Friedrichstraße station, Berlin

Friedrichs-Bahnof. Zum Franziskener
Publisher: F. Schüler. Berlin

Google Street View.

Berlin Friedrichstraße is a railway station in the German capital Berlin. It is located on the Friedrichstraße, a major north-south street in the Mitte district of Berlin, adjacent to the point where the street crosses the river Spree. . . In 1878, the first station was built after plans by Johannes Vollmer between the Friedrichstraße and the river Spree as part of the Berlin Stadtbahn construction. The architect was working on the neighbouring Hackescher Markt station at the same time. Just as the elevated viaduct the station is integrated into, the station rests on large arches built with masonry. The station had two platforms with two tracks each, covered by a large, curved train shed which rested on steel trusses of different length to cover the curvature of the viaduct underneath. The main entrance was on the northern side, the pick-up for horse carriages on the south side. Station opening was on 7 February 1882, as part of the ceremonial opening of the Berlin Stadtbahn. Long distance trains started on 15 May the same year.

“Berlin Friedrichstraße station: the prospective train shed; view east towards Friedrichstraße. The engraving is a copy, enlivened with staffage figures, of the original architectural drawing published 1885” (from Wikimedia Commons).
Floor plan, 1885 Technische Universität Berlin, Architekturmuseum

So when the East Germans built the wall that sealed off West Berlin, they made sure to add metal and glass barriers to divide the platforms of Friedrichstrasse as well. The station became an international oddity, in that it was located entirely in East Berlin, but some of its train platforms and all of its underground services were only for West Berliners. Passengers would often have to make a border crossing when moving from one story of the building to the other. For the next 28 years, it was, effectively, a three-dimensional border, one drawn not between north and south or east and west, but between up and down.
Conde Nast Traveller

(Via Google Translate)
In 1882, the architects Kayser & Groszheim set up the restaurant complex “Zum Franziskaner” in the Stadtbahn arches no. 198-206 east of Friedrichstraße station at Georgenstraße 12 a/13. “This magnificent facility is at the same time the first artistically executed example of the gigantic pubs that have been appearing since the mid-1970s, known as ‘beer churches’ in Berlin folk jokes, in which mostly local beer was served. […] Drawn in the wildest forms of the German Renaissance The exterior architecture of the ‘Franziskaner’ refrains from any attempt to fit harmoniously into the massive and clumsy masonry of the Stadtbahn arches,
The “Zum Franziskaner” beer palace existed here until 1913, after which other establishments have operated at the site to this day
Sammlung Online

“Berlin Friedrichstraße station, east-façade”, 1898 (from Wikimedia Commons).

Pennsylvania Turnpike, USA

PA-110–“Amerca’s Super Highway”
One of the Tunnels on Pennsylvania Turnpike
On the back:
PA100–One of the seven tunnels carrying the Turnpike beneath formicable mountains, six were inherited from the old rail project. The interior view of the Allegheny tunnel, near New Baltimore and the entrance to the Tuscarora is shown. Others at Laurel, Allegheny, Ray’s Hill, Sideling Hill, Tuscarora, Kittatinny, Blue Mountain.
Publisher: Minsky Bros & Co., Publishing Division, Pittsburgh, PATuscarora.

Google Street View (Tuscarora tunnel entrance)
Google Street View(Allegheny tunnel interior).

During most of its first two decades the Pennsylvania Turnpike was promoted and considered by many as “The Crown Jewel” of the American highway system. The highway was spoken in magnificent terms and was touted as a modern example of safe, high speed, and scenic travel. However, soon after the birth of the Interstate system in 1956, the PA Turnpike would become outdated in comparison to the more modern Interstate
Gribblenation (more postcards)

The Pennsylvania Turnpike (Penna Turnpike or PA Turnpike) is a toll highway operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission (PTC) in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. A controlled-access highway, it runs for 360 miles (580 km) across the state. . . . During the 1930s the Pennsylvania Turnpike was designed to improve automobile transportation across the mountains of Pennsylvania, using seven tunnels built for the abandoned South Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1880s. The road opened on October 1, 1940, between Irwin and Carlisle. It was one of the earlier long-distance limited-access highways in the United States, and served as a precedent for additional limited-access toll roads and the Interstate Highway System. . . . The Pennsylvania Turnpike incorporates several major bridges and tunnels along its route. Four tunnels cross central Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains. The 6,070-foot (1,850 m) Allegheny Mountain Tunnel passes under Allegheny Mountain in Somerset County. The Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel runs beneath Tuscarora Mountain (at the border of Huntingdon and Franklin counties), and is 5,236 feet (1,596 m) long.

