Innsbruck, Austria


Kloster Wilten-Innsbruck
Publisher: C. Lampe [? covered by writing], Innsbruck

Google Street View.

Innsbruck, the “Bridge over the Inn”, is the capital of Austria’s Tirol and home to one of Europe’s most delightful historic old town centres. Surrounded by the craggy peaks of the Austrian Alps, it scores both as an Alpine playground and as a showcase for Habsburg Empire heritage.
Tyrol, Austra

(Via Google Translate)
Wilten Abbey is a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1138 by Bishop Reginbert von Brixen in Wilten , a district of Innsbruck at the foot of the Bergisel , the capital of the Austrian state of Tyrol. . . . Abbot Dominikus Löhr (1651–1687) laid the foundation stone for the baroque church building after the collapsing tower of the predecessor, Abbot Andreas Mayr, had completely destroyed the Gothic building. The actual consecration of the church and the high altar was carried out on October 18, 1665 by the Prince Bishop of Brixen, Sigmund Alfons Graf Thun . Emperor Leopold I was present in person. The north tower was completed in 1667, but the south tower was only half the height of the church roof, since the court architect Christoph Gumpp had died in 1672
Wikipedia.

Passerelle, Luxembourg


LUXEMBOURG – Passerelle
c.1920
Publisher: Grand Bazar Champagne, Luxembourg

Google Street View.

The Passerelle, also known as the Luxembourg Viaduct, is a viaduct in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. Nowadays it runs from the south into the city centre, Ville Haute, carrying road traffic across the Pétrusse valley and connecting Avenue de la Gare to Boulevard Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It is 290 m long, with 24 arches, and 45 m above the valley floor. It is also known as the Old Bridge (Luxembourgish: Al Bréck, French: Vieux pont, German: Alte Brücke) by people from Luxembourg City. The ‘new bridge’ in this comparison is the Adolphe Bridge, which was built between 1900 and 1903.

The Passerelle was built between 1859 and 1861 to connect the city centre with Luxembourg’s new railway station, which was located away from the city centre so as to not detract from the defensive capabilities of the city’s fortress. It was conceived by the engineers Achille N. Grenier and Auguste Letellier, and built by the British company Waring Brothers.
Wikipedia.

Mackinac Island, USA


Looking down from the old fort, Mackinac Island, Mich
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Detroit Publishing Co.

Google Street View.

Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan was built by the British Army under the direction of Patrick Sinclair during the American Revolutionary War. Located on a bluff 150 feet above Mackinac Island Harbor, it replaced Fort Michilimackinac which had wooden palisades and was located on the shore of present day Mackinaw City. The Officers Stone Quarters, started in 1780 at Fort Mackinac, is the oldest building in the State of Michigan.
Fort Mackinac was turned over to the United States in 1796. But the fort and control of the Straits of Mackinac were recaptured without a battle during the War of 1812. British forces in Canada learned of the start of the war before the Americans and surprised the garrison with a much superior force of soldiers, European civilians and Native Americans on July 17, 1812. American forces attempted to recover the fort in 1814, but were defeated and also lost two sailing vessels used to blockade the harbor. Following the end of the war, Fort Mackinac was returned to the United States.
Straits of Mackinac & Mackinac Bridge: The Mighty Mac (also photos of island in 1918).

Fort Mackinac was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in 1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to the United States after the war. The fort remained active until 1895. During these years Mackinac Island was transformed from a center of the fur trade into a major summer resort. The stone ramparts, the south sally port and the Officer’s Stone Quarters are all part of the original fort built over 225 years ago. The other buildings in the fort are of more recent origin, dating from the late 1790s to 1885.
Mackinac State Historic Parks

Text and images below from “A lake tour to picturesque Mackinac via the D. & C”, Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Co., 1890

Bird’s eye view island of Mackinac

1. Fort Mackinac 2. Fort Holmes 3. Catholic Cemetery 4. Military Cemetery
5. Skull Cave 6. Quarry 1780 7. Limekiln 1780 8. Robinson’s Folly
9. Cliffs 10. Arch Rock 11. Sugar Loaf 12. Skull Rock
13. Battlefield 1814 14. Scott’s Cave 15. British Landing 16. Lover’s Leap
17. Devil’s Kitchen 18. Pontiac’s Lookout 19. Obelisk 20. Old Indian Burying Ground
21. Distillery, 1812 22. 1812 Plank’s Grand Hotel 23. Det. and Cleve Steam Nave Co’s Wharf

Read more

Hebron


Hebron. Vue generale. – Hebron gen View. – Hebron. Vista General. – Ebron veduta generale.
[Hebron: General View]
c.1910

Google Street View (location).

