Teichmann fountain, Bremen, Germany


Bremen | Teichmannsbrunnen
c.1910

Google Street View.

The Teichmann fountain was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1899. The multipartite bronze ensemble was situated in a square fountain basin; the frame was made of Niedermendig basalt lava. A ship, threatened by mermaids and marine animals was depicted being pulled over the rocks by a Triton. A sailor on the helm was visible in the back part of the ship, the bow bore an upright Mercury with an olive branch and a bag of money. The edge of the boat bore the name “Teichmann”. The fountain was deconstructed between the 20th and 23rd April 1940 for the German metal donation programme.
Kunst im öffentlichen raum Bremen

Teichmann-Brunnen in Bremen, 1906, (from Wikimedia Commons)

Teichmann Fountain, a boat with Mercury, Neptune and Nixies in bronze by Rudolf Maison was a gift of Kaufmann Gustav Adolph Teichmann (died 1892) to replace an old well and stood from 28 November 1899 until melted down for scrap metal in 1940.
Wikipedia.

Marktplatz, Erlangen, Germany


Erlangen, Marktplatz
Dated 1914
Publisher: Eigentum Gebr. Metz, Tübingen

Google Street View.

360o view

(Via Google Translate)
Since 1694, a weekly market has been held in front of the majestic backdrop of the Margrave Castle on the market and castle square. Simply squarely good, because the square was planned with 91 x 91m when planning the new town. It already had names like “Green Fruit Market”, “Obstmarkt” or Victualien Market”. One thing has never changed. Since then, the square has been the central point of contact and offers a wide selection of fresh food.
Mein Erlangen

“Marktplatz Erlangen, Empfang von Studenten, die aus Protest eine Woche in Altdorf bei Nürnberg verbrachten. Im Hintergrund das am 14. Januar 1814 ausgebrannte und 1821 bis 1825 wieder aufgebaute Schloss” [Reception of students who spent a week in protest in Altdorf near Nuremberg. In the background is the castle that was burnt on Jnaury 1914 and rebilt between 1821 and 1825], 1822 (from Wikimedia Commons
(Via Google Translate)
The Schloßplatz in Erlangen, together with the neighboring market square, forms today’s center of the city. Together they are part of Erlangen’s pedestrian zone and the venue for numerous markets (weekly market, Christmas market, etc.) and festivals (Spring Festival, etc.). The two squares were laid out in 1686 as Grande Place to the west of the newly built Erlangen Palace according to plans by the margravial master builder Johann Moritz Richter. The 91 × 91 meter square Grande Place was crossed in the middle by the main street. At the corners there were originally wells seven meters deep, which no longer exist today.

In 1745, the Grande Place was divided up to provide different functions with their own space. The eastern part was used as a palace square for representation and parades. The western part was used for trade and was successively named Grüner Markt, Obst Marckt, Grüner Obstmarkt, Obstmarkt and Viktualienmarkt before it was given its current name , Marktplatz .

The statue of the university founder, Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , has stood in the center of the Schloßplatz since 1843. . . . The Margrave Monument is the first statue in Germany to honor a university founder. It was donated by King Ludwig I in 1843 to mark the 100th anniversary of the Friedrich Alexander University . The design was made by the Bavarian court sculptor Ludwig Schwanthaler , and Johann Baptist Stiglmaier was responsible for the execution. The memorial shows the Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth larger than life, wearing a suit of armour, a magnificent cloak and holding the founding document of the university.
Wikipedia.

Mariinsky Palace & St Isaacs Square, St Petersbourg


С. Петербургь Государвтвенный совѣтъ Марiинская площадь
St.-Pétersbourg Consèil de l’Empire, et la place Marijnskaja
Postmarked 1914
Publisher: “Richard” St Petersbourg

Google Street View.

The Mariinskiy Palace occupies a prominent position in St. Petersburg’s historic centre, across St. Isaac’s Square and the Blue Bridge from St. Isaac’s Cathedral. The land on which it was built had originally been the site of the St. Petersburg residence of Zakhar Chernyshev, a prominent military commander who had played a key role in the Seven Years’ War and been Minister of War in the reign of Catherine the Great. In 1839, Emperor Nicholas I commissioned the court architect Andrey Stackensneider to build a palace as a wedding present for his daughter, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, who was about to marry Duke Maximilian of Leuchtenberg, the step-grandson of Napoleon Bonaparte and a keen amateur scientist and art collector. Stackensneider, who was also responsible for the Nikolaevskiy Palace and the Beloselskiy-Belozerskiy Palace, created a monumental neoclassical building with intricate decor inspired by medieval French and Renaissance architecture. The original palace interiors were equally eclectic, with each hall decorated in a different style.
Saint Petersburg.com

