in 1897 to help ease the flow of traffic in and out of the walled city.

This fortress was built on a hill originally known as the Cerro de la Horca or the Cerro del Quemadero, changed to Cerro de San Cristóbal in celebration of the Spanish victories ejecting English and Dutch interlopers from the island of this name in the Lesser Antilles. At the time, it formed part of the insular territorial glacis of Puerto Rico. Castillo de San Cristóbal also contains five cisterns that were used for the storage of water during the ages of the Spanish Colony. They are extremely large (24 ft tall, 17 ft wide and 57 ft long) and were used as bomb shelters during World War II.
Wikipedia.

As you enter the fort, the first thing on your left will be the guardhouse. In colonial times, the guards at this post would control access to the fort and enforce military discipline. Today, they’ll charge you a $3 entrance fee and hand out information about the fort and other nearby attractions. They’re also a lot friendlier! Immediately after the guardhouse you’ll see the main plaza, were Spanish soldiers conducted drills and punished the unruly. But before you walk towards the plaza, take a few steps back and walk up the ramp immediately to the left of the main entrance. This ramp leads to the North Battery, which was added by the Spaniards in 1897 to defend the north side of the fort from sea attacks. Ordoñez canons at this battery, similar to the one you see today, fired the first shots of the Spanish-American War on the morning of May 12th, 1898.
Puero Rico by GPS

Once you go to the first floor, you’ll be in the beautiful main courtyard of the fort. This courtyard was where military drills were held. The covered passageway to the left as you enter has a beautiful Instagram spot with richly colored textured walls and an old wagon. Along the periphery of the main courtyard are several rooms featuring ports for cannon. With thick bombproof walls, the rooms bring home the fact that you are in a formidably strong fortress. They housed living quarters, kitchen, and storage areas. Here also you will find the modest chapel.
It’s Not About the Miles