Trekroner Sea Fortress, Copenhagen

On back:
Luftfoto afTrekroner
Airphoto of the ancient forterers of “Trekroner”
Luffphoto der alten Festung “Trekroner”
Publisher: K. Witt-Mollers

Trekroner Søfort (literally Three Crowns Sea Fortress) is a sea fort at the entrance to the Copenhagen harbour. From 1713 until after World War I, Trekroner Fort was part of the fortifications of Copenhagen. The original location of Trekroner Fort was a few hundred meters north of the current one. In 1713, three old ships of the line were sunk to form the basis for a battery. One of the ships was called Trekroner, and she gave her name to the fort.

Construction of the current fort began in 1787. The fort was an important part of the Danish line of defense during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801. The fort also was engaged during the British attack on Copenhagen in 1807. From 1818 to 1828 and in 1860, the fort was strongly enhanced, but its military significance diminished after the First World War. In 1934 it was sold to the Copenhagen harbour services. During the German occupation of Denmark the Germans used the fortress as a barracks. After the war it was used for a few years as a prison for German officers and the former German ambassador to Denmark. Afterwards, it fell vacant until 1984, when it was opened to the public. Trekroner Fort is one of three artificial islands that were created to defend the entrance to Copenhagen’s harbor. (The other two are Middelgrundsfortet and Flakfortet.)

Trekroner Sea Fortress is a small, artificial island with two distinctive red barracks, situated at the entrance to Copenhagen Harbour. It was originally part of the Copenhagen Fortifications. Today, visitors have access during summer, allowing them to explore the old gun casements and gloomy, historic cellars, and to enjoy the view of the Copenhagen skyline. The oldest part of the fortress dates back to the late 18th century. Only after the defeat by the Germans in 1864 was it reinforced with the solid casements, ammunition storage and gun batteries. It was decommissioned as a naval fortress in 1932. In the years leading up to the Second World War, it was a favourite summer attraction, with a restaurant, cabaret, theatre and other attractions.
Kobenhavner Gron

Kanonbåde i Trekoners havn,1885 (from Wikimedia Commons, cropped)

The fort is framed by piles and a strong frame structure, that was filled with soil and mud from Copenhagen as well as a deepening of the harbor. As early as 1801, before the fort was completed, it took part against the English in the Battle of the Rhed. The fort was hastily equipped with 66 guns and 660 men, and together with the navy’s ships and some hastily equipped naval batteries the enemy, with the admirals Parker and Nelson at the head, was kept away from Copenhagen. This was, however, not enough to avoid defeat. Again in 1807, Trekroner was active during the English bombardement of Copenhagen.

After the state bankruptcy, there were no funds for the neigher the Army nor the navy, and it was not until 1818 that the king raised the funds for the completion of the Trekroner. It was completed in 1828. The bulwarks were now reinforced with a 3 meter thick sandstone wall covered with granite. In the throat (the backside of the fort), shooting openings were made. In 1838-39 the two barracks buildings were erected at the entrance to the harbor of the fort. During the Danish-Prussian Schleswig wars, the fort was manned by 390 men. During the period 1865-1869, the fort was expanded with the casemate building, batteries with magazines built into the traverses and a mine control station. The Fortifications of Copenhagen 1886-1920

Innisfallen Abbey, Innisfallen, Ireland

Innisfallen Oratory
Publisher closed 1906, but card dated 1912
Publiser: John Evelyn Wrench

Google Street View (approximate).

Innisfallen Abbey is located on a picturesque island on the lake of Lough Leane (“Lake of Learning”) in Killarney national park. Tradition holds that it was founded in the 6th Century as a leper colony by Saint Fionán (Saint Finnian), whose life was dedicated to tending the sick. The church was later established as an Augustinian priory, and quickly became a centre for education in the early Christian world. It’s greatest scholar was the monk Maelsuthain O’Carroll (‘chief doctor of the Western world’), who gained great eminence and respect amongst contemporary princes. He was friend to the famous king Brain Boru, and it is claimed that in the 10th Century, the king was educated under Maelsuthain’s care at Innisfallen, and Maelsuthain is later named as the king’s counsellor during his reign. Innisfallen’s remote location did not protect it entirely from the outside world. It was twice raided by Vikings, and in 1180AD, it was plundered by Maiilduin, son of Donal O’Donoghue. The monks quickly recovered from this setback, and the church continued to flourish as a centre of learning.
. . .
Although the abbey was formally dissolved in 1540AD, passing into the hands of Richard Harding, it is not known whether it was abandoned at this time. The monks of neighbouring Muckross Abbey remained in residence until the 1580s, and the remote location of Innisfallen may have allowed it some respite. It is know to have been abandoned by the time Oliver Cromwell’s troops ravaged Ireland, however, in the mid 17th Century.

