The Tower, Insitute Park, Worcester, USA

The Tower, Insitute Park
Worcester, Mass
Publisher: J. I. Williams, Worcester, Mass

Google Street View.

In 1865, Ichabod Washburn and a Templeton, MA tinware entrepeneur, John Boynton, founded the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. Stephen Salisbury II, who donated a major portion of his land for the Institute, was named the first president of the Institute’s Board of Trustees. The Institute would later be known as Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). The collaboration between Boynton, who taught science, and Washburm who taught vocational skills, led to the university’s philosophy of “theory and practice.”

Stephen Salisbury II and his wife Rebecca Scott Dean had one heir, Stephen Salisbury III (1835-1905) who, like his father, became a wealthy civic leader. In 1887 Stephen III donated 18 acres of his family’s farmland that had once served as pasture to the City of Worcester to become a public park. “Institute Park” would benefit students of the Institute as well as all Worcester citizens. The park operated in the tradition of an Olmstedian landscape park serving as a tranquil refuge against a rapidly industrializing Worcester. Salisbury paid for the park’s upkeep and many of its structures, some of which still stand today. Salisbury limited the implementation of flowers and shrubbery to allow open space on which park visitors could roam.
Friends of Institute Park

The park began as a tract of 18 acres that had once been farmland and pasture. Salisbury took it upon himself to pay for the grading of the land and the construction of many paths that led to every corner of the park. Once completed, many structures were erected on the site. Among these were a boathouse, a tower (see Figure 2-6), a bandstand, a bridge to one of the islands in Salisbury Pond, and four gazebos, all financed by Mr. Salisbury . . . In 1892, Stephen Salisbury III oversaw construction of the Norse Tower. It was almost an exact replica of the Old Stone Windmill in Newport, Rhode Island. The Institute Park tower stood 30 feet high and 23 feet in diameter. The tower was only open for 15 years until a fence was built around it due to its deteriorating condition. It reopened in 1929 after the top 18 feet were torn down and reconstructed, but it was only able to stay open for 10 years because it once again became a hazard

The Stone Tower was “located on the highest point of land directly north of the Polytechnic Institute” . A plateau was built up for the tower to be placed upon. When constructed, the tower was made “from granite-rubble and its walls are upheld by arches which in their turn rest upon piers eight feet in height. The structure itself is twenty-three feet in diameter with a clear elevation of thirty feet. There are three small windows at varying altitudes; and at the top, two gargoyles protrude a considerable distance, discharging rain water upon the rocky bed below. A winding iron stairway inside provides for ascent to the floor at the summit, where will be found seats arranged upon three sides; the space remaining being surrendered to the landing of the stairway”
“Institute Park: A History and a Future”, Leonard J. DelVecchio, Michael Swett & Joel Tarbell, partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Science, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2003, pp. p. 13, 14 & 28

Grosser Garten, Dresden, Germany

Palais (Altertums-Museum)
Dresden – Königl Grosser Garten
Publisher: Rudolf Brauneis, Dresden

Google Street View

The Großer Garten is a Baroque style park in central Dresden. It is rectangular in shape and covers about 1.8 km². Originally established in 1676 on the orders of John George III, Elector of Saxony, it has been a public garden since 1814. Pathways and avenues are arranged symmetrically throughout the park. The Sommerpalais, a small Lustschloss is at the center of the park.Ori ginally established outside the old walls of the city, the park was surrounded by urban areas by the second half of the 19th century. Dresden Zoo and Dresden Botanical Garden were added late in the 19th century.

The most impressive park in the region, the Grand Garden, is located at the heart of the Saxon capital. The 147-hectare garden, inspired by its French counterparts, was commissioned by Elector John George III in 1678. The two main avenues converge at the Palace that is now used as a venue for festivals and exhibitions. The Palace is surrounded by the baroque section of the garden. The remaining part is designed as an English landscape park with winding paths, small forests and bodies of water.
Grosser Garten Dresden

“Plan des Großen Gartens von 1850”,(from Wikimedia Commons).

Musumagi (Kissing Hill), Tallinn, Estonia

Tallinn (Reval) – Viru t
Postmarked 1929
Publisher: M. Saarbaum.

Postcards of Viru Gate

Another view of original fountain

Google Street View (approximate).

