Rawalpindi, Pakistan


West Ridge — Rawalpindi
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons, Ambala

Rawalpindi is located on the Pothohar Plateau, known for its ancient Buddhist heritage, especially in the neighbouring town of Taxila – a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city was destroyed during the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni before being taken over by Gakhars in 1493. In 1765, the ruling Gakhars were defeated as the city came under Sikh rule, and eventually became a major city within the Sikh Empire based in Lahore. The city was conquered by the British Raj in 1849, and in 1851 became the largest garrison town of the British Indian Army. Following the partition of British India in 1947, the city became home to the headquarters of the Pakistan Army hence retaining its status as a major military city.
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Rawalpindi flourished as a commercial centre, though the city remained largely devoid of an industrial base during the British era. A large portion of Kashmir’s external trade passing through the city; in 1885, 14% of Kashmir’s exports, and 27% of its imports passed through the city. . . .Rawalpindi’s cantonment became a major center of military power of the Raj after an arsenal was established in 1883. Britain’s army elevated the city from a small town, to the third largest city in Punjab by 1921. . . .In 1901, Rawalpindi was made the winter headquarters of the Northern Command and of the Rawalpindi military division.
Wikipedia.

In the beginning of the present [19th] century the city became for a time the refuge of Shah Shujah, the exiled Amir of Kabul, and his brother, Shah Zaman, who built a house once used as a Kotwali. The present native Infantry lines mark the site of a battle fought by the Gakhars under their famous chief, Sultan Muqarrab Khan; and it was at Rawalpindi that on 14th March 1849 the Sikh army under Ohattar Singh and Slier Singh finally laid down their arms after the battle of Gujrat. . . . On the introduction of British rule it became a cantonment of considerable size, and shortly afterwards head-quarters of a division, while its connection with the Imperial railway system by the extension of the Punjab Northern State Railway, now the North-Western Railway, has immensely developed both its size and its commercial importance.
The cantonments were first occupied by troops in 1849, at the close of the Sikh rebellion, Her Majesty^s 53rd Regiment being the first quartered there. The final decision to occupy the station permanently with troops was arrived at by the Marquis of Dalliousie, when on tour in the Punjab in 1851. Since then Rawalpindi has uniformly maintained a high reputation for salubrity, and, owing to this and to its proximity to the hills, it is a favorite station for quartering troops on their first arrival from England.
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The principal buildings of the town of Rawalpindi are the tahsil building. Police thana. Municipal Hall and City Hospital, which are situated at the point .where the, road from Cantonments, an extension of the sadr bazar enters the city. At the same point are situated the large and ample sarai, the Presbyterian Mission Church, and the Mission School,
“Gazetteer Of The Rawalpindi District 1893-94”, F A Robertson, 1895


MIlitary accounts office — Rawalpindi
c.1910
Publisher: Moorli Dhur & Sons, Ambala

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Bakery, Pompeii, Italy

Master list of all posts for Pompeii


POMPEI | Forno Pubblico e Mulini
[Oven & mills]
c.1930
Publisher: Cesare Capello

Google Street View.

Bread in Pompeii was produced daily in local bakeries. The Bakery (pistrinum) of Popidius Priscus contains four large millstones made from porous lava, traces of a stable, four storage rooms and a large oven which was used for baking the bread. This bakery had no adjoining shop, so the bread was probably sold on to other shops or to street vendors, called libani.
World History Encyclopedia

The Pistrinum on Vicolo Storto belonged to N. Popidius Priscus and is a fine example of a bakery in which the whole cycle of breadmaking from milling to baking the bread was performed. After baking, the bread, which came in several different varieties, was then generally sold on in an adjoining shop, although this was not always necessarily so. In this establishment the equipment for the production of bread consisted of four millstones made from porous lava, a very hard wearing stone that wouldn’t lose fragments and spoil the flour produced.
AD 79: Destruction and Rediscovery

Gate into the Grand Socco, Tangier, Morocco


TANGER. Portes de la ville conduisant au grand Soko
[City gates leading to the Grand Socco]
c.1910
Publisher: A. Banzaquen, Tangier

Google Street View.

The once bustling marketplace called the Grand Socco, is located in the middle of Tangier. Not so long ago it was filled with traders and buyers, snake charmers, musicians and creative storytellers looking for interested listeners. It is still busy, noisy and congested, but has now become a meeting point and a good central point for travelers who want to explore the city. The word Socco, or souk, means market and even though the Grand Socco in Tangier is not strictly a market place any more, visitors will still find a few traders and vendors here. . . . The Grand Socco is where old Tangier and new Tangier meet. One side of the city has wide streets and modernized buildings which eventually taper off at the point where the market divides the city. Visitors will then be greeted by narrow streets that wind their way through the original and historic side of Tangier.
Morocco.com

City National Bank, Evanston, Illinios, USA


City National Bank, Evanston, Ill.
c. 1910
Publishers: Simplicity Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan

Google Street View (location)

The City National Bank of Evanston was organized on the 14th of February, 1900, by Thomas Bates. David R. Forgan, Rollin A. Keyes, M. A. Kirkman, James A. Patten. Henry A. Pearsons and Joseph F. Ward, who constituted its first board of directors. It was capitalized for one hundred thousand dollars and was opened for business on the 21st of June, 1900. The present officers of the institution are as follows: Charles X’. Stevens, president ; Edwin Sherman, vice president; Hnrd Comstock, cashier; George B. Burdsal, assistant cashier; A. P. Rogers, assistant cashier: and Julian Tiffany, assistant cashier. The pres- ent directorate includes William Buchanan, Thomas H. Eddy, J. II. Fall. Jr., David R. Forgan, William S. Mason, James A. Patten, Edwin Sherman, Charles X. Stevens, Charles E. Ware and Rawleigh Warner.

The original capital of one hundred thousand dollars was doubled in May, 1919, by an additional stock issue of one hundred thousand dollars sold to the stockholders at par. The City National Bank of Evanston now has surplus and profits of four hundred and nine thousand and ten dollars, while its deposits amount to six million, seven hundred and sixteen thousand, two hundred and eighty dollars. From the beginning the bank has been located at 800 Davis street in Evanston, where three times the growth of the business has necessitated the remodeling of the building to afford additional space.
“Financing an empire; history of banking in Illinois”, by Francis Murray Huston & Andrew Russel, 1926 p. 255

Dhobi Ghats, Mumbai


Dhobee Ghats, Bombay
c.1910

Google Maps.

Dhobi Ghat is an open air laundromat (lavoir) in Mumbai, India. The washers, known as dhobis, work in the open to clean clothes and linens from Mumbai’s hotels and hospitals. It was constructed in 1890.
Wikipedia.

At first, Dhobi Ghat presents a chaotic scene. However, a closer look brings out the order in the chaos. Lines and lines of washed clothes are hung out to dry in a manner that optimizes both time and space. This is a labor-intensive process, and the washermen, also called dhobis, have a system in place that takes care of washing, sorting, and ironing.
Behind the Scenes at Mumbai’s 140-Year-Old Dhobi Ghat

“I use a dhobi,” explained our guide Freni Avari. “His father used to work for my mother. We are continuing. It’s like family.”

She described how the dhobi system works. “He comes to the house once a week. Every household has a dhobi bag or container where all the clothes are kept. He doesn’t write down what he takes. He just knows,” said Freni. “He wraps them up in a bundle and takes them.”
Dhobi Ghats, the Outdoor Laundries of Mumbai