Trekroner Sea Fortress, Copenhagen


On back:
Luftfoto afTrekroner
Airphoto of the ancient forterers of “Trekroner”
Luffphoto der alten Festung “Trekroner”
c.1940
Publisher: K. Witt-Mollers

Trekroner Søfort (literally Three Crowns Sea Fortress) is a sea fort at the entrance to the Copenhagen harbour. From 1713 until after World War I, Trekroner Fort was part of the fortifications of Copenhagen. The original location of Trekroner Fort was a few hundred meters north of the current one. In 1713, three old ships of the line were sunk to form the basis for a battery. One of the ships was called Trekroner, and she gave her name to the fort.

Construction of the current fort began in 1787. The fort was an important part of the Danish line of defense during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801. The fort also was engaged during the British attack on Copenhagen in 1807. From 1818 to 1828 and in 1860, the fort was strongly enhanced, but its military significance diminished after the First World War. In 1934 it was sold to the Copenhagen harbour services. During the German occupation of Denmark the Germans used the fortress as a barracks. After the war it was used for a few years as a prison for German officers and the former German ambassador to Denmark. Afterwards, it fell vacant until 1984, when it was opened to the public. Trekroner Fort is one of three artificial islands that were created to defend the entrance to Copenhagen’s harbor. (The other two are Middelgrundsfortet and Flakfortet.)
Wikipedia.

Trekroner Sea Fortress is a small, artificial island with two distinctive red barracks, situated at the entrance to Copenhagen Harbour. It was originally part of the Copenhagen Fortifications. Today, visitors have access during summer, allowing them to explore the old gun casements and gloomy, historic cellars, and to enjoy the view of the Copenhagen skyline. The oldest part of the fortress dates back to the late 18th century. Only after the defeat by the Germans in 1864 was it reinforced with the solid casements, ammunition storage and gun batteries. It was decommissioned as a naval fortress in 1932. In the years leading up to the Second World War, it was a favourite summer attraction, with a restaurant, cabaret, theatre and other attractions.
Kobenhavner Gron

Kanonbåde i Trekoners havn,1885 (from Wikimedia Commons, cropped)

The fort is framed by piles and a strong frame structure, that was filled with soil and mud from Copenhagen as well as a deepening of the harbor. As early as 1801, before the fort was completed, it took part against the English in the Battle of the Rhed. The fort was hastily equipped with 66 guns and 660 men, and together with the navy’s ships and some hastily equipped naval batteries the enemy, with the admirals Parker and Nelson at the head, was kept away from Copenhagen. This was, however, not enough to avoid defeat. Again in 1807, Trekroner was active during the English bombardement of Copenhagen.

After the state bankruptcy, there were no funds for the neigher the Army nor the navy, and it was not until 1818 that the king raised the funds for the completion of the Trekroner. It was completed in 1828. The bulwarks were now reinforced with a 3 meter thick sandstone wall covered with granite. In the throat (the backside of the fort), shooting openings were made. In 1838-39 the two barracks buildings were erected at the entrance to the harbor of the fort. During the Danish-Prussian Schleswig wars, the fort was manned by 390 men. During the period 1865-1869, the fort was expanded with the casemate building, batteries with magazines built into the traverses and a mine control station.
Vestvolden.info: The Fortifications of Copenhagen 1886-1920

Mackinac Island, USA


Looking down from the old fort, Mackinac Island, Mich
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Detroit Publishing Co.

Google Street View.

Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan was built by the British Army under the direction of Patrick Sinclair during the American Revolutionary War. Located on a bluff 150 feet above Mackinac Island Harbor, it replaced Fort Michilimackinac which had wooden palisades and was located on the shore of present day Mackinaw City. The Officers Stone Quarters, started in 1780 at Fort Mackinac, is the oldest building in the State of Michigan.
Fort Mackinac was turned over to the United States in 1796. But the fort and control of the Straits of Mackinac were recaptured without a battle during the War of 1812. British forces in Canada learned of the start of the war before the Americans and surprised the garrison with a much superior force of soldiers, European civilians and Native Americans on July 17, 1812. American forces attempted to recover the fort in 1814, but were defeated and also lost two sailing vessels used to blockade the harbor. Following the end of the war, Fort Mackinac was returned to the United States.
Straits of Mackinac & Mackinac Bridge: The Mighty Mac (also photos of island in 1918).