“Rays Hill Tunnel in Fulton County, Pennsylvania during construction of the tunnel in the 1880s for the Southern Pennsylvania Railroad. This later became a tunnel for the Pennsylvania Turnpike”, 1880s (from Wikimedia Commons).

William H. Vanderbilt proposed an idea to build a railroad from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh that would be under his control, and not that of the Pennsylvania Railroad. After the surveying was complete, work began on a two-track roadbed with nine tunnels. Excavation began on the tunnels in early 1884. Thousands of workers dug the tunnels for $1.25 for a 10 hour day. The construction continued through 1884 and 1885; however, trouble for the project was starting in New York. Banker J. Pierpont Morgan won a seat on the board of Vanderbilt’s New York City & Hudson River Railroad. Morgan with the President of the NYC&HRRR sold the right-of-way to George B. Roberts, President of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Work stopped immediately. A total of $10 million had been spent and 26 workers lost their lives. The unfinished project came to be known as “Vanderbilt’s Folly.”
. . .
The twentieth century came and with it a new form of transportation: the automobile. Pennsylvania was one of the first states to establish a highway department. In late 1934, an employee with the State Planning Board named Victor Lecoq and William Sutherland of the Pennsylvania Motor Truck Association proposed the idea of building a toll highway utilizing the old roadbed and tunnels left behind.
Pennsylvania Highways

The reports of the survey crews were favorable, and in 1937 the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission was established with Walter A. Jones of Pittsburgh named the first commission chairman. The Turnpike Commission was given authorization to construct a 160-mile long 4-lane limited access superhighway through the Allegheny Mountains from Irwin (just east of Pittsburgh in Westmoreland County) to Carlisle (just west of Harrisburg in Cumberland County). This highway was the first of its kind in the United States. Nobody had ever seen a road like this before, except at the General Motors Futurama exhibit at the 1939 New York Worlds Fair. Design features for the new road were:

Four 12-foot wide concrete traffic lanes – two in each direction
10 foot wide median strip and 10 foot wide berms
3 percent maximum grades (normal grades for roads through the mountains were 6-12 percent)
Maximum curvature of 6 degrees (most curves were 3-4 degrees)
Limited access design with 1,200 foot long entrance and exit lanes
Ten service plazas located along the right-of-way for traveler convenience
No cross streets, traffic signals, driveways or railroad grade crossings
The Pensylvania Trunpike: a history

The PA Turnpike officially entered service October 1, 1940 and the new concepts of superhighway design made it an engineering marvel. The new, mostly four-lane roadway was referred to as “America’s First Superhighway.” Planners predicted that 1.3 million vehicles would use the PA Turnpike each year, but early usage exceeded predictions with 2.4 million vehicles traveling the PA Turnpike annually. Sometimes, as many as 10,000 vehicles per day were recorded. When the PA Turnpike opened, it was just 160 miles long stretching from Carlisle to Irwin. It included two-lane tunnels, but the rapidly increasing traffic volumes soon made the two-lane tunnels obsolete and prompted consideration of by-passing or “double tunneling” the seven original tunnels. In addition to reducing travel time between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg by three hours, the PA Turnpike created an economic boom to areas along its path.
Penna Turnpike

Passerelle, Luxembourg

LUXEMBOURG – Passerelle
Publisher: Grand Bazar Champagne, Luxembourg

Google Street View.

The Passerelle, also known as the Luxembourg Viaduct, is a viaduct in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. Nowadays it runs from the south into the city centre, Ville Haute, carrying road traffic across the Pétrusse valley and connecting Avenue de la Gare to Boulevard Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It is 290 m long, with 24 arches, and 45 m above the valley floor. It is also known as the Old Bridge (Luxembourgish: Al Bréck, French: Vieux pont, German: Alte Brücke) by people from Luxembourg City. The ‘new bridge’ in this comparison is the Adolphe Bridge, which was built between 1900 and 1903.