Mariinsky Palace (Russian: Мариинский дворец), also known as Marie Palace, was the last neoclassical Imperial residence to be constructed in Saint Petersburg. It was built between 1839 and 1844, designed by the court architect Andrei Stackenschneider. It houses the city’s Legislative Assembly. The palace stands on the south side of Saint Isaac’s Square, just across the Blue Bridge from Saint Isaac’s Cathedral. The site had been previously owned by Zakhar Chernyshev, and contained his home designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin, which was built between 1762 and 1768. Chernyshev occasionally lent his home to foreign dignitaries visiting the capital, such as Louis Henri, Prince of Condé. From 1825 to 1839, the Chernyshev Palace, as it was then known, was the site of the Nikolaevskaya Cavalry School [ru], where Mikhail Lermontov was known to have studied for two years. The palace was demolished in 1839, and materials were reused in the construction of the Mariinsky Palace. . . . The Mariinsky Palace returned to Imperial ownership in 1884, where it remained until 1917. During that period, the palace housed the State Council, Imperial Chancellery, and Committee of Ministers, which after 1905 became the Council of Ministers. The grand hall for the sessions of the State Council was designed by Leon Benois.
Wikipedia.

“St. Isaac’s Square at the beginning of the XIX century” (from Wikimedia Commons)

St Isaac’s Square is St. Petersburg’s main administrative square. On its south side we find the Mariinsky Palace, which today houses the city’s legislature – while on the northern side of the Square we find Admitalty Prospekt. . . . In the early days, St Isaac’s was a market place, and was known as Market Square. It only got its present name in 1738.

The first stone-built buildings to appear on St Isaac’s square were built at the behest of Empress Anna Ioannovna. The architectural style to be seen on the square appeared during the reign of Emperor Alexander I. It was his dream to turn St. Petersburg into the world’s most beautiful city, and thus he invited the French architect Antoine François Mauduit. However, political upheavals at the time left the architect in a difficult position. This left the way clear for a different French architect – Auguste Montferrand – to undertake the design and construction of St Isaac’s Cathedral on the square. The Russian architect Karl Ivanovich Rossi was offered an unusual commission in 1847. At the request of Emperor Alexander II, he took overall charge of the layout of the square, and brought it into the appearance we see here today.
Another Russia

Piazza Duomo, Catania, Italy


Catania – Piazza Duomo e Fontana dell’Elefante
[Piazza Duomo and the Elephant Fountain]
1930s
Publisher: S. Vitro, Catania

Google Street View.

Piazza del Duomo is the main city square in Catania, Italy, flanked by both the centers of civic (city hall at Palazzo degli Elefanti) and religious power (Duomo or Cathedral of Saint Agatha). The Duomo di Catania or Cattedrale di Sant’Agata stands on the east side of the square. Originally constructed in 1078–1093, on the ruins of an ancient Roman Thermae (Achillean Baths), like nearly all of Catania, the devastating 1693 earthquake, leveled most of the structure, and Giovanni Battista Vaccarini designed a Baroque structure and façade in 1711. Three streets enter the square: via Etnea, the historical Cardo maximus or north–south artery of the Ancient Roman City; the via Giuseppe Garibaldi, and the via Vittorio Emanuele II that crosses it from east to west. On the north side is the Palazzo degli Elefanti or the Town Hall. In front of this building stands a fountain designed by Vaccarini, consisting of an obelisk on the back of the elephant u Liotru, the (symbol of Catania).
Wikipedia.

Rebuilt in 1700, on the site of the older medieval piazza, the present piazza has much the same role as centre of the city as it had in the past. It is a major meeting point for locals, tourists and the city’s principle streets, which converge at the Piazza. No need to get lost in Catania! At the centre of the Piazza stands the appealing Elephant fountain, created in 1736. As well as being made in imitation of Bernini’s Minerva Elephant in Rome, it is reminiscent of Catania’s long and varied past. Constructed of ancient remains, the elephant itself dates back to the Romans, and is made of lava. The ancient Egyptian obelisk on the elephant’s back, decorated with ancient hieroglyphics, was brought from Egypt to Italy. History also tells of a Byzantine magician named Eliodor, who rode an elephant in the town. When this elephant was made, it was named after the magician, whose name, through time and dialectic use, became “Liotru”.
Virtual travel to Catania, Sicily – Italy