Fort Mackinac was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in 1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to the United States after the war. The fort remained active until 1895. During these years Mackinac Island was transformed from a center of the fur trade into a major summer resort. The stone ramparts, the south sally port and the Officer’s Stone Quarters are all part of the original fort built over 225 years ago. The other buildings in the fort are of more recent origin, dating from the late 1790s to 1885.
Mackinac State Historic Parks

Text and images below from “A lake tour to picturesque Mackinac via the D. & C”, Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Co., 1890

Bird’s eye view island of Mackinac

1. Fort Mackinac 2. Fort Holmes 3. Catholic Cemetery 4. Military Cemetery
5. Skull Cave 6. Quarry 1780 7. Limekiln 1780 8. Robinson’s Folly
9. Cliffs 10. Arch Rock 11. Sugar Loaf 12. Skull Rock
13. Battlefield 1814 14. Scott’s Cave 15. British Landing 16. Lover’s Leap
17. Devil’s Kitchen 18. Pontiac’s Lookout 19. Obelisk 20. Old Indian Burying Ground
21. Distillery, 1812 22. 1812 Plank’s Grand Hotel 23. Det. and Cleve Steam Nave Co’s Wharf

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Rawalpindi, Pakistan


West Ridge — Rawalpindi
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons, Ambala

Rawalpindi is located on the Pothohar Plateau, known for its ancient Buddhist heritage, especially in the neighbouring town of Taxila – a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city was destroyed during the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni before being taken over by Gakhars in 1493. In 1765, the ruling Gakhars were defeated as the city came under Sikh rule, and eventually became a major city within the Sikh Empire based in Lahore. The city was conquered by the British Raj in 1849, and in 1851 became the largest garrison town of the British Indian Army. Following the partition of British India in 1947, the city became home to the headquarters of the Pakistan Army hence retaining its status as a major military city.
. . .
Rawalpindi flourished as a commercial centre, though the city remained largely devoid of an industrial base during the British era. A large portion of Kashmir’s external trade passing through the city; in 1885, 14% of Kashmir’s exports, and 27% of its imports passed through the city. . . .Rawalpindi’s cantonment became a major center of military power of the Raj after an arsenal was established in 1883. Britain’s army elevated the city from a small town, to the third largest city in Punjab by 1921. . . .In 1901, Rawalpindi was made the winter headquarters of the Northern Command and of the Rawalpindi military division.
Wikipedia.

In the beginning of the present [19th] century the city became for a time the refuge of Shah Shujah, the exiled Amir of Kabul, and his brother, Shah Zaman, who built a house once used as a Kotwali. The present native Infantry lines mark the site of a battle fought by the Gakhars under their famous chief, Sultan Muqarrab Khan; and it was at Rawalpindi that on 14th March 1849 the Sikh army under Ohattar Singh and Slier Singh finally laid down their arms after the battle of Gujrat. . . . On the introduction of British rule it became a cantonment of considerable size, and shortly afterwards head-quarters of a division, while its connection with the Imperial railway system by the extension of the Punjab Northern State Railway, now the North-Western Railway, has immensely developed both its size and its commercial importance.
The cantonments were first occupied by troops in 1849, at the close of the Sikh rebellion, Her Majesty^s 53rd Regiment being the first quartered there. The final decision to occupy the station permanently with troops was arrived at by the Marquis of Dalliousie, when on tour in the Punjab in 1851. Since then Rawalpindi has uniformly maintained a high reputation for salubrity, and, owing to this and to its proximity to the hills, it is a favorite station for quartering troops on their first arrival from England.
. . .
The principal buildings of the town of Rawalpindi are the tahsil building. Police thana. Municipal Hall and City Hospital, which are situated at the point .where the, road from Cantonments, an extension of the sadr bazar enters the city. At the same point are situated the large and ample sarai, the Presbyterian Mission Church, and the Mission School,
“Gazetteer Of The Rawalpindi District 1893-94”, F A Robertson, 1895


MIlitary accounts office — Rawalpindi
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons, Ambala

Google Maps.

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World War I, Chateau-Thierry, France


CHATEAU-THIERRY – Le Pont – Entrée Rue Carnot
[The bridge & entrance to Rue Carnot]
c.1918
Publisher: Phototypie Baudiniere

Google Street View.