The Passerelle was built between 1859 and 1861 to connect the city centre with Luxembourg’s new railway station, which was located away from the city centre so as to not detract from the defensive capabilities of the city’s fortress. It was conceived by the engineers Achille N. Grenier and Auguste Letellier, and built by the British company Waring Brothers.

Collapse of bridge, Angers, France

ANGERS – Catastrophe de la Basse-Chaine (10 April 1850)
225 soldats du 11e Léger furent noyés á la suite de la rupture du Pont
Publisher: A. Bruel, Angers

Angers Bridge, also called the Basse-Chaîne Bridge, was a suspension bridge over the Maine River in Angers, France. It was designed by Joseph Chaley and Bordillon, and built between 1836 and 1839. The bridge collapsed on 16 April 1850, while a battalion of French soldiers was marching across it, killing over 200 of them. The bridge spanned 102 m (335 ft), with two wire cables carrying a deck 7.2 m (24 ft) wide. Its towers consisted of cast iron columns 5.47 m (17.9 ft) tall.

Soldiers stationed in the region frequently used the bridge, and two battalions of the same regiment had crossed earlier that day. The third battalion arrived during a powerful thunderstorm when the wind was making the bridge oscillate. When the soldiers began to cross, their bodies acted as sails, further catching the wind. Survivors reported that they had been walking as if drunk and could barely keep themselves from falling, first to one side and then to the other. As usual in crossing that bridge, the soldiers had been ordered to break step and to space themselves farther apart than normal. However, their efforts to match the swaying and keep their balance may have caused them to involuntarily march with the same cadence, causing resonance. In any case, the oscillation increased. At a time when the bridge was covered with 483 soldiers and four other people (though the police had prevented many curiosity seekers from joining the march), the upstream anchoring cable on the right bank broke in its concrete mooring, three to four meters underground, with a noise like “a badly done volley from a firing squad”. The adjacent downstream cable broke a second later, and the right-bank end of the deck fell, making the deck slope very steeply and throwing soldiers into the river. Many of those who fell were saved by their fellow soldiers who had not yet crossed and by residents of Angers who came to the rescue, but a total of 226 people died.

The Basse-Chaine Bridge, known as the Angers Bridge, collapsed into the River Mayenne, in western France, just after 11.30 a.m. on Tuesday, April 16th, 1850, killing over 200 and injuring many more.

The suspension road bridge, designed by Joseph Chaley, was authorised in 1835 and built between 1836 and 1839. At the time there was quite a fashion for building suspension bridges in France, but following the Angers disaster, the building of such bridges was halted for over 20 years. On that morning the bridge was being used heavily as there was a military camp nearby. A squadron of hussars had barely cleared the bridge, when the head of the 11th battalion appeared on the other side. The Colonel in charge, Simonet, reported afterwards that he shouted a warning to the men to break into sections as they crossed and for the band to cease playing, but a fierce storm was raging and his words were carried away by the wind. He reported that to do so was usual procedure, but no written order was given. The drummers and some of the band had safely crossed over when, with a terrible crash, the cast iron column on the right bank gave way, crushing those waiting to file onto the bridge. The 102 metre long deck of the bridge then fell, in one piece, into the river taking with it 483 military personnel and 4 civilians – a maid and three children. A plaque erected on the bridge in 1900 commemorates the 223 who died, including the children and their maid.

Repairs had taken place on the bridge the previous year, 1849, as it had been heavily used during the construction of a stone bridge nearby. However, the commission of enquiry formed on April 20th, found that the combination of three factors had caused the disaster – the storm, described at the time as a hurricane, which caused the bridge to sway, the resonating effect of soldiers marching in step and rusted cables. The wire strands of the cables had separated from the concrete moorings, allowing water to penetrate and cause rusting. One cable snapped.
Bridges of Dublin

Image of Pont de la Basse-Chaîne (from Wikimedia Commons)


The following letter from Lieutenant-colonel Simonet, of the same regiment gives a short hut affecting account of the disaster. It is curious that the same officer should be the survivor of the terrible catastrophe which occurred at the battle of Leipsic, when Paniatowski and so many others were drowned in the Elster :—

