Student Karzer, Heidelberg, Germany


Heidelberg, Carzer
c.1930
Publisher: Jacobs Kunstanstalt

Google Street View (approximate).

A Karzer was a designated lock-up or detention room to incarcerate students as a punishment, within the jurisdiction of some institutions of learning in Germany and German-language universities abroad. Karzers existed both at universities and at gymnasiums (similar to a grammar school) in Germany until the beginning of the 20th century. Marburg’s last Karzer inmate, for example, was registered as late as 1931. Responsible for the administration of the Karzer was the so-called Pedell (English: bedel), or during later times Karzerwärter (a warden). While Karzer arrest was originally a severe punishment, the respect for this punishment diminished with time, particularly in the 19th century, as it became a matter of honour to have been incarcerated at least once during one’s time at university. At the end of the 19th century, as the students in the cell became responsible for their own food and drink and the receiving of visitors became permitted, the “punishment” would often turn into a social occasion with excessive consumption of alcohol.
Wikipedia.

Established in the 1600s as a means of allowing students to police other students, the karzers were simple rooms where young academics would be sent for minor offenses such as drunken conduct, insulting authorities or staging a duel. The accused would be forced to lodge in the jail for anywhere from a few days to a few weeks, but was still allowed to attend classes and other primary academic functions. Over the years, being thrown into the karzer became a sort of rite of passage for the students, who would actively seek punishment. Eventually visitors were allowed and the jails devolved into party palaces, where the locked-up students would invite people over to celebrate their incarceration, marking the walls with graffiti, often from their respective fraternity houses.

No longer in use, the Heidelberg karzer has been preserved in its original state, including iron frame beds and wooden tables decorated by the etched writings of former students. The walls too have been left perfectly alone, still covered in the centuries-old scrawl of proud delinquents.
Atlas Obscura

(Via Google Translate)
The institution of student detention in Heidelberg dates back to the 14th century, the time when the university was founded, when it still had its own jurisdiction over students. With the establishment of a student prison in the 16th century , imprisonment became common. In Heidelberg, these legal relationships lasted until the beginning of the 20th century.

The colorful murals only date from the last decades of the use of the prison. At that time, serving out the prison sentence in the prison for students was just fun , which made them proud to have been imprisoned here, to have immortalized themselves on the walls with their names and likeness and the badges of their respective student fraternity. At that time, which was strongly influenced by student fraternities, it was customary to arrest the imprisoned students separately according to the type of fraternity ( corps , fraternity , country association, etc.). Otherwise, students from different fraternities could start quarrels among themselves, which could have led to tumultuous conditions during incarceration.
Wikipedia.

Sabil-Kuttab of Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda, Cairo


Cairo – A Street Scene
Publishers: Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo

Google Street View.

Sabil (Water Dispensary) and Kuttab (Qur’anic School) of ‘Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda
This monument has a special artistic importance, for it is a free-standing complex that consists of a sabil (water dispensary) and a kuttab (Qur’an school) both of which display many of the glories of Islamic art specific to the Ottoman period. The building represents the style of sabil that has three windows and which is a blend of the Mamluk and Ottoman styles. The sabil has three facades (south, north and west) that are identical and equal in length. Each façade contains a semi-circular arch, which is supported by two spiral marble pillars. In the middle of the arch is a large opening from which cups of water may be obtained for passers-by (windows for the procurement of water or tasbil).
Museum With No Frontiers: Discover Islamic Art

The Sabil-Kuttab of ‘Abd al Rahman Katkhuda of 1744 was named for its patron, a Mamluk amir and leader of the Egyptian Janissaries. The two-story square structure consists of the fountain within the block of the first level, which is surmounted by space for the school in the form of a two-tiered arcaded pavilion.
ArchNet

Sabil-Kuttab of Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda is a historic monument in the historic district of Cairo, Egypt. It comprises a public fountain or sabil, an elementary Quran school or kuttab, and an adjacent residential wing. A prime example of Egyptian architecture of its time, it was commissioned in 1744 by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda, a local official who was a prominent patron of architecture. . . . Built in 1744 CE, it is named for its patron, a Mamluk amir (prince) and leader of the Egyptian Janissaries, who died in 1776. He did much work in Cairo including developments to Al-Azhar University and mosque. He also rebuilt the dome of the Qala’un Mosque after an earthquake in Egypt. Sabils and kuttabs were almost everywhere in old Islamic Cairo during Mamluk and Ottoman times. Sabils are facilities providing free, fresh water for thirsty people who are passing by. Kuttabs are primitive kinds of elementary schools that teach children to read and write. The Sabil-Kuttab was built using the Mamluk Egyptian style which continued to overwhelm all the styles of such buildings even after the Ottoman conquest in 1517. The architecture of this time was so delicate that even simple facilities like sabils were designed to be pieces of art.
Wikipedia.

Al-Azhar University, Cairo


CAIRO – El Azhar university
Postmarked 1922
Publisher: P. Coustoulides

Al-Azhar University is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo, it is Egypt’s oldest degree-granting university and is renowned as the most prestigious university for Sunni Islamic learning.
Wikipedia.