The village of Chateau-Thierry has lived through centuries of history, and German and AEF soldiers helped reclaim it from the ruins of World War I. In February 1919, the guns that echoed across the River Marne and shells that shattered the wooden rooftops and walls of Chateau-Thierry had been silent for eight months. The optimism of peace lured Chateau-Thierry residents back from hiding to rebuild their homes and lives despite the winter cold. The guns of war had scattered the survivors, but they were slowly gathering and returning. A hotel, hastily but thoroughly rebuilt, awaited American pilgrims. In February 1919, the Great War had been over for three months, since the Armistice of November 11, 1918.
. . .
Chateau-Thierry gained another measure of fame when in May through July of 1918, the French and American armies successfully halted the German Spring Offensive and drive toward Paris, only fifty miles away. The Germans bombarded Chateau- Thierry, giving it the distinction of being the farthest point of their Army’s 1918 offensive.The Allied Expeditionary Forces under General John J. “Back Jack” Pershing saw some of its first European action at Chateau Thierry. On May 27, 1918, the Germans attacked the Allied Expeditionary Forces on the Western Front and by May 30, 1918, German troops were shelling Chateau-Thierry. The American and French soldiers prevented the Germans from crossing the Marne River, decisively checking the German offensive. Thousands of young French, British, German, and American soldiers fell at Chateau-Thierry and the Marne and many Allied soldiers are buried near the Marne battlefields just west of Chateau-Thierry.
Windows to World History


CHATEAU-THIERRY – Rue Carnot
[Carnot Street]
c.1918
Publisher: Phototypie Baudiniere

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Kalabagh, Pakistan


Kala Bagh, Murrie Hill.
c.1910
Publisher: H. A Mirza & Sons, Delhi (1907-1912)

Google Maps (general location).

Kalabagh was a small cantonment in Hazara District, North West Frontier Province on the road between Abbottabad and Murree, in the area popularly known as Murree Hills. During the summer months it was occupied by one of the British mountain batteries which were stationed at Rawalpindi in the winter.
Fibiwiki (Families In British India Society)

Two of the Infantry Regiments are located in the Murree hills during the hot weather, and tlie three Mountain Batteries proceed, one to each of the following Gallis — Khaira Galli, Kalabagh, Bara Galli.
“Gazetteer Of The Rawalpindi District 1893-94”, F A Robertson, 1895

Solidor Tower, Saint-Servan, France


Cote d’Emeraude – Emerald Coast
Les Bords de la Rance – The Banks of the Rance
1688. — Saint-Servan-sur-Mer
La Cale – La Tour Solidor, édifiée en 1384 par le Duc Jean IV – G. F.
The Slip – Solidor Tower
[built 1384 by Duke Jean IV]
c.1910
Publisher: Guerin, St Malo

Google Street View.

Solidor Tower (in French tour Solidor) is a strengthened keep with three linked towers, located in the estuary of the river Rance in Brittany. It was built between 1369 and 1382 by John V, Duke of Brittany (i.e. Jean IV in French) to control access to the Rance at a time when the city of Saint-Malo did not recognize his authority. Over the centuries the tower lost its military interest and became a jail. It is now a museum celebrating Breton sailors exploring Cape Horn.
Wikipedia.

The Solidor tower was built from 1369 to 1382 on a rocky ledge overlooking the outlet of the Rance, Saint-Malo. It is precisely a dungeon composed of three towers connected by curtain walls (fortified walls). The building built on behalf of the Duke of Brittany controlled the river and the estuary at a time when the town of Saint-Malo was beyond its control. A tax on goods transiting through the Rance was also levied at the Solidor Tower. The site already fortified beforehand included a chatelet which was transformed into barracks. In 1588, the tower passed under the control of the inhabitants of Saint-Malo and in 1756, the drawbridge was replaced by a real stone bridge. During the Revolution, the initial vocation of the tower became obsolete, it was transformed into prison.
France-Voyage

Skansen Lejonet, Gothenburg, Sweden


On back:
Lejon Castle, Gotenborg, Sweden.–One of the Historical spots of Sweden, with which many romantic episodes are connected.

Google Street View.