“Before entering the faubouig of Angers, an aide-de-camp of Gen. Duzer came to me with an order to enter the town by the suspension-bridge, and to draw up my men on the Place d l’Arademie, where he proposBed to review them. I had scarcely resumed my march by column in sections, when the weather, which had been before very fine, suddenly changed to a perfect tempest; a furious wind, and pouring rain. It was then half-past eleven. It was under these gloomy -auspices that I entered on the fatal bridge, after having stopped the band, and broke the regularity of the step, as is usual in such cases. The wind was so high that the floor of the bridge rose and fell from it so much that I had difficulty in keeping my seat on my horse. Scarcely had the section of the advanced guard, the pioneers, and the greater part of the band reached the opposite bank of the river, when suddenly a horrible crash was heard, and the floor of the bridge gave way under our feet. With the exception of the head of the column and the two rear sections, all the rest of the battalion followed the movement on the bridge, and fell into the water. Ah, what a spectacle. Never was there a more heartrending one. My poor mare turned over, left me in the water, and then, suddenly rising, nearly crushed me. I rose and endeavoured to catch her, but Captain Desmarest, my adjutant-major, who was marching behind me, and to whom I owe my life, seizing me by the arm, drew me forcibly lo the left side of the bridge (the water then up to my armpits); then, assisted by some soldiers, I was lifted into a small boat, when one of the inhabitants, an old soldier, received me in his arms in a fainting state. From thence I got into a washerwoman’s boat, and then gained the shore. I was saved, but too earnestly occupied with the fate of my children, my friends, and my comrades, to think of accepting the assistance which was eagerly offered me by the inhabitants and the officers of the garrison.”

A letter from Angers says:—
“The lieutenant colonel, an old officer of the Empire, assisted by the adjutant and some of the men, escaped with his life; but although seriously wounded and bruised he would not quit the spot, but remained to watch over the rescue of his companions in arms. It is impossible to describe his solicitude and his coolness in the midst of ihe frightful scenes by which he was surrounded. The inhabitants of the town warmly seconded the exertions of the officers, who forgot themselves to go to the assistance of their soldiers. A grand musical congress was to have place next week at Angers, but in consequence of this catastrophe the committee have decided that it shall not take place.”

The following additional particulars of this terrible catastrophe, are from the Precurseur of Angers, published on the subsequent day:—

“Every one on the spot vied with each other in rendering assistance, and as the soldiers were got out they were led into the houses adjoining, and every, assistance given. A young lieutenant of the 11th (M. Loup) rendered himself conspicuous for his heroic exertions; and a young workwoman, at the imminent danger of her life, jumped into the water, and saved the life of an officer who was sinking. It is impossible for us at this moment to estimate the number of lives that have been lost; of those who escaped with their lives there is scarcely one but has received wounds from the bayonets of his comrades. Several acts of devotion deserve to be mentioned. Several soldiers who had reached the shore unhurt, immediately stripped and swam to the assistance of Ins comrades.

“Ten o’clock -— The muster-roll has just been called over. Of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd companies there only remain 14, 16, and 19 men respectively. The number deficient amounts to 219, to which must be added 33 dead, and 30 wounded in the hospital, making the total loss to the battalion 282. There is reason, however, to hope that there may yet be some in private houses which may not be included in the number of those whose fate has been known.

“Two  o’clock. —- The number of bodies found up to this time amounts to 123. The names of the officers killed or drowned, as yet ascertained, are Capt. Dore, Lieut. Cottez, Sub-lient PorteDrapeau Carette, and Sub-lieuts. Forgues and Lebreck. It appears that some people belonging to the town were walking on the bridge at the time of the accident, for among the bodies found are those of a servant and two children.

THE FUNERAL.-The President of the Republic reached Angers on Thursday night. The list of the dead was, at his request, given him. He passed the whole of Friday morning in visiting the hospital where the wounded are taken care of. He was accompanied by the minister of war and the general officer commanding the department of the Maine and Loire. Several of the survivors are in a state which leaves little hope of their recovery. The orderly officers of the President have also visited the private houses where the wounded took refuge. The greatest attentions are paid to the unfortunate survivors. The funerals of the unhappy victims took place at one o’clock on Thursday, in the church of Angers; the orderly officers, the civil and military authorities filled the church and its approaches. All the shops were closed, and the town wore an appearance of deep sorrow. The usual military honours were paid as the dead were laid in their graves.
The Hobart Town Advertiser, 13 August 1850

SS Normandie

PAQUEBOT << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique
Galerie Salon
[Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (Company name)
Gallery Salon]
Publisher: Company of Photo-Mechanical Arts, Strasbourg, France

The SS Normandie was a French ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire, France, for the French Line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT). She entered service in 1935 as the largest and fastest passenger ship afloat, crossing the Atlantic in a record 4.14 days, and remains the most powerful steam turbo-electric-propelled passenger ship ever built. Her novel design and lavish interiors led many to consider her the greatest of ocean liners. Despite this, she was not a commercial success and relied partly on government subsidy to operate. During service as the flagship of the CGT, she made 139 westbound transatlantic crossings from her home port of Le Havre to New York.