Hebron (Al-Khalil in Arabic) is located 32 kilometers south of Jerusalem and is built on several hills and wadis, most of which run north-to-south. The Hebrew word Hebron is explained as being derived from the Hebrew word for friend (haver), a description for the Patriarch Abraham. The Arabic Al- Khalil, literally “the friend,” has a nearly identical derivation and also refers to Abraham (Ibrahim), whom Muslims similarly describe as the friend of God. Hebron is one of the oldest continually occupied cities in the world and has been a major focus of religious worship for over two millennia.
Jewish Virtual Library

Late in the 19th century the production of Hebron glass declined due to competition from imported European glass-ware, however, the products of Hebron continued to be sold, particularly among the poorer populace and travelling Jewish traders from the city. At the World Fair of 1873 in Vienna, Hebron was represented with glass ornaments. A report from the French consul in 1886 suggests that glass-making remained an important source of income for Hebron, with four factories earning 60,000 francs yearly. While the economy of other cities in Palestine was based on solely on trade, Hebron was the only city in Palestine that combined agriculture, livestock herding and trade, including the manufacture of glassware and processing of hides. This was because the most fertile lands were situated within the city limits. The city, nevertheless, was considered unproductive and had a reputation “being an asylum for the poor and the spiritual.” Differing in architectural style from Nablus, whose wealthy merchants built handsome houses, Hebron’s main characteristic was its semi-urban, semi-peasant dwellings.

Hebron was ‘deeply Bedouin and Islamic’, and ‘bleakly conservative’ in its religious outlook, with a strong tradition of hostility to Jews. It had a reputation for religious zeal in jealously protecting its sites from Jews and Christians, but both the Jewish and Christian communities were apparently well integrated into the town’s economic life. As a result of its commercial decline, tax revenues diminished significantly, and the Ottoman government, avoiding meddling in complex local politics, left Hebron relatively undisturbed, to become ‘one of the most autonomous regions in late Ottoman Palestine’. The Jewish community was under French protection until 1914. The Jewish presence itself was divided between the traditional Sephardi community, whose members spoke Arabic and adopted Arab dress, and the more recent influx of Ashkenazi Jews. They prayed in different synagogues, sent their children to different schools, lived in different quarters and did not intermarry. The community was largely Orthodox and anti-Zionist.
Wikipedia.

Christmas Day Procession, Bethlehem


Bethlehém. Le jour de Noël – Christmas Day – La Fiesta de Navidad en Belén – La Festa della nascità a Betlem
[Bethlehem. Christmas Day]

A horizontal postcard depicting the area of the ceremony infront of the Church of the Nativity on Christmas day. It descrobes the procession with the cross to the Church of the Nativity. In the center a priest with white cape, holding a big cross. On both sides two lines of clergy men, also in white capes. (The capes above black cloaks.) This procession is in a big crowd of people, and also on the roofs around. The clothing looks like an arab clothing – colored cloaks, turbans, and so forth, and also western people with suits. On the side we can wee horses and camels. The point of view for this picture is from the Church of the Nativity to its plaza.
National Library of Israel

The Square is flanked by two other major attractions – the Church of St Catherine and the Church of Nativity. Manger Square takes its name from the adjacent Church of the Nativity that enshrines the Grotto the Nativity (the “manger”) where Jesus was born although the square itself is not mentioned in the Bible. As the heart of Bethlehem’s Old City Manger Square is the center for all tourist activity and the starting point of most Bethlehem tours. Manger Square is also the site of many events throughout the year. Flanking the Square are the 4th century Church of Nativity; Church of St. Catherine; the Mosque of Omar; Bethlehem Municipality building; souvenir stores and the Bethlehem Peace Center. During the Ottoman-era Manger Square was an open space used as a fresh produce and livestock market. In 1929 the market was moved to a new location in the Old City.
BeinHarim Tours

Morlaix, France


MORLAIX. – Saint-Martin – Panorama
[Saint Martin is the church]
Postmarked 1909
“Collection Morin-Richer, Morlaix”
Back has a printed advertisement:
Pour avoir de beaux meubles, il faut cirer avec, l’Encaustique Orientale.
Arsène Hauton
Fabricant.
Saint-Nazaire (Loire-Inferieure)

Google Street View (approximate).

Morlaix is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. The old quarter of the town has winding streets of cobbled stones and overhanging houses constructed of stone and timber. Many have religious and secular sculptures on their façades.
Wikipedia.

View from Toompea, Tallinn, Estonia


Ревель, вид съ ВЫшгорода
Tallinn. Waade Toompealt
Reval. Blick von der neuen Domtreppe.
[Tallinn. View from Toompea]
Postmarked 1925

Google Street View.

Toompea (from German: Domberg, “Cathedral Hill”) is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The hill is an oblong tableland, which measures about 400 by 250 metres, has an area of 7 hectares (17 acres) and is about 20–30 metres higher than the surrounding areas. In folklore the hill is known as the tumulus mound over the grave of Kalev, erected in his memory by his grieving wife. The history of Toompea is closely linked to the history of rulers and power in Estonia. Today Toompea is the center of the Government of Estonia and the Riigikogu (parliament), both of which are often simply referred to as Toompea. The location of the Riigikogu is the Toompea Castle, situated in the southwestern corner of the hill and topped by the Tall Hermann tower.
Wikipedia.