Skansen Lejonet is a redoubt in Gothenburg, Sweden, built in 1687. Since 1822 it has served other purposes. The fortress and the twin counterpart, Skansen Kronan, were built according to plans by Erik Dahlbergh as part of the defenses against possible Danish attack on Gothenburg from the south, and thus had a similar purpose as the Älvsborg fortress. The fortress — originally built outside the city walls — is today centrally situated in the city of Gothenburg. . . . Skansen Lejonet was erected on the site for an older fortress, known as Gullbergs hus, first mentioned in 1303.[3] It was many times destroyed by the Danes, and again rebuilt by the Swedes.[4] Gullberg is the name of the hill of the fortress.
Skansen Lejonet: The Lion Redoubt, Medieval Fortress, Heraldic Lion of Gothenburg (Medium)

According to Statens Fastighetsverk, the National Property Board of Sweden, the fortress was subjected to repeated attacks, repairs and reinforcements. In 1612, Denmark captured the Swedish territories of the West Coast and totally destroyed the fortress. When Sweden regained this area, it needed to set up defences against new attacks. As the man in charge of building and maintain Sweden’s defences, Erik Dahlbergh had Skansen Westgötha Lejon (today known as Skansen Lejonet) built on Gullbergsklippan in 1687. Its purpose was to protect the newly fortified city of Gothenburg and the whole of Västergötland. . . .According to another expert, “Over time in Gothenburg changed from a fortified city into a centre of trade. In 1807 it was decided to demolish the fortifications, but the two redoubts, Lejonet and Kronan were spared. Skansen Lejonet served as a storehouse, first for gunpowder factory and later for Sweden’s home guard. In 1893 the redoubt was fitted with a new four metre copper lion to replace the original wooden lion that had rotted away. After 1942, Skansen Lejonet was left to deteriorate.
Wikipedia.

There are two redoubts in Gothenburg, the thing that divide them is the symbol in the top. One has a lion and the other one a crown. They are Gothenburg´s old defence redoubts from the end of the 1600´s. 1639 in the city council, a proposal was given. The mountains around the city should have redoubts to “insure the city”. . . Before the skans was placed here some other defence redoubts have been at this place. During a certain time the rock was without any defence. It was not until King Erik XIV 1568 gave orders about that the rock should have a defence. Then thing started to happen. . . . Skansen Westgötha Leijon started to be built June 22, 1687. The inauguration was perform by the King XI 1689, but the Skansen was not completely done before year 1694. The architect Erik Dahlbergh has made the design of Skansen and also Skansen Kronan. The walls are 22 feet thick and the building have two floors. Skansen has never been involve in any battle. When time passed the fortress lost it´s value within the army. Skansen was later also used as a place to live in and also used as a storage and eventually was left to its fate
I Love Goteborg

Castillo San Cristobal, San Juan, Puerto Rico


Fort San Cristobal, San Juan
Postmarked 1911, copyright 1909
Publisher: Waldrop Photographic Co, San Juan, Porto Rico

Google Street View

The devastating effects of the attacks by the English in 1598 and the Dutch in 1625 forced the Spaniards to expand the fortification system of San Juan. They lengthened the city walls and constructed a sentry box or “garita” (Garita del Diablo) on the coast to the east of El Morro and also a small artillery platform on top of a hill named San Cristóbal. . . . Following the principles of the French-influenced “Vauban-style fortress” (featuring irregular and triangular shaped bastions) and a “Defense in Depth” strategy, San Cristóbal was built with a deep dry moat and a series of tunnels. These tunnels protected soldiers from enemy fire and allowed the safe movement of troops, weapons and supplies. This enabled the defenders to engage the enemy before they reached the city gate if attacked by land. Gunpowder could be placed in other tunnels, called “countermines” to explode beneath the feet of an attacking enemy. Countermining tunnels served to destroy parts of the battlefield and also had the potential to block enemy access to the fortress through them.