The luxurious interiors were designed in Art Déco and Streamline Moderne style. Many sculptures and wall paintings made allusions to Normandy, the province of France for which Normandie was named. Drawings and photographs show a series of vast public rooms of great elegance. Normandie’s voluminous interior spaces were made possible by having the funnel intakes split to pass along the sides of the ship, rather than straight upward. French architect Roger-Henri Expert was in charge of the overall decorative scheme. Most of the public space was devoted to first-class passengers, including the dining room, first-class lounge, grill room, first-class swimming pool, theatre and winter garden. The first-class swimming pool featured staggered depths, with a shallow training beach for children. The children’s dining room was decorated by Jean de Brunhoff, who covered the walls with Babar the Elephant and his entourage. The interiors were filled with grand perspectives, spectacular entryways, and long, wide staircases. First-class suites were given unique designs by select designers. The most luxurious accommodations were the Deauville and Trouville apartments, featuring dining rooms, baby grand pianos, multiple bedrooms, and private decks.

YouTube: Normandie’s Maiden Voyage, 1935

Le Paquebot << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. — Le grand hall des premieres classes
[The Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (Company name). — The Grand Hall of First Class]
Publisher: La Cigogne, Le Havre.

Through the open door in its side, we enter the ship, and we find ourselves in a palace. A vast hall of a pleasant amber color welcomes us. The Walls are Covered with Algerian onyx, enhanced with patinated and gilded copper hardware, and take their full value between the ground, covered with black and dark blue, and the very luminous ceiling that constitutes, like beams blocking the hall on all its width, two groups of three elements of molded glass. Four lifts in gilded bronze cages connect the seven floors of the ship to this central square where stairs also converge. . . . Note on the first landing of a monumental staircase, the panel which closes the hall, and bears under the features of the “CHEVALIER NORMAND” the symbol of Normandie.
Brochure: The Ocean Liner Normandie – 1937 (CG Archives)

Interieur du Gd Paquebot NORMANDIE . Le Grand Salon.
[Interior of the Ocean Liner Normandie. The Grand Salon]
“Photo HAMON | Serie R. 102”

Cie Gle Transatlantique . Paquebot << NORMANDIE >> Un Coin du Grand Salon
[Cie Gle Transatlantique . Ocean Line “Normandie” A corner of the Grand Salon]
Publisher: Bloc Freres, Bordeaux (Photo Desbooutin)

PAQUEBOT << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique
1o classe – La salle a manger
Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique
First class dining room
Publisher: Company of Photo-Mechanical Arts, Strasbourg, France

What air and light, beauty and freshness in this room so harmonious proportions! The burnished gold reflection of the coffered ceiling, the mauve runoff that drips the molded glass walls, the brightness of the sconces and the brilliance of the firepots help to create a brilliant atmosphere, which marvelously bathes the 241 flowery tables, trimmed the elegance of 700 guests and sparkling crystals. Eight small unique dining rooms open on either side. They each have their character. Alternating with the glass elements of the walls, marbles of blood breccia frame four bas-reliefs gilded staff evoking the resources and various activities of Normandie, which adorn the narrower parts. This room ends with the lower banquet hall which, in proportion, seems small despite its 72 seats.
Brochure: The Ocean Liner Normandie – 1937 (CG Archives)

Le Paquebot << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. — Le grand salle a manger
]The Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. — The big dining room]
Publisher: La Cigogne, Le Havre.
(Same photo as above)