Isle of Albion

While the abbey dates back to the seventh century, the oldest extant structure, dated to the tenth century, is the western two-thirds of the abbey church. The remainder of the church and the main abbey complex were constructed in the thirteenth century. A third structure, an oratory with a Hiberno-Romanesque doorway, dates from the twelfth century.

Patmos, Greece

Isle of Patmos
Publisher: Scripture Gift Mission, Francis C. Branding, Secty, 15 Strand, London

Patmos Island, in the Aegean Sea, is best known as the location where the Apostle John received the visions found in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament, and where the book was written. In ancient mythology, Patmos was known as an island under the sea. The goddess Artemis often visited the mainland across the shore from Patmos, at a place called Caria. There she met the moon goddess Selene, who shed her light on the ocean, showing the sunken island of Patmos. The beauty of the island convinced Artemis to allow it to rise from the sea.
Greek Reporter.

[Scripture Gift Mission] was founded as Scripture Gift Mission in 1888 by the printer, William Walters. He was passionate about the Bible, ‘this book of books’, and determined that it should be available for all, so that “people will read the captivating story of God’s love.” Walters began by publishing Bibles and Testaments, including specially-commissioned pictures from Palestine, so that people could relate to the stories they read

Iron Pot Lighthouse, Derwent River, Australia

The Derwent Lighthouse, Hobart.
blank on back (nothing, not enough any lines)

Google Street View (approximate)

Several significant shipwrecks and groundings including the Bombay (1830), SS Lintrose (1832) and the Princess Royal (1832) with 300 free women settlers on board caused agitation from merchants and residents in Hobart Town for a light to be erected. Lt Hill, the Port Officer, drew up plans for a wooden light, which was approved and erected in 1832. It had a timber crossbar and the locally made apparatus was raised and lowered by hand. The light was manned by a keeper and two convict assistants living in harsh conditions in tents. John Lee Archer inspected the light and was dissatisfied with arrangement of light and recommended it be upgraded. His rubble tower was built within the timber framework of the existing tower and was completed and operating in 1833. Despite these improvements, the light apparatus still failed to meet up with expectation and in 1835 a new lamp was fitted. Ship owners still complained the light was inadequate but it was not upgraded. Finally, in 1851, another new apparatus installed, but the ship owners still considered the light unsatisfactory. In 1858 the newly formed Hobart Marine Board took control of light. By now a stone hut had been built for the keepers.

A curious episode happened in 1862 when one of the keeper’s children was claimed to have found a high grade gold bearing quartz nugget. The Iron Pot gold rush was on within hours of their father’s report, however the 200 potential diggers were disappointed with hours of their arrival as no further gold was apparent.
Light Houses of Australia

Then, in 1884, it was decided to build a home next to the lighthouse for its keeper James Parkinson and his ever growing family. In 1885 tenders were called for the construction of a 2 storey house and the keeper’s conditions were markedly improved when the new head keeper’s cottage was constructed. It was unusual to have two storey cottages on light stations but on the 0.4 hectare island, space was a premium. This resulted in one of the most unusual sights ever witnessed in Tasmania. Whilst the gothic style house would not have been out of place in central Hobart, to passing sailors it must have looked totally at odds within such dramatic wilderness. The home itself featured lead-light windows and a cast iron laced veranda. Dormer windows on the second level gave a bird’s eye view of the restless sea and a regular looking front door welcomed passing travelers. The home was built only 20 feet above sea level and made the most of a minimal amount of land. The first and only person born on the island was baby Essie (or Elsie) Margaret Roberts, born to the head keeper’s wife in 1895.

In the same year, 1895, a huge storm arose, driving waves right over the island. The assistant keeper’s quarters were abandoned for the safety of the head keeper’s cottage as they flooded. Full water tanks, sheds and a stone retaining wall were washed away. It is believed that the keeper and families then retreated to the lighthouse. In the morning, there was devastation everywhere. There was even kelp clinging to the uppermost rails of the lighthouse, over 20 metres above sea level. There had been no loss of life and the keepers had worked all night and kept the light going. For nearly 50 years the house stood as a testament to human endeavor until technology made the job of lighthouse keeper obsolete. The de-manning of the lighthouse was announced in a notice to mariners in 1920 – that the fixed white light on Iron Pot Island, Derwent River, will be replaced by a group flashing white light in July 1920. The lighthouse became automated and the house was demolished in 1921. Although no-one is certain of its fate, it is believed the home was transported back to Hobart by ship where it was sold off at auction piece by piece.
On the Convict Trail

From 2005 (my photo).