Al-Azhar began as a mosque built in 970 AD during the Fatmid era, and became a Sunni institution after the conquest by Saladin in 1171. With the abolition of the caliphate and the office of Shaykh al-Islam (seyhul Islam) in Istanbul in 1924, al-Azhar became the paramount Islamic institution. There is no clear consensus as to when al-Azhar became a centre of learning. Al-Azhar is inclusive of the four major Sunni schools of law, the Ashari and Maturidi schools of theology, and seven major Sufi orders. Al-Azhar has been through several stages of reform: in the nineteenth century it was transformed from madrasa to university, with the Azhar Organisation Laws of 1896 and 1911 creating a centralised bureaucracy that allowed the institution’s head, the Grand Sheikh, to oversee its general administration.
University of Oxford: Changing Structures of Islamic Authority

Lucknow University, Lucknow, India


University College, Lucknow
1920s

How a two-room memorial school turned into a 225-acre Lucknow University

For well over 30 years the Canning College remained in the Kaisar Bagh building, but this site was not suitable for the development of a big residential institution. The provincial Government was prevailed upon to come to its assistance and it readily consented to purchase the college building for a sum of Rs. 2,10,000/- to house the Provincial Museum. In 1905 the Government handed over to the college the extensive walled garden of about 90 acres on the north of the river Gomti, popularly known as “Badshah Bagh”, originally a garden house of King Nasir-ud-Din Haidar, and, since the pacification of Avadh, the Lucknow residence of the Maharaja of Kapurthala. Of the old royal building of this garden, only the Lal Baradari, one lofty and handsome gate and one canal are still present today.

After another financial aid by Maharaja Sir Bhagwati Singh of Balrampur, the implementation of a new building started taking shape. The plans of the building were entrusted to the well-known architect. Sir Swinton Jacob, who prepared an impressive design in the Indo-Saracenic style. The plans of the building were considered by the experts to be so distinctive and elegant that they were subsequently sent for demonstration at the Exhibition held in London on the occasion of the Festival of Empire in 1911.
Wikipedia.

Cavalry School, Samur, France


On back:
Ecole de Saumur
Entertainement des eleves
(Samur School/Training of students)

In 1763, Louis XV (via the Duc de Choiseul) reorganised the French cavalry. A new school for officers from all the cavalry regiments was set up at Saumur, managed and supervised by the “Corps Royal des Carabiniers” – since its inception the school has been hosted in the carabinier regiment’s quarter of the town, latterly in a magnificent 18th century building. This functioned until 1788. At the end of 1814, after the First Restoration, Louis XVIII set up the “École d’Instruction des Troupes à cheval” in Saumur. Its activities declined from 1822 onwards so it was regenerated by Charles X under the name of the “École Royale de Cavalerie” (later renamed the École impériale de cavalerie de Saumur). Most of its building complex was taken up with a military riding area and a riding-academy training hall. From 1830, with the disappearance of the École de Versailles, Saumur became the capital and sole repository of the French equestrian tradition, and its knowledge (such as in the Cadre Noir and its training regime in dressage) is still recognised throughout the world. At the end of the Second World War the French mounted cavalry (reduced to several squadrons of spahis retained for patrol work by this point) and armoured troops merged to form the ‘Arme blindée et cavalerie’ (ABC), with the École de Saumur becoming the new branch’s training centre.
Wikipedia.

If the wars of the Revolution and the Empire confirmed the legendary bravery of the French cavalry, they also revealed a lack of equestrian training. The troops were destroyed by contagious illness, the ferocity of combat, and the poor quality of the military equitation of the time. The French cavalry was decimated after the Napoleonic wars. In 1815 a Cavalry school was created in Saumur to reform the mounted troops and to standardize the use of the horse in war. Faced with the urgency of retraining riders and horses, a body of instructors was set up, made up of several great civilian riding masters, out of the Manèges of Versailles, the Tuileries and Saint-Germain. Considered the elite of the period, they trained the officer pupils of the cavalry : In 1825, it was the birth of the Cadre Noir of Saumur.

However at the beginning of the XXth century when the cavalry became mechanized (tanks and planes having gradually replaced horses on the battlefield) the question was raised of the usefulness of the Cadre Noir at the heart of the army. The government of the time could not bring itself to eliminate something which had become a real living heritage for France with the passage of time. A spectacular increase in riding for pleasure in the 70’s saw the creation of innumerable equestrian centres. The creation of the National Riding School was aimed at organizing the teaching of riding in France; its vocation to prepare for high level teaching diplomas and top level competition.. The National Riding School was created by decree in 1972 under the charge of the Minister for Sport.
Le Cadre noir de Saumur

Old Government House/Queensland University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


THE QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY, BRISBANE, Q.
1910s

Street View

The government residential building was constructed to accommodate the first Governor of Queensland, Sir George Bowen, and his family. On 22 May 1860, the first Queensland parliament met. One month later a vote to fund a new government house was successful. The site chosen for the building was a high point of Gardens Point overlooking the Brisbane Botanic Gardens and with expansive vistas of the Brisbane River. There was an issue with the building being built in Brisbane, as the capital of Queensland had not yet been decided.

The two-storey building was designed by colonial architect Charles Tiffin in the Classical revival style in 1860. The front half of the building contained the Governor’s public and private rooms while the rear housed the service section. The front of the house had a plain design without displays of grandeur so as not to affront politicians and country citizens.

The first stage of the building was completed in March 1862 by builder Joshua Jeays. The building is built from locally sourced materials, with sandstone facades, Brisbane tuff (stone) (sometimes referred to incorrectly as ‘Porphyry’) to the service areas, red cedar, hoop pine and cast iron.
Wikipedia (Old Government House, Queensland)

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