Normandie’s first-class dining hall was the largest room afloat. At 93 m (305 ft), it was longer than the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, 14 m (46 ft) wide, and 8.5 m (28 ft) high. Passengers entered through six-metre-tall (20 ft) doors adorned with bronze medallions by artist Raymond Subes. The room could seat 700 at 157 tables,[ with Normandie serving as a floating promotion for the most sophisticated French cuisine of the period. As no natural light could enter it was illuminated by twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass flanked by 38 matching columns along the walls. These, with chandeliers hung at each end of the room, earned the Normandie the nickname “Ship of Light”

PAQUEBOT << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique
La Piscine
[Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique
The Swimming Pool[
Stamped on back “Visite S/S Normandie/18 Avr. 1938/Le Havre”
Publisher: Company of Photo-Mechanical Arts, Strasbourg, France

The pool measures 25 meters by 6 meters wide – its walls are covered with white and bluish enameled stoneware tiles. A ceramic from the Manufacture de Sèvres, executed on the cartons of M. Menu, surrounds the gallery overlooking the bath with its frieze. Steps allow to enter the green water gradually, alighting makes light, until losing a foot in the deep tank. The ceiling is violently illuminated by an element of the sculptural composition, made in antique bronze by M. Chauvin, and placed on the beach where bathers meet at the bar, an elegant rendezvous. Mechanotherapy room beautifully equipped, cabins, hydrotherapy rooms and massage, neighbor.
Brochure: The Ocean Liner Normandie – 1937 (CG Archives)

Le Paquebot << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. — Le Jardin d’HIver
[The Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. — The Winter Garden[
Publisher: La Cigogne, Le Havre.

“Normandie” carries a little of the soil of France, its flowers, its roses, its lilies, in this admirable garden entrusted to the vigilant care of the house of Vilmorin, which opens in rounded facade on the front of the ship, above the Promenade Bridge. Parterres, pergolas, and greenhouses glazed along the windows, always carry the most beautiful flowers. Two aviaries, full of pretty birds, surmount, in the center of the garden, basins where fountains flow.
Brochure: The Ocean Liner Normandie – 1937 (CG Archives)

Le Paquebot << NORMANDIE >> de la Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. — La Chapelle
]The Ocean Liner “Normandie” from Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. — The Chapel]
Publisher: La Cigogne, Le Havre.

An altar in sober style shines in the dim light of the Chapel, whose half-cylindrical vault and supports woven patterns blue and purple. In the shadow of the aisles, covered with black marble from the Pyrenees, fourteen panels mark the Way of the Cross. Everywhere are the four elements of Christian iconography: ear, vine, rose, and palm. The atmosphere is that of a very collected chapel, very far from the brilliant world and favorable to prayer and meditation.
Brochure: The Ocean Liner Normandie – 1937 (CG Archives)

Pontoon Bridge, Nowshera, Pakistan

Pontoon Bridge — Nowshera
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons

Google Street View (location).

Nowshera, or Nowshahra, a town and cantonment in Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province of India, situated on the right bank of the Kabul river 27 m. E. of Peshawar. Pop. (1901) 9518. It is the headquarters of a brigade in the 1st division of the northern army, and also the junction for the frontier railway that runs to the station of Mardan and continues to Dargai and Malakand on the route to Chitral.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911

The Kābul river is crossed by a permanent bridge of boats, whence roads lead to Mardān and Chārsadda. The iron road and railway bridge across the river was opened on December 1, 1903.
“Imperial Gazetteer of India”, vol. 18, 1908

S.S. Paris

St-NAZAIRE. – Intèrieur d’un Paquebot de la C. G. T.
Dôme de la Grande Descente

[St Nazire. Interior of a paquebot of the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique
Dome of the Grand Staircase.]
Publisher: J.B. Jonbier

Facebook page

SS Paris was a French ocean liner built for the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique by Chantiers de l’Atlantique in Saint-Nazaire, France. Although Paris was laid down in 1913, her launching was delayed until 1916, and she was not completed until 1921, due to World War I. When Paris was finally completed, she was the largest liner under the French flag, at 34,569 tons. Although not so large as the Olympic or Imperator ships and not intended to challenge the speed record of the Mauretania, the Paris, operated by the Cie Generale Transatlantique, was one of the finest liners put into service, at the time.
. . .
Paris’s interior reflected the transitional period of the early twenties, between the earlier preferred Jacobean, Georgian, Baroque, and Palladian themes that were used in earlier liners built before World War I. Paris’ interiors were also a fusion of Art Nouveau and Art Deco. Many important early French Art Deco designers worked on the interiors and furnishings such as Louis Süe, Paul Follot and Rene Prou. The painter Albert Besnard decorated the dining room with “La Gloire de Paris” and Georges Leroux made a large decorative panel for the smoking room: “Le Jardin du Luxembourg”. The painter decorator Adrien Karbowsky also participated in the decoration of the ship’s library, without forgetting Lalique. The decorating architect Louis Süe participated in the decoration of this liner.
. . .
On 18 April 1939, Paris caught fire while docked in Le Havre and temporarily blocked the new superliner Normandie from exiting dry dock. She capsized and sank in her berth where she remained until after World War II, almost a decade later.

