Signal Station, Gibraltar


Gibraltar, Signal Station
c.1910
Publisher: V. B. Colombo, Gibraltar

From this lookout post, the guards used to alert the population to the arrival of ships by firing signal cannon and raising flags. The number of cannon shots fired and type of flags raised varied according to the nationality and type of ship approaching the rock. Cannons were also fired to announce the opening and closing of the City gates at sunrise and sunset, or to signal a fire on the Rock. Towards the end of the 19th century, the signal station was converted into a gun battery. And during the Second World War it was equipped with anti-aircraft guns.
Cable Car Tour

Plaque on site:
A signal station which existed here from before the British days was closed in 1922 because Levant cloud often obscured the view. It’s duties were continued from Windmill Hill signal station.
Open Plaques

On this point is the Signal Station, from which a constant watch is kept for ships entering the Straits. There was a tradition that it had been an ancient watch-tower of the Carthaginians, from which (as from Monte Pellegrino, that overlooks the harbor of Palermo) they had watched the Roman ships. But later historians think it played no great part in history or in war until the Rock served as a stepping-stone to the Moors in their invasion and conquest of Spain. When the Spaniards retook it, they gave this peak the name of “El Hacho,” The Torch, because here beacon-fires were lighted to give warning in time of danger. A little house furnishes a shelter for the officer on duty, who from its flat roof, with his field-glass, sweeps the whole horizon, north and south, from the Sierra Nevada in Spain, to the long chain of the Atlas Mountains in Africa. Looking down, the Mediterranean is at your feet. There go the ships, with boats from either shore which dip their long lateen-sails as sea-gulls dip their wings, and sometimes fly over the waves as a bird flies through the air, even while large ships labor against the wind.
“Gibraltar”, Henry M. Field, 1889

Houses in the rock, Graufthal, France


GRAUFTAL Maisons construites dans le roc
[Houses built into the rock]
c.1930
Publisher: La Cigogne, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

(Translated with Google Translate)
In 1899, the archaeologist Robert Forrer undertook to excavate the site of the troglodyte habitat of Graufthal. From these works we can conclude that after being used as warehouses in the Middle Ages, the rocky overhangs were converted into dwellings, probably around 1760, as indicated by a vintage, which has now disappeared, engraved on the lintel of a door. People of modest means settled using the rock cavities to reduce the surface area of ​​roofs and facades. These houses were occupied until 1958. . . . The troglodyte houses have two sets housed in two horizontal faults. The residential houses, embedded in the first fault, are located approximately 7 meters above the village. The Match Factory is located in the Upper Rift. These buildings are built directly on the rock, in rubble masonry, partially covered with flat tiled roofs, where the rocks do not completely overhang them. The frames are basic, the interior partitioning rudimentary. Access to the complex is via a passageway bordering a rock projection. A ramp provides fall protection.
Ministere de la Culture

The houses are set into caves in red sandstone cliffs. There are two sets of buildings in two horizontal caves, reached by a footpath. The houses are in the first cave, about 7 metres (23 ft) above the village street. A match factory is located in the upper cave. These buildings are built into the rock, with rubble masonry, and are partially covered with tile roofs where they are not fully protected by the rock ceiling. They are roughly built, with rudimentary internal partitioning. The houses have the same internal layout. On the ground floor there is a kitchen beside the room where the parents would have lived, and a stable with unplastered walls. Above that is a second floor holding a dormitory for the children and a hayloft and granary.
Wikipedia.


Part of photo “Felsenwohnungen in Graufthal”, after 1870. from Wikimedia Common

kunanyi/Mt Wellington, Hobart, Australia


The Pinnacle, Mount Wellington, Hobart
c.1910

(Note the writing on the rock to the right.)

Google Street View.