A Unesco World Heritage Site, Catania’s central piazza is a set piece of contrasting lava and limestone, surrounded by buildings in the unique local baroque style and crowned by the grand Cattedrale di Sant’Agata. At its centre stands Fontana dell’Elefante (1736), a naive, smiling black-lava elephant dating from Roman times and surmounted by an improbable Egyptian obelisk. Another fountain at the piazza’s southwest corner, Fontana dell’Amenano, marks the entrance to Catania’s fish market. Legend has it that the elephant belonged to the 8th-century magician Eliodorus, who reputedly made his living by turning people into animals. The obelisk itself is said to possess magical powers that help ease Mt Etna’s volatile temperament.
Lonely Planet

Torre Monumental & plaza, Buenos Aires


Buenos Aires
Plaza y Estación Retiro.
[Plaza & Retiro Station]
Dated 1921
Publisher: Z. Fumagalli, Buenos Aires

Google Street View.

Torre Monumental (Spanish for “Monumental Tower”), formerly known as Torre de los Ingleses (“Tower of the English”), is a clock tower located in the barrio (district) of Retiro in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is situated in the Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina (formerly Plaza Britannia) by San Martín Street and Avenida del Libertador. It was a gift from the local British community to the city in commemoration of the centennial of the May Revolution of 1810. After the Falklands War in 1982, the tower’s original name was dropped, though some still call it Torre de los Ingleses.

On September 18, 1909 the Argentine National Congress passed Law N° 6368, consisting of an offer by the British residents of Buenos Aires to erect a monumental column to commemorate the centennial of the May Revolution. Although the centenary monument was initially considered to be a column, it ultimately took the form of the clock tower. A 1910 exhibition of project proposals at the Salón del Bon Marché, today the Galerías Pacífico, resulted in the jury’s award to English architect Sir Ambrose Macdonald Poynter (1867–1923), nephew of the founder of the Royal Institute of British Architects. The tower was built by Hopkins y Gardom, with materials shipped from England such as the white Portland stone and the bricks from Stonehouse, Gloucestershire (see below). The technical personnel responsible for the construction also came from England. . . . The inauguration of the building took place on May 24, 1916 and was attended by the President of Argentina Victorino de la Plaza and British dignitaries led by the minister plenipotentiary Reginald Tower.
Wikipedia.

Kaiser Wilhelm II Fountain, Istanbul


Constantinople
Fontaine de l’empereur Guillaume II.
Kaiser Wilhelm-Brunnen
[Fountaine of Kaiser Wilhelm II]
c.1910

Google Street View.

It’s nice when friends stop by and pay a visit. This, in part, was the thinking behind the construction of the commemorative Kaiser Wilhelm Fountain in Istanbul. But the fountain is a symbol of much more significant events in Turkey’s past. The fountain was built in 1900 to celebrate the second anniversary of German Kaiser Wilhelm’s visit to Turkey and sits at the far end of Sultanahmet Square in the heart of the Old City. It’s constructed in the neo-Byzantine style, with marble columns and a dome whose interior is lined with golden mosaic tiles. It’s a small but lasting tribute to an alliance that both countries would probably rather forget. . . . The Ottoman Empire’s alliance with Germany and subsequent loss in World War I pretty much spelled the end for the Sultan and his friends, but this fountain still stands as a testament to their doomed alliance. With friends like these, who needs enemies?
Atlas Obscura

The German Fountain is a gazebo styled fountain in the northern end of old hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square), Istanbul, Turkey and across from the Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmed I. It was constructed to commemorate the second anniversary of German Emperor Wilhelm II’s visit to Istanbul in 1898. It was built in Germany, then transported piece by piece and assembled in its current site in 1900. . . . During his reign as German Emperor and King of Prussia, Wilhelm II visited several European and Eastern countries. His trip started in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire on 18 October 1898 during the reign of Abdülhamid II. . . .The Emperor’s primary motivation for visiting was to construct the Baghdad Railway, which would run from Berlin to the Persian Gulf, and would further connect to British India through Persia. This railway could provide a short and quick route from Europe to Asia, and could carry German exports, troops and artillery. At the time, the Ottoman Empire could not afford such a railway, and Abdülhamid II was grateful to Wilhelm’s offer, but was suspicious over the German motives.
. . .
The neo-Byzantine style octagonal fountain stands on a base with eight steps rising up to an entry gate. There are seven brass fountain spouts over basins on the remaining sides, and over the central reservoir there is a dome supported by eight porphyry columns. The fountain’s central reservoir stands on a mosaic-tiled platform and surmounted with the bronze dome, which is raised on carved marble arches. There are eight monograms in the arch stonework and they represent the political union of Abdülhamid II and Wilhelm. In four of these medallions, Abdülhamid II’s tughra is written on green background, and in other four Wilhelm’s symbol “W” is written on a Prussian blue background. Also, over “W” there is a crown and below it a “II” is written. The fountain was surrounded with a bronze fence, but unfortunately this has been lost. The outside of the dome is ornately patterned bronze; the dome’s ceiling is decorated with golden mosaics and again with Abdülhamid II’s tughra and Wilhelm II’s symbol.
Wikipedia.