Two years later the elegant Paris was finally completed. She emerged from the shipyard as the largest vessel ever built in France. Now that she was completed, the press could catch an eye on what the French Line had meant in 1913, when they talked about the Paris’ interiors. The ship certainly had something of a magic touch, for she featured a number of styles of amazing and superb interiors. Passengers could choose to travel in the conservative Palace-like cabins, but the Paris also featured Art Nouveau, as well as hints of the Art Deco that the Ile de France would boast six years later. The luxury of this ship was something no other liner in the world coul d claim at that time. Amazingly, the vast majority of the First Class staterooms had proper windows rather than the traditional round portholes. In the cabins guests had a private telephone, which was extremely rare on board a ship. A valet was available on the Paris, and he was easily called by phone and he would be there within a minute, as he was locate in an adjacent room, rather than in a cabin in the second class like on other companies, which would have been far away. Added to this the Paris, along with the other French liners, was well known for their amazingly superb cuisine, which was of a very high five star standard!
SSMaritime (more pictures)

Barques, Lake Geneva

Barque du Léman
Publisher:Comptoir de Phototipie, Neuchatel

Lots of pictures (in French)

The magnificent sight of large wooden sailing boats silhouetted against the backdrop of the Alps is returning to Lake Geneva. A small but growing number of traditional barques are transporting schoolchildren and tourists back to the glory days of the lake. There are currently three renovated or replica barques, which are peculiar to the region, operating on Lake Geneva. They provide a poignant reminder of when these vessels were the principal means of transport in the region.
Traditional barques back in service on Lake Geneva (

Now that the racing boats are ashore for the winter, it gives me the opportunity to talk about the old sailing barges that were used on Lake Geneva in the 18th and 19th centuries. Some of those still exist and a group of enthusiastic sailors have built a replica called La Demoiselle which is now one of the biggest sailing craft in Switzerland, soon to be the first sailing training ship in the country. These sailing barges are an evolution of older designs and appeared on the lake around 1785 and are characterized by two latin sails, a large deck to transport materials and a long flat keel. Some of them sport a small jib as well. They were basically used to transport merchandise, in particular quarry stones from the east part of the lake to the different cities on the other side. Most were built in St. Gingolphe which sits on the border between Switzerland and France, some close to Geneva and others on the French shore of the lake.
Sail World

Barque du Leman
Dated & postmarked 1914
Louis Burgy & Co, Lausanne

(Via Google Translate)
A Lake Geneva barque (also known as a Meillerie barque ) is a type of boat with the main characteristics of a tall ship. These boats are powered by lateen sails (or by motor for the models renovated at the end of the 20th century) and are intended for lake navigation. This type of boat is used on Lake Geneva and was originally used until the beginning of the 20th century to transport heavy raw materials. . . . The boats of Lake Geneva were intended for boating activities and the transport of heavy materials, in particular that of cut stones from the Meillerie quarry in Haute-Savoie. Transport by boat made it possible to transport these building materials to the various ports on the lake, in particular to Geneva in Switzerland. They then used the inland waterways of Lake Geneva, having as other activities to ensure maritime transport and the transit of goods between the shores of the lake, or even commercial cabotage between the various ports of Lake Geneva.In 1900, Lake Geneva had sixty boats in operation. Since the middle of the 19th century , the activity of transporting goods has decreased, competing with road or rail transport, which is in full development.
. . .
Built of wood (generally local wood), the boats of Lake Geneva were designed to carry heavy materials directly on their decks. In their design, the risk of capsizing is sought to be avoided thanks to a wide beam (between 6 and 9 meters). They could thus carry up to 180 tons per trip. . . . The hull is most of the time built using oak beams , the keel is, for its part, made up of a piece of white fir supporting the frames . The bridge, made of larch, is curved so as to allow the loads to be distributed by arching effect and houses a lazarette. The length of the rudder can vary from 4 to 6 meters in total length — rudder and tiller.