Entries from “Wellington Park Historic Heritage Inventory & Audit Project”, Vol. 2, A Mcconnell & L. Scripps, 2005(PDF):

The Pinnacle
Natural Feature of scenic beauty visited regularly by Europeans from the 1830s to the present day, and until the 1930s on foot. First known non-Aboriginal ascent (by George Bass) was Dec 1798; many famous people have climbed Mt Wellington (eg, Charles Darwin). A Cornish* photo shows a wide made packed dolerite rubble (no earth) path leading up (N side?) to a summit cairn (?) (with a square base and a peaked top with the base of timber pole protruding) .  .  .  Social values are primarily as a major viewing point; but also used regularly for snow play, to see the sun rise on New Year’s Day (p. 60)

Trig Station on Mt Wellington summit
The stone base is probably part of one of James Sprent’s cairns for his trigonometric survey of Tasmania(1832-37 & 1850s) – probably established between 1832-1837. (p.53)

Wragge’s Summit Observatory
Wragge’s first observatory (meteorological station) in Hobart was established on the summit of Mt Wellington in May 1895 by Clement Wragge. According to Thwaites* a hollow cairn of rocks was built first to temporarily house the instruments and then a timber hut was built. The Observatory Hut was 12′ x 8′, and from 7′-12′ high. It was a timber building lined with wood and with a corrugated iron roof. The entire building was surrounded by a wall and covered with an outer roof of rocks (a 1910 photo (Cornish*) shows a large round ‘cairn’ of rocks with peaked dome on N side of the Pinnacle which may be the rock covered hut?). The hut contained a large fireplace. Mr Arthur Wherrett was appointed as the summit observatory observer. When fitted out it was regarded as “the equal of any such station in Australia” (Thwaites*). The observatory was set up to improve the weather forecasting ability by being able to take atmospheric pressure readings at height (as well as at sea level – the Anglesea Barracks observatory) building on methods pioneered by Wragge in Scotland in the 1880s. Wragge was in the forefront of meteorological forecasting, being awarded a Royal Meteorological Society gold medal for his work in Scotland (on Ben Nevis) and he issued the first Australasian weather charts and forecasts (for each of the colonies and New Zealand) in 1887, and he began the tradition of naming cyclones. (p. 88)

* J. Thwaites, “Clement Wragge’s Observatory on Mt Wellington” . Tasmanian Tramp No. 24, 1982-3
* Ted Cornish, “Early Mt Wellington Huts” & “History [of a] Bushwalking Hut, Mt Wellington”, unpublished manuscript with photographs, 1969; copies held by Wellington Park Management Trust

Falls Hut, kunanyi/Mt Wellington, Tasmania


Falls Hut, Hobart in Winter 1910.
1910s
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Other huts

In 1888 a recreational hut was built besides the King’s Sawpits, where the original sawyer’s huts had once been located. From that point onwards, the huts were “a fundamental part … of the mountain experience to locals for over one hundred years” (Lee Andrews & Associates Heritage Consulting, p38). In the period 1890-1910 the hut building reached its peak. In all, through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, around forty small huts were built on the mountain. They were used as weekend retreats, bases for walking and skiing, or even as homes. They were built of local bush materials, with small touches of refinement, such as ornate mantelpieces, verandahs, bush lattice gables, bridges, fern gardens and cellars. One hut had a piano. Some were linked with telephone wire to warn of approaching guests.
Tasmania Stories

[Falls Hut was] built 1897, originally one room, then two rooms built on, the first subsequently being used as a toolshed. A two-level bridge was built here in 1901. George Mason, a well-known ranger and builder of the original Richards Monument, was the proprietor.
kunanyi/Mt Wellington History


Falls Hut, Cascade, Hobart
c.1910


Falls Hut, Cascades, Hobart, Tas
c.1910
Publisher: McVilly & Little


Falls Hut, Cascades, Hobart
c.1910
Publisher: McVilly & Little


Rustic Bridge, Cascades, Hobart, Tas
c.1910
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Falls Hut was one of the better-known huts which featured frequently on postcards from around 1900 to 1920. Visitors came from interstate and overseas to sample the hut members’ hospitality. The hut was built in 1891 and renovated in 1903 with a new wing and an amazing rustic bridge.
List the Mountain

Axenstrasse, Switerland


Galleries an der Axenstrasse mit Blick auf Vierwaldstättersee u. Brisenstock
[Galleries (the open bits on the side) along the Axenstrasse with views of Vierwaldstättersee (Lake Lucerne) & Brisenstock (the mountain)]
c.1910
Publisher: E. Goetz, Lucerne

Google Street View.