Locals call the artificial hill on the Toome Hill, in the immediate vicinity of the Cathedral, the Kissing Hill. It was built in the 19th century as part of the park’s romantic design over the former Moscow Rondel at Karl XI Bastion. Today, stairs lead to the Kissing Hill and at the top, there is a viewing platform with benches. Next to the Kissing Hill, there is a monument to the poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson, between the sacrificial stone, the hill, and the cathedral. The place has been popular with young couples who take pictures there. There have been open-air performances on and around the Kissing Hill.
Visit Estonia

Translated from Russian via Google Translate:
Hill of Kisses (Musumägi) is a small (0.55 hectare ) park in Tallinn , near the Virus Gate , between Valli , Viru Streets and Pärnusskoe Shosse. The park was built on a part of the former earthen fortification at the Viru Gate (“High Bastion”), in accordance with the landscaping plan of Tallinn drawn up in 1876 with the participation of the outstanding landscape architect Georg Kufaldt. The opening took place in 1898.

The authorship of the garden pavilion in the park belongs to the architect Nikolai Tamm (senior). For the ascent to the park, stone stairs were erected, and a fountain was arranged from the side of Valli Street. During the fighting in the summer of 1941, the fallen bomb partially destroyed the Virus Gate, several soldiers of the German army who died in battles were buried in the park, the fountain was lost during the war, and its metal sculpture was melted down. In 1947, the Boys and the Fish fountain was built near the park (sculptor Voldemar Mellik).

Church & boulevard, Tallinn, Estonia

TALLINN. Kaarli pulestee. | REVAL. Karls-Promenade
Postmarked 1926.

Google Street View.

Charles’s Church (Estonian: Kaarli kirik) is a Lutheran church in Tallinn, Estonia, built 1862-1870 to plans by Otto Pius Hippius. It is Tallinn’s grandest 19th-century church. Tõnismägi hill has been the location of a chapel probably since the 14th century. In 1670, during the time of Swedish rule, the Swedish King Charles XI commissioned the construction of a church on the site, for the use of the Estonian and Finnish population of Tallinn (as opposed to the Baltic German population). The church was named after the king. In 1710, during the Great Northern War, this first wooden church was burnt down. In the 19th century, reconstruction plans were put forward. Donations of money were started in the 1850s, and the cornerstone of the new church was laid in 1862. The church, still incomplete, was inaugurated in 1870. The two towers on the west side were enlarged in 1882.

Kaarli Boulevard is a part of the circle boulevard surrounding the Old Town. It was constructed as a 2‑lane road in the early 19th century. Later on, after the completion of the Kaarli Church the boulevard was widened up to a 4‑lane esplanade and fenced in on the outsides by a low iron fence. In 1912 and after the trees were planted on two outer sides of the boulevard as well. Therefore, in some places the boulevard got 6 lanes, though, the majority of the outer trees have unfortunately become extinct by now due to the environmental pollution.

Cataract Gorge & Cliff Grounds, Launceston, Australia

Cataract Gorge from King’s Bridge, Launceston, Tas.
Postmarked 1905

Google Street View.

…the Launceston City and Suburbs Improvement Association was formed in 1890 by a group of local men. “They decided that they wanted to make the gorge accessible to everyone and improve it,” said Ms Sargent, who is part of the Launceston Historical Society. “They rowed in a boat up the gorge and they used red paint to mark the rocks to where they wanted to put a path. The very next day they got the workmen there and they got a path from the Trevallyn side of the South Esk Bridge, as it was known then, and started cutting into the rocks.”

By the time workers got to Picnic Rock — which is on the northern side of the river between Kings Bridge and the First Basin — the work was becoming “treacherous”, so explosives had to be brought in. “They actually brought the dynamite in and blew the rocks away,” Ms Sargent said. “150 tonnes of rock was thrown into the river so they could get through and make the track. They started in January 1890 and it wasn’t until three years later that they actually got into the cliff grounds.”
ABC News

[The Caretaker’s Cottage] is perched above the South Esk River, adjacent to Kings Bridge, and is highly significant historically for its association with the early development of the Main Cataract Walkway. It is highly significant for its representation of the Arts and Craft style of architecture and for its
association with architect Alexander North. It was originally constructed in 1890
Tasmanian Heritage Register Datasheet (pdf)

Crusoe Hut and Cliff Grounds, Launceston, Tas.

In 1893, this site housed the Crusoe Hut, but today comprises a viewing platform overlooking the Basin and Alexandra Suspension Bridge. A natural rock outcrop has been
incorporated into the area to provide seating. This site provides important views across the Gorge
Tasmanian Heritage Register Datasheet (pdf)

Tuileries Gardens, Paris

Panorama de Paris. – Les Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Maps.