The Gorge, Victoria, Canada

The Gorge, Victoria, B.C.
Postmarked 1908
Publisher: Valentine & Sons, Montreal & Toronto

Google Street View (approximate).

The body of water known simply as “The Gorge” to Victoria locals is a narrow tidal inlet that connects Victoria Harbour to Portage Inlet. The Gorge Waterway is defined as the inlet between Craigflower Bridge and the Selkirk trestle. The Gorge has a rich history as an important spiritual place and food-gathering area for First Nations, and as a recreation area for Victoria residents.
Capital Regional District

The current Gorge Bridge connecting Saanich and Esquimalt along Tillicum Road was built in 1967, but that crossing had been used by First Nations for long before that. The first Gorge Bridge was constructed in 1848 by Roderick Finlayson, and consisted of five large Douglas fir logs laid across the narrows. Six other bridges followed, with the current version completed in 1967.
Interpretive sign captures history of Gorge Bridge (Victoria News)

The Gorge Bridge crosses “the Gorge”, the narrowest section of the 10-kilometre-long Gorge Waterway. The Gorge was the geographical centre of many attractionsand activities found along the Gorge Waterway during its historical heyday from 1880 to 1930 – a time when the waterway was renowned as one of Victoria’s main scenic attractions.” .  .  . To the east of the bridge there once were posh waterside mansions, bathhouse facilities for swimming and competition, the finish line for the Three Mile Swim, and dangerous high-diving towers. Steam-powered launches once cruised up the waterway from Victoria carrying tourists to view the “reversing falls”, visit Esquimalt’s Gorge Amusement Park, and enjoy the two waterside taverns.  .  .  . To the west of the bridge, day-trippers from town enjoyed the Gorge Amusement Park (now Esquimalt Gorge Park) that opened in 1905 with rollercoaster rides, outdoor dances, variety shows and the ever-popular Japanese Tea Garden. . . . To reduce the steep approach, the fifth bridge was built at a greater height and was made five feet wider. The bridge officially opened July 6, 1899, and remained in service for 34 years.
Gorge Bridge, The Geographic Centre of the Gorgea

Axenstrasse, Switerland

Galleries an der Axenstrasse mit Blick auf Vierwaldstättersee u. Brisenstock
[Galleries (the open bits on the side) along the Axenstrasse with views of Vierwaldstättersee (Lake Lucerne) & Brisenstock (the mountain)]
Publisher: E. Goetz, Lucerne

Google Street View.

The engineer, Landamman (cantonal council’s president) of Uri, and Federal Councillor of State Karl Emanuel Müller (1804–1869) initiated the first road for horse-drawn carriages. Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. The name of the Axenstrasse refers to one particular part of the mountains the Axenstrasse circumvents and traverses, the 600 m (2,000 ft) high, vertical rock between Flüelen and Sisikon, actually a farmed meadow terrace (Ober Axen and Unter Axen) right below the much higher Rophaien (2,078 m (6,818 ft)). The route, especially in the part south of Sisikon, involves many open passages with rock galleries and numerous openings in the west tunnel walls viewing Urnersee as a result of the tunnel blasting through the calcareous rock. The road costs were 842,000 francs in 1865, half of which was paid for by the federal government of Switzerland. Between 1937 and 1939, the Axenstrasse was altered to suit modern traffic in lieu of horse-drawn carriages, and a lane in each direction for road traffic was paved. Many sections of the old Axenstrasse were also closed to automotive traffic to serve as hiking trails

The road was built along steep cliffs on the east side of Lake Lucerne, weaving through many rock fall galleries and tunnels along its route. Adverse weather conditions are common. Ice and snow can be on the way. Upon completion in 1865, the Axenstrasse was the first way to get to Uri that did not involve navigating Lake Lucerne. The route between the Axen Mountain and Flüelen existed in 1776 as the Landstrasse (country road). Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. It was named the Axenstrasse because the road is located along the Axen Mountain.
Dangerous Roads

Axenstrasse mit Bristenstock
[Bristenstock is the mountain]
Publisher: Photoblob Co, Zurich