The engineer, Landamman (cantonal council’s president) of Uri, and Federal Councillor of State Karl Emanuel Müller (1804–1869) initiated the first road for horse-drawn carriages. Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. The name of the Axenstrasse refers to one particular part of the mountains the Axenstrasse circumvents and traverses, the 600 m (2,000 ft) high, vertical rock between Flüelen and Sisikon, actually a farmed meadow terrace (Ober Axen and Unter Axen) right below the much higher Rophaien (2,078 m (6,818 ft)). The route, especially in the part south of Sisikon, involves many open passages with rock galleries and numerous openings in the west tunnel walls viewing Urnersee as a result of the tunnel blasting through the calcareous rock. The road costs were 842,000 francs in 1865, half of which was paid for by the federal government of Switzerland. Between 1937 and 1939, the Axenstrasse was altered to suit modern traffic in lieu of horse-drawn carriages, and a lane in each direction for road traffic was paved. Many sections of the old Axenstrasse were also closed to automotive traffic to serve as hiking trails
Wikipedia.

The road was built along steep cliffs on the east side of Lake Lucerne, weaving through many rock fall galleries and tunnels along its route. Adverse weather conditions are common. Ice and snow can be on the way. Upon completion in 1865, the Axenstrasse was the first way to get to Uri that did not involve navigating Lake Lucerne. The route between the Axen Mountain and Flüelen existed in 1776 as the Landstrasse (country road). Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. It was named the Axenstrasse because the road is located along the Axen Mountain.
Dangerous Roads


Axenstrasse mit Bristenstock
[Bristenstock is the mountain]
1900s
Publisher: Photoblob Co, Zurich

Vesuvius, Italy


Napoli. | Il Vesuvio-Cratere in eruzione
(Crater of Vesuvius erupting)
1900s
Publisher: Ettore Ragozino, Galleria Umberto-Napoli

Probably a modified/fabricated image, published just before the 1906 eruption.

Mount Vesuvius is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

The eruption of 5 April 1906 killed more than 100 people and ejected the most lava ever recorded from a Vesuvian eruption. Italian authorities were preparing to hold the 1908 Summer Olympics when Mount Vesuvius violently erupted, devastating the city of Naples and surrounding comunes. Funds were diverted to reconstructing Naples, and a new site for the Olympics had to be found./em>
Wikipedia.


Napoli. | Il Vesuvio-Carozza della Funicolare
(The Funicular car Vesuvia)
c.1904
Publisher: Ettore Ragozino, Galleria Umberto-Napoli

Read more

Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe


Worlds View in the Matopos
1905-1910
Publisher: R. O. Füsslein, Johannesburg (1905-1910)

Google Street View (approximate).

Malindidzimu (“Hill of the Ancestral Spirits” in Ndebele) is a granite inselberg and a national historical monument situated in the Matobo National Park in south-west Zimbabwe, 25 miles (40 kilometers) south of Bulawayo. It is considered a sacred place by nationalists and indigenous groups. Controversially, Cecil Rhodes is buried on the summit of Malindidizumu, together with Charles Coghlan, Leander Starr Jameson, Allan Wilson and several other white settlers. he English name of the site is “World’s view” which is not to be confused with World’s View, Nyanga.
Wikipedia.

McDonald wrote: “We sat for some time afterwards in the shade of the vast round boulders that seemed to have been thrown up from the bowels of the earth and Rhodes was very silent for a time.” Then he said to himself really: “The peacefulness of it all, the chaotic grandeur of it, it creates a feeling of awe and brings home to one how very small we all are.” Then back he came to the present: “Grey, I call this one of the world’s views.” We all agreed to that, hence its name today: “The World’s View.”
ZimFieldGuide.com