Turnul Alb (White Tower), Brasov, Romania


Brassó. – Kronstadt. Király sétány. – Königs Promenade
[Brasov : King’s Promenade]
c.1918

Google Street View.

Interior photos

The White Tower was built between 1460 and 1494 and represents one of the most massive constructions of the fortification. The walls are 4 m thick in the basement and the tower is 19 m in diameter. It has battlements, holes for pitch and balconies. The tower is connected to Graft Bastion with a bridge. A fireplace is still preserved in the interior of the tower.
GPSMyCity

The White tower was built in 1494 on top of a rock. Its straight side closing a semicircle faces the city. The tower has 5 stories and its height ranges between 18-20 meters, depending on the grounds it is built on. It got its name from the whitewash that coated its walls. The top is bastion shaped and the offsets from which showers of stone were dropped on the attacking enemy are still standing on its sidewalls. The entrance of the tower was so high that a ladder was needed in order to get inside. Just like the other buildings, the tower also suffered damages in the 1689 fire which were remedied only in the 1723 restoring works. According to the town defense system the tin- and coppersmiths were responsible for the protection of the tower.
Welcome to Romania

(Via Google Translate)
Along its walls, the tower has ramparts, pit openings and balconies supported by consoles carved in stone. Being 59 m away from the fortress wall, the tower communicates with it through a drawbridge that connected the tower and the Graft Bastion. It overlooked Blumăna and, with its 5 floors, was the highest fortification point in Brașov. Inside the tower was kept the chimney above a hearth, which could also be used to heat the guards and defenders – tinsmiths and coppersmiths. In 1678, the tinsmiths’ guild bought back the obligation to defend the tower, the number of craftsmen being low.
Wikipedia.

Musumagi (Kissing Hill), Tallinn, Estonia


Tallinn (Reval) – Viru t
Postmarked 1929
Publisher: M. Saarbaum.

Postcards of Viru Gate

Another view of original fountain

Google Street View (approximate).

Locals call the artificial hill on the Toome Hill, in the immediate vicinity of the Cathedral, the Kissing Hill. It was built in the 19th century as part of the park’s romantic design over the former Moscow Rondel at Karl XI Bastion. Today, stairs lead to the Kissing Hill and at the top, there is a viewing platform with benches. Next to the Kissing Hill, there is a monument to the poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson, between the sacrificial stone, the hill, and the cathedral. The place has been popular with young couples who take pictures there. There have been open-air performances on and around the Kissing Hill.
Visit Estonia

Translated from Russian via Google Translate:
Hill of Kisses (Musumägi) is a small (0.55 hectare ) park in Tallinn , near the Virus Gate , between Valli , Viru Streets and Pärnusskoe Shosse. The park was built on a part of the former earthen fortification at the Viru Gate (“High Bastion”), in accordance with the landscaping plan of Tallinn drawn up in 1876 with the participation of the outstanding landscape architect Georg Kufaldt. The opening took place in 1898.

The authorship of the garden pavilion in the park belongs to the architect Nikolai Tamm (senior). For the ascent to the park, stone stairs were erected, and a fountain was arranged from the side of Valli Street. During the fighting in the summer of 1941, the fallen bomb partially destroyed the Virus Gate, several soldiers of the German army who died in battles were buried in the park, the fountain was lost during the war, and its metal sculpture was melted down. In 1947, the Boys and the Fish fountain was built near the park (sculptor Voldemar Mellik).
Wikipedia.

Church & boulevard, Tallinn, Estonia


TALLINN. Kaarli pulestee. | REVAL. Karls-Promenade
Postmarked 1926.

Google Street View.