The main plaza of San Cristóbal was the heart of the fort. It is where troops drilled, were inspected and assembled for formal events. Eleven casemates border the plaza. Casemates are large vaulted, bombproof rooms designed with gun ports for cannon. The arch in the ceiling provided strength to support gun desks above and withstand the concussion of shells exploding overhead. Casemates also housed officers’ quarters, barracks, storage areas, the kitchen and latrine. Thick-walled gunpowder magazines were built close by the plaza, casemates and tunnels and were designed to provide optimal conditions for the storage of the powder. Artillery ramps provided access to the main firing battery and the dry moat.
National Park Service

Castillo San Cristóbal is a fortress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was built by the Spanish to protect against land-based attacks on the city of San Juan. It is part of San Juan National Historic Site. Castillo San Cristóbal is the largest fortification built by the Spanish in the New World. When it was finished in 1783, it covered about 27 acres of land and partly encircled the city of San Juan. Entry to the city was sealed by San Cristóbal’s double gates. After close to a hundred years of relative peace in the area, part of the fortification (about a third) was demolished in 1897 to help ease the flow of traffic in and out of the walled city.

This fortress was built on a hill originally known as the Cerro de la Horca or the Cerro del Quemadero, changed to Cerro de San Cristóbal in celebration of the Spanish victories ejecting English and Dutch interlopers from the island of this name in the Lesser Antilles. At the time, it formed part of the insular territorial glacis of Puerto Rico. Castillo de San Cristóbal also contains five cisterns that were used for the storage of water during the ages of the Spanish Colony. They are extremely large (24 ft tall, 17 ft wide and 57 ft long) and were used as bomb shelters during World War II.
Wikipedia.

As you enter the fort, the first thing on your left will be the guardhouse. In colonial times, the guards at this post would control access to the fort and enforce military discipline. Today, they’ll charge you a $3 entrance fee and hand out information about the fort and other nearby attractions. They’re also a lot friendlier! Immediately after the guardhouse you’ll see the main plaza, were Spanish soldiers conducted drills and punished the unruly. But before you walk towards the plaza, take a few steps back and walk up the ramp immediately to the left of the main entrance. This ramp leads to the North Battery, which was added by the Spaniards in 1897 to defend the north side of the fort from sea attacks. Ordoñez canons at this battery, similar to the one you see today, fired the first shots of the Spanish-American War on the morning of May 12th, 1898.
Puero Rico by GPS

Once you go to the first floor, you’ll be in the beautiful main courtyard of the fort. This courtyard was where military drills were held. The covered passageway to the left as you enter has a beautiful Instagram spot with richly colored textured walls and an old wagon. Along the periphery of the main courtyard are several rooms featuring ports for cannon. With thick bombproof walls, the rooms bring home the fact that you are in a formidably strong fortress. They housed living quarters, kitchen, and storage areas. Here also you will find the modest chapel.
It’s Not About the Miles

Powder Magazine, Charleston, USA


Old Powder Magazine, Charleston, S. C.
c.1920
Publisher: E.C. Kropp

Google Street View.

Completed in 1713, The Powder Magazine is South Carolina’s oldest government building. The building was used as an arsenal from 1713-1748 and during the American Revolution in order to defend the city. After 1780, it was retired, and by the early 19th century, it was privately owned. During this period, The Powder Magazine served as a print shop, livery stable, wine cellar, and carriage house. In 1902, The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America in The State of South Carolina purchased the building, saving it from demolition.
The Powder Magazine

In 1703, the Commons House of Assembly authorized construction of a brick magazine or powder house inside Charleston’s fortification wall. This was not done for several years. Public ammunition and powder were still being kept in various bastions along the defensive curtain wall in 1712, when £50 was allotted from the public treasury to build a powder magazine, which was completed in 1713. However, it was not weathertight, and did not keep powder acceptably dry. The roof was eventually reworked, and in 1718, an Act of Assembly stipulated that “no person whatsoever, shall keep in a house in Charles Town, more than one-quarter of a barrel of powder.” From that date, the Powder Magazine became the repository of all government-owned powder, as well as supplies held by merchants for sale.
Preservation Society of Charleston

The Charleston Powder Magazine is located in the historic center of Charleston, on the south side of Cumberland Street, between Church and Meeting Streets. It is a single-story square structured, with stuccoed brick walls 32 inches (81 cm) thick, and an original red tile roof that is pyramidal with intersecting gables. Each wall of the building boasts a large arch. The walls get thinner as they reach the top of the arch, changing from three feet thick, near the ground, to just a few inches thick near the top. There are also few doors in the building, so that in the event of an explosion, most of the explosive force would exit through the roof, with the arches acting like funnels. Sand stored in the roof would then smother and put out the fire.