Fern Tree Bower, Hobart, Australia


Hut at Fern Tree Bower, Hobart, Tasmania
Dated 1907
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View (approximate).
Council workshops and later shelter shed(s) were erected at the Bower, but not in the early rustic style. . . . The current shelter shed is built into the bank possibly a little lower down the stream than the original shelter shed.
kunanyi/Mt Wellington History (PDF), pp.30-2

When this part of Browns River became known as the Bower (later Fern Tree Bower) in the 1860s, the scene was very different from what it is today. A dam built across the river in 1862 made a pond, around which grew overhanging tree ferns. It became the mountain’s most famous beauty spot. People walked (or promenaded) along the track following the water line from the saddle at Fern Tree Inn to the Bower, where they could enjoy a leisurely picnic or a walk upstream to Silver Falls before heading home. Over time, rustic benches, tables and shelters were installed.
On the Convict Trail


Fern Tree Bower
Postmarked 1911
Publisher: J.Walch & Sons, Hobart

The Tourists’ Association, of which Henry Dobson is the president, have since its formation done all they could to conserve the beauties of the Bower and at the same time make it more inviting and accessible to across the Straits Tourists. With this end in view Mr Dobson approached the Corporation, and asked this body to assist in co-operating with the Association in erecting a shelter shed near the Bower receiving basin. The municipal authorities fell in with the idea, and offered to contribute two-thirds of the expense of the shed if the Tourists Association provided the other one-third. The Association lost no time in clinching the bargain, and tenders were invited for the erection of a temporary house for pleasure-seekers in a spot surrounded by hills not lofty enough to inspire awe nor to shorten the sunlit day, but of sufficient height to shut out the world beyond and its cares.

The contract was undertaken by Mr Walters, who has carried out his work faithfully and well. The dimensions of the bush house are 24ft by 12ft. It is built on square timber supports, and the back and ends are boarded, whilst the roof is shingled. The shed stands on a space to the west of the storm channel of the Bower Basin. It is not yet completed, but it is intended to make the front of a rustic character and plant ferns around it something similar to the rustic huts in the Brewery reserve. It contains two tables and seats, and the bottom will be gravelled and the interior colored. The shelter shed is on the Corporation reserve, and, of course, will be under the supervision of the waterworks official. The City Engineer (Mr R. S. Milles) superintended the erection of the shed, which, by-the-way it may be mentioned, will be a great boon to ordi­nary visitors in inclement weather. The hut is for the public generally and no special class.
Tasmanian News (Hobart, Tas. : 1883 – 1911), Saturday 9 January 1897

It was a merciful thing that the Silver Falls Gully, immediately above the Bower at the Fern Tree, so well escaped injury by the devastating bush fires on that terrible Black Friday of last summer. The local people say that this was wholly due to the splendid efforts put forth by the employees of the Hobart Corporation, under Mr. Milles’ direction. The gully, with its pair of charming waterfalls, man ferns, and mossy hollows, is the most picturesque and romantically beautiful to be found any-where within easy access of the city. The shelter-sheds at the Bower are proving a great convenience to visitors and picnicking parties. The explorers of the gully have had their rambles made more easy by rustic woodwork footbridges being thrown over chasms, steps cut to facilitate getting over big logs, or else a narrow pathway made clear around them. These things, however, have been done so unpretentiously as to be in keeping with the silvan surroundings of the place. Hundreds of people visit the Bower without knowing what they have missed by not taking a stroll up this gully. The first waterfall is less than a quarter of a mile up, and the second, an exceedingly pretty one, only a few hundred yards further on, whilst having arrived thereat, a short cut may be taken to the Springs, and thence to the top of the mountain.
The Mercury, 7 January 1899

Fluelen, Switzerland


Flüelen mit Bristenstock (3074 m)
(Flüelen with Bristenstock (3074 m) [in the background])
c.1920
Publisher: Photoglob Co, Zurich

Google Street View (location).

Flüelen formed an important transshipment point on Switzerland’s transport system for many centuries, and at least since the opening of the first track across the Gotthard Pass in 1230. The various routes across the pass reached Lake Lucerne at Flüelen, and until the latter half of the 19th century the lake provided the best onward link to the cities of northern Switzerland.
Wikipedia.