Dating back as far as the 13th century, the old section of Tallinn is what keeps most visitors occupied during their stay. The winding, cobbled streets of the medieval capital take you past half-hidden lanes, courtyards, spired churches and old, merchant houses. For centuries, what’s now the Old Town has been divided into two distinct parts: Toompea Hill, which was home to the gentry that lorded over the countryside, and Lower Town, which was a separate political entity with rights as an autonomous town.
In Your Pocket

Budapest, Hungary


BUDAPEST. — Letkep. –  Totalansicht.
[Budapet – View]
Dated 1913

Google Street View (approximate).

The 19th century was dominated by the Hungarian struggle for independence and modernisation. The national insurrection against the Habsburgs began in the Hungarian capital in 1848 and was defeated one and a half years later, with the help of the Russian Empire. 1867 was the year of Reconciliation that brought about the birth of Austria-Hungary. This made Budapest the twin capital of a dual monarchy. It was this compromise which opened the second great phase of development in the history of Budapest, lasting until World War I. In 1849 the Chain Bridge linking Buda with Pest was opened as the first permanent bridge across the Danube and in 1873 Buda and Pest were officially merged with the third part, Óbuda (Old Buda), thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest grew into the country’s administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Ethnic Hungarians overtook Germans in the second half of the 19th century due to mass migration from the overpopulated rural Transdanubia and Great Hungarian Plain. Between 1851 and 1910 the proportion of Hungarians increased from 35.6% to 85.9%, Hungarian became the dominant language, and German was crowded out.
Wikipedia.

Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic


Marienbad
Blick von der Carolahöhe
[VIew from the Carolahöhe}
Postmarked: 1900
Publisher: “Conditorei Walter, Marienbad i. B”

Card is covered with sparkles, which show in scan as white patches

Location

The period between 1870 and 1914 was Mariánské Lázně’s heyday, reflected to this day in its numerous renovated Art Nouveau spa houses, hotels, colonnades and churches, designed by architects such as Friedrich Zickler, Josef Schaffer, Arnold Heymann and Josef Forberich. The spa parks were enlarged, and idyllic viewing points were created high above the town. In 1872, the railway line linking the town with Cheb, Vienna, Prague and Pilsen was opened and in 1898 the line to Karlovy Vary was completed. During this period, many more great names came to take the waters in Mariánské Lázně – these include Gustav Mahler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Franz Kafka, Rudyard Kipling, Mark Twain, Thomas Alva Edison, Pierre de Coubertin, King Edward VII of England, the Czar Nicholas II and Emperor Franz Joseph I.
The Official Tourist Website for Marianske Lazne

Although the town itself is only about two hundred years old, the locality has been inhabited much longer. The first written record dates back to 1273, when there was a village of Úšovice. The springs first appear in a document dating from 1341 where they are called “the Auschowitzer springs” belonging to the Teplá Abbey. It was only through the efforts of Josef Nehr, the abbey’s physician, who from 1779 until his death in 1820 worked hard to demonstrate the curative properties of the springs, that the waters began to be used for medicinal purposes. The place obtained its current name of Marienbad in 1808; became a watering-place in 1818, and received its charter as a town in 1868. . . . Then came a second period of growth, the town’s Golden Era. Between 1870 and 1914 many new hotels, colonnades and other buildings were constructed or rebuilt from older houses.
Wikipedia.


Mariánské Lázně Map, 1896, from Wikimedia Commons

The district of the healing Springs on the brook of Auschowitz is since 1197 possessed by the abbey of Teplá. The healing power of the Springs has been known since the XVIth century. In the year of 1528 there has been attempted to get the salt from the source of Ferdinand, but without success. The systematical use of the sources, healing and economic, has been established till about the end of the XVIIIth century, by the effort of dr. Nehr and the abbots of Teplá. The previous attempts were only ephemeral. The conditions of the flourish of the place have been created by the chemical analysis of the water by the eminent specialists who declared its healing power. In the first decades of the XIXth century the sources have been couvered by constructions that are partly to see still nowadays. The first establishements date from the year of 1781 and about 1820 there was here already a great many of houses. The healing factors are the spring of Ferdinand, the Well of the Cross, the Spring of Maria, of Caroline etc., the mud-baths, the production of the salt of Teplá and the transmission of the healing water. Moreover, the beauty of the surrounding country adds much to the renown of our watering-place.
Mariánské Lázně, Františkovy Lázně (1930), “volume XVI of the series Přírodní, umělecké a historické památnosti (English translation: Natural, artistic and historical sights).”