Paris: postcards from 1900 (more pictures)

Just across the river from the Orsay Museum, the magnificent Tuileries Gardens are a historical place which afford a haven of greenery in the heart of Paris. They were designed by André Le Nôtre discovered by Fouquet, Louis XIV’s minister of finance, for whom he created the splendid French gardens for his château of Vaux le Vicomte. Le Nôtre, commissioned by Louis XIV, is best known for having landscaped the grounds of Versailles Palace. He gave Paris a royal garden which became a meeting-place for the aristocracy and upper classes. In the 17th century it was often the scene of lavish revelry, and remains today one of the favourite places for Parisians to walk. Located within 5 minutes walk from the Hôtel le Bellechasse via the Solferino foot bridge, the Tuileries offer a typical insight of the unique atmosphere of Paris. The gardens have witnessed many troubled times of the French history and contain many statues, fountains and remarkable trees.
Hotel Le Bellechasse

“Plan du Palais des Tuileries initialement envisagé par Delorme et jardins”, [Plan of the Palace of Tuilleries initally envisions by Delorme & gardens”, 1570s, from Wikimedia Commons
It all began in 1564. Nostalgic for the Florentine palaces of her childhood, Queen Catherine de’ Medici, Henri II’s widow, had a new palace and garden built outside the Paris city walls. The tile factories (tuileries) that had stood on the chosen spot since the Middle Ages gave the new royal residence and garden their name. The garden was completely redesigned in 1664 by Louis XIV’s landscape gardener, André Le Nôtre. At that time, it was opened for the enjoyment of ‘respectable folk’. After several modifications and partial privatisation – notably by Napoleon I then his nephew Napoleon III – it was finally opened to the general public in 1871.

Paris. – Jardin des Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Street View.

The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. Created by Catherine de’ Medici as the garden of the Tuileries Palace in 1564, it was eventually opened to the public in 1667 and became a public park after the French Revolution. . . . In 1870, Napoleon III was defeated and captured by the Prussians, and Paris was the scene of the uprising of the Paris Commune. A red flag flew over the Palace, and it could be visited for fifty centimes. When the army arrived and fought to recapture the city, the Communards deliberately burned the Tuileries Palace, and tried to burn the Louvre as well. The ruins, burned out inside but with walls largely intact, were torn down in 1883. The empty site of the palace, between the two pavilions of the Louvre, became part of the garden. Dozens of statues were added to the garden. It also served as the setting for large civic events such as the banquet given during the 1900 Paris Universal Exposition on 22 September 1900, in honour of the twenty-two thousand mayors of France, served under large tents. The Tuilieries garden was filled with entertainments for the public; acrobats, puppet theatres, lemonade stands, small boats on the lakes, donkey rides, and stands selling toys. It was a meeting for major commercial events, such as the first Paris automobile salon in 1898. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, the Gardens hosted the fencing events.

“Gezicht op het Palais des Tuileries te Parijs gezien vanaf de Jardin des Tuileries” [View of thr Palace of Tuileries as seen from the Garden of Tuileries], 18th century, from Wikimedia Commons

Fern Tree Bower, Hobart, Australia

Hut at Fern Tree Bower, Hobart, Tasmania
Dated 1907
Publisher: Valentine

Google Street View (approximate).
Council workshops and later shelter shed(s) were erected at the Bower, but not in the early rustic style. . . . The current shelter shed is built into the bank possibly a little lower down the stream than the original shelter shed.
kunanyi/Mt Wellington History (PDF), pp.30-2

When this part of Browns River became known as the Bower (later Fern Tree Bower) in the 1860s, the scene was very different from what it is today. A dam built across the river in 1862 made a pond, around which grew overhanging tree ferns. It became the mountain’s most famous beauty spot. People walked (or promenaded) along the track following the water line from the saddle at Fern Tree Inn to the Bower, where they could enjoy a leisurely picnic or a walk upstream to Silver Falls before heading home. Over time, rustic benches, tables and shelters were installed.
On the Convict Trail

Fern Tree Bower
Postmarked 1911
Publisher: J.Walch & Sons, Hobart

The Tourists’ Association, of which Henry Dobson is the president, have since its formation done all they could to conserve the beauties of the Bower and at the same time make it more inviting and accessible to across the Straits Tourists. With this end in view Mr Dobson approached the Corporation, and asked this body to assist in co-operating with the Association in erecting a shelter shed near the Bower receiving basin. The municipal authorities fell in with the idea, and offered to contribute two-thirds of the expense of the shed if the Tourists Association provided the other one-third. The Association lost no time in clinching the bargain, and tenders were invited for the erection of a temporary house for pleasure-seekers in a spot surrounded by hills not lofty enough to inspire awe nor to shorten the sunlit day, but of sufficient height to shut out the world beyond and its cares.