Construction of the building was authorized by the Province of Carolina in 1703, during Queen Anne’s War, as part of a series of fortifications, but it was not completed until 1713. It was used as a powder magazine until late in the American Revolutionary War, after which it saw a variety of other uses, including as a wine cellar for Gabriel Manigault.
Wikipedia.

Old Fort Niagara, Youngstown, New York


Across the parade, Old Fort, Niagara, N.Y.
On back:
Old Fort Niagara was restored by cooperative efforts between the War Department of the United States and the Old Fort Niagara Association. Inc., a non-profit making association organized by patriotic societies and civic interests of the Niagara Frontier. The Association is dedicated to the work of directing attention to the vast international significance of restored Old Fort Niagara as a shrine symbolizing the history of common interests of three great nations in the evolution from early American struggle and strife to lasting peace; and to the use of Old Fort Niagara for the objective teaching of local history.
1930s
Publisher: “Distributed by and available through the Old Fort Niagara Assn., Inc., Youngstown, N.Y.”

Google Street View.

Fort Niagara was originally built in 1678 to protect the interests of New France in America, but later became a significant military outpost during the French and Indian War and the War of 1812. Standing on a bluff above Lake Ontario not far from Niagara Falls, Old Fort Niagara has dominated the entrance to the Niagara River since 1726. The colorful history of the site began even earlier, and continues to the present day. The fort played an important role in the struggles of France, Great Britain, and the United States to control the Great Lakes region of North America, and also helped shape the destinies of the Iroquois (Six Nations) peoples and the nation of Canada.
American Heritage

The French established the first post here, Fort Conti, in 1679. Its successor, Fort Denonville (1687-88) was equally short lived. In 1726 France finally erected a permanent fortification with the construction of the impressive “French Castle.” Britain gained control of Fort Niagara in 1759, during the French & Indian War, after a nineteen-day seige. The British held the post throughout the American Revolution but were forced, by treaty, to yield it to the United States in 1796. Fort Niagara was recaptured by the British in 1813. It was ceded to the United States a second time in 1815 at the end of the War of 1812. This was Fort Niagara’s last armed conflict, and it thereafter served as a peaceful border post. The garrison expanded beyond the walls following the Civil War. Fort Niagara was a barracks and training station for American soldiers throughout both World Wars.
Old Fort Niagara


Council Chamber of Sir William Johnson, French Castle, Niagara, N.Y.
On back:
Old Fort Niagara was restored by cooperative efforts between the War Department of the United States and the Old Fort Niagara Association. Inc., a non-profit making association organized by patriotic societies and civic interests of the Niagara Frontier. The Association is dedicated to the work of directing attention to the vast international significance of restored Old Fort Niagara as a shrine symbolizing the history of common interests of three great nations in the evolution from early American struggle and strife to lasting peace; and to the use of Old Fort Niagara for the objective teaching of local history.
1930s
Publisher: “Distributed by and available through the Old Fort Niagara Assn., Inc., Youngstown, N.Y.”

The French Castle is the oldest and largest building at Old Fort Niagara and the oldest building in the Great Lakes Basin. It was built by the French in 1726-7 and was designed to house up to 60 soldiers. The Castle, called La Maison a Machicoulis by the French, incorporated barracks space for soldiers, officers quarters, a trade room. chapel, storerooms, powder magazine and bakery.
Old Fort Niagara


“Corps de Garde”, French Castle, Niagara, N.Y.
On back:
Old Fort Niagara was restored by cooperative efforts between the War Department of the United States and the Old Fort Niagara Association. Inc., a non-profit making association organized by patriotic societies and civic interests of the Niagara Frontier. The Association is dedicated to the work of directing attention to the vast international significance of restored Old Fort Niagara as a shrine symbolizing the history of common interests of three great nations in the evolution from early American struggle and strife to lasting peace; and to the use of Old Fort Niagara for the objective teaching of local history.
1930s
Publisher: “Distributed by and available through the Old Fort Niagara Assn., Inc., Youngstown, N.Y.”

The Castle was equipped with two guard rooms, one on the first floor for the on-duty guard and one on the second floor (shown here). Soldiers in the upstairs room had mattresses, sheets, and blankets and could cook meals in the fireplace. The first floor guardroom was quite a bit more spartan.
Old Fort Niagara