Charles’s Church (Estonian: Kaarli kirik) is a Lutheran church in Tallinn, Estonia, built 1862-1870 to plans by Otto Pius Hippius. It is Tallinn’s grandest 19th-century church. Tõnismägi hill has been the location of a chapel probably since the 14th century. In 1670, during the time of Swedish rule, the Swedish King Charles XI commissioned the construction of a church on the site, for the use of the Estonian and Finnish population of Tallinn (as opposed to the Baltic German population). The church was named after the king. In 1710, during the Great Northern War, this first wooden church was burnt down. In the 19th century, reconstruction plans were put forward. Donations of money were started in the 1850s, and the cornerstone of the new church was laid in 1862. The church, still incomplete, was inaugurated in 1870. The two towers on the west side were enlarged in 1882.
Wikipedia.

Kaarli Boulevard is a part of the circle boulevard surrounding the Old Town. It was constructed as a 2‑lane road in the early 19th century. Later on, after the completion of the Kaarli Church the boulevard was widened up to a 4‑lane esplanade and fenced in on the outsides by a low iron fence. In 1912 and after the trees were planted on two outer sides of the boulevard as well. Therefore, in some places the boulevard got 6 lanes, though, the majority of the outer trees have unfortunately become extinct by now due to the environmental pollution.
Tallinn

Tuileries Gardens, Paris


Panorama de Paris. – Les Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Maps.

Paris: postcards from 1900 (more pictures)

Just across the river from the Orsay Museum, the magnificent Tuileries Gardens are a historical place which afford a haven of greenery in the heart of Paris. They were designed by André Le Nôtre discovered by Fouquet, Louis XIV’s minister of finance, for whom he created the splendid French gardens for his château of Vaux le Vicomte. Le Nôtre, commissioned by Louis XIV, is best known for having landscaped the grounds of Versailles Palace. He gave Paris a royal garden which became a meeting-place for the aristocracy and upper classes. In the 17th century it was often the scene of lavish revelry, and remains today one of the favourite places for Parisians to walk. Located within 5 minutes walk from the Hôtel le Bellechasse via the Solferino foot bridge, the Tuileries offer a typical insight of the unique atmosphere of Paris. The gardens have witnessed many troubled times of the French history and contain many statues, fountains and remarkable trees.
Hotel Le Bellechasse

“Plan du Palais des Tuileries initialement envisagé par Delorme et jardins”, [Plan of the Palace of Tuilleries initally envisions by Delorme & gardens”, 1570s, from Wikimedia Commons
It all began in 1564. Nostalgic for the Florentine palaces of her childhood, Queen Catherine de’ Medici, Henri II’s widow, had a new palace and garden built outside the Paris city walls. The tile factories (tuileries) that had stood on the chosen spot since the Middle Ages gave the new royal residence and garden their name. The garden was completely redesigned in 1664 by Louis XIV’s landscape gardener, André Le Nôtre. At that time, it was opened for the enjoyment of ‘respectable folk’. After several modifications and partial privatisation – notably by Napoleon I then his nephew Napoleon III – it was finally opened to the general public in 1871.
Louvre


Paris. – Jardin des Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Street View.

The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. Created by Catherine de’ Medici as the garden of the Tuileries Palace in 1564, it was eventually opened to the public in 1667 and became a public park after the French Revolution. . . . In 1870, Napoleon III was defeated and captured by the Prussians, and Paris was the scene of the uprising of the Paris Commune. A red flag flew over the Palace, and it could be visited for fifty centimes. When the army arrived and fought to recapture the city, the Communards deliberately burned the Tuileries Palace, and tried to burn the Louvre as well. The ruins, burned out inside but with walls largely intact, were torn down in 1883. The empty site of the palace, between the two pavilions of the Louvre, became part of the garden. Dozens of statues were added to the garden. It also served as the setting for large civic events such as the banquet given during the 1900 Paris Universal Exposition on 22 September 1900, in honour of the twenty-two thousand mayors of France, served under large tents. The Tuilieries garden was filled with entertainments for the public; acrobats, puppet theatres, lemonade stands, small boats on the lakes, donkey rides, and stands selling toys. It was a meeting for major commercial events, such as the first Paris automobile salon in 1898. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, the Gardens hosted the fencing events.
Wikipedia.

“Gezicht op het Palais des Tuileries te Parijs gezien vanaf de Jardin des Tuileries” [View of thr Palace of Tuileries as seen from the Garden of Tuileries], 18th century, from Wikimedia Commons