The contract was undertaken by Mr Walters, who has carried out his work faithfully and well. The dimensions of the bush house are 24ft by 12ft. It is built on square timber supports, and the back and ends are boarded, whilst the roof is shingled. The shed stands on a space to the west of the storm channel of the Bower Basin. It is not yet completed, but it is intended to make the front of a rustic character and plant ferns around it something similar to the rustic huts in the Brewery reserve. It contains two tables and seats, and the bottom will be gravelled and the interior colored. The shelter shed is on the Corporation reserve, and, of course, will be under the supervision of the waterworks official. The City Engineer (Mr R. S. Milles) superintended the erection of the shed, which, by-the-way it may be mentioned, will be a great boon to ordi­nary visitors in inclement weather. The hut is for the public generally and no special class.
Tasmanian News (Hobart, Tas. : 1883 – 1911), Saturday 9 January 1897

It was a merciful thing that the Silver Falls Gully, immediately above the Bower at the Fern Tree, so well escaped injury by the devastating bush fires on that terrible Black Friday of last summer. The local people say that this was wholly due to the splendid efforts put forth by the employees of the Hobart Corporation, under Mr. Milles’ direction. The gully, with its pair of charming waterfalls, man ferns, and mossy hollows, is the most picturesque and romantically beautiful to be found any-where within easy access of the city. The shelter-sheds at the Bower are proving a great convenience to visitors and picnicking parties. The explorers of the gully have had their rambles made more easy by rustic woodwork footbridges being thrown over chasms, steps cut to facilitate getting over big logs, or else a narrow pathway made clear around them. These things, however, have been done so unpretentiously as to be in keeping with the silvan surroundings of the place. Hundreds of people visit the Bower without knowing what they have missed by not taking a stroll up this gully. The first waterfall is less than a quarter of a mile up, and the second, an exceedingly pretty one, only a few hundred yards further on, whilst having arrived thereat, a short cut may be taken to the Springs, and thence to the top of the mountain.
The Mercury, 7 January 1899

Bronx Park, New York

Entrance to Bronx Park, New York City
On the back:
Bronx Park lies on both sides of the Bronx River between Williamsbridge and West Farms. It comprises a total area of 662 acres, 250 of which have been given to a botanical garden and 261 to a zoological park. Both institutions are corporations managed by trustees and occupying their sites by arrangements with the city.
c. 1920
Publisher: The American Art Publishing Co, New York City, (1918-1925)

This might be the entrance to the zoo rather than the park.

Google Street View (approximate location).


Inspiration for Bronx Park came during a widespread movement to create public parks throughout the city in the 1880s. In 1881, John Mullaly (1835-1915), a former newspaper reporter and editor, and a group of citizens concerned with widespread urban growth, formed the New York Park Association. The group’s lobbying efforts helped the passage of the New Parks Act in 1884, which funded the acquisition of several major undeveloped lands for the purpose of creating parks and parkways. By 1890, the city had acquired properties in the Bronx that would eventually become known as Van Cortlandt, Pelham Bay, Bronx, Crotona, and Claremont Park, as well as four parkways. John Mullaly Park, an 18-acre parkland in the Highbridge section of the Bronx, was dedicated to the park activist in 1932.

In 1891, 250 acres of this site were allotted to the New York Botanical Society. The New York Botanical Garden was modeled after the Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew, England, and has become one of the most distinguished gardens in the world. The garden houses living collections of temperate and tropical plants from all over the world as well as a huge collection of preserved plant specimens. It is also home to a 40-acre “virgin” forest, one of the last such preserves in the city.

The City of New York allotted another 250 acres to the New York Zoological Society in 1898 to build a park to preserve native animals and promote zoology. The Bronx Zoo opened in 1899 and is the largest urban zoo in the United States housing over 8,000 animals representing more than 800 species. In 1906, the city acquired another 66 acres on the southeastern end of this property. This area currently houses Ranaqua, NYC Parks’ Bronx headquarters.
NYC Parks

Rockefeller Fountain

Mitchell Park Zoo, Durban, South Africa

Mitchell Park Zoo, Durban
Publisher: A. Rittenburg, Durban

Named after Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell, the park was established in the early half of the century as an ostrich farm. That venture did not go as well as planned, so it was transformed into a zoo instead. Back then, a large variety of animals, including lions, leopards, crocodiles and many varieties of bird, occupied a large part of the zoo. The remainder consisted of beautifully landscaped gardens.
Mitchell Park Zoo

Horticultural Hall, Audubon Park, New Orleans

Horticultural Hall, Audubon Park, New Orleands, LA
Published: The Rotograph Co, New York (In operation, 1904-11)

The nascent park accommodated a World’s Fair soon thereafter, the World Cotton Centennial of 1884. After the closing of the fair, the park’s development began in earnest. Most of the fair’s buildings were demolished, with the exception of Horticultural Hall – which remained in the park until destroyed in the 1915 New Orleans hurricane.

Street view, approximate location (hall stood between the end of the Alley of Oaks and the bandstand)