The Tower, Insitute Park, Worcester, USA

The Tower, Insitute Park
Worcester, Mass
Publisher: J. I. Williams, Worcester, Mass

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In 1865, Ichabod Washburn and a Templeton, MA tinware entrepeneur, John Boynton, founded the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. Stephen Salisbury II, who donated a major portion of his land for the Institute, was named the first president of the Institute’s Board of Trustees. The Institute would later be known as Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). The collaboration between Boynton, who taught science, and Washburm who taught vocational skills, led to the university’s philosophy of “theory and practice.”

Stephen Salisbury II and his wife Rebecca Scott Dean had one heir, Stephen Salisbury III (1835-1905) who, like his father, became a wealthy civic leader. In 1887 Stephen III donated 18 acres of his family’s farmland that had once served as pasture to the City of Worcester to become a public park. “Institute Park” would benefit students of the Institute as well as all Worcester citizens. The park operated in the tradition of an Olmstedian landscape park serving as a tranquil refuge against a rapidly industrializing Worcester. Salisbury paid for the park’s upkeep and many of its structures, some of which still stand today. Salisbury limited the implementation of flowers and shrubbery to allow open space on which park visitors could roam.
Friends of Institute Park

The park began as a tract of 18 acres that had once been farmland and pasture. Salisbury took it upon himself to pay for the grading of the land and the construction of many paths that led to every corner of the park. Once completed, many structures were erected on the site. Among these were a boathouse, a tower (see Figure 2-6), a bandstand, a bridge to one of the islands in Salisbury Pond, and four gazebos, all financed by Mr. Salisbury . . . In 1892, Stephen Salisbury III oversaw construction of the Norse Tower. It was almost an exact replica of the Old Stone Windmill in Newport, Rhode Island. The Institute Park tower stood 30 feet high and 23 feet in diameter. The tower was only open for 15 years until a fence was built around it due to its deteriorating condition. It reopened in 1929 after the top 18 feet were torn down and reconstructed, but it was only able to stay open for 10 years because it once again became a hazard

The Stone Tower was “located on the highest point of land directly north of the Polytechnic Institute” . A plateau was built up for the tower to be placed upon. When constructed, the tower was made “from granite-rubble and its walls are upheld by arches which in their turn rest upon piers eight feet in height. The structure itself is twenty-three feet in diameter with a clear elevation of thirty feet. There are three small windows at varying altitudes; and at the top, two gargoyles protrude a considerable distance, discharging rain water upon the rocky bed below. A winding iron stairway inside provides for ascent to the floor at the summit, where will be found seats arranged upon three sides; the space remaining being surrendered to the landing of the stairway”
“Institute Park: A History and a Future”, Leonard J. DelVecchio, Michael Swett & Joel Tarbell, partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Science, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2003, pp. p. 13, 14 & 28

Casino & Tennis Courts, Mers-les-Bains, France

MERS-les-BAINS – Le Casino et les Tennis
[The Casion & the Tennis]
Publisher: Cie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques

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(Translated with Google Translate)
On January 14, 1890, a treaty was signed between the municipality of Mers-les-Bains and Mr. Deflers for the acquisition of a building used as a casino, for an amount of 40,000 francs. This was rebuilt on the site of the first hot baths establishment, slightly set back (AD Somme, 99 O 2594). It is a pavilion from the Universal Exhibition of 1889, formerly the Duval restaurant, to which two bodies have been added on the ground floor at each end. This fourth casino is a building with an elongated plan, with corner pavilions, the central part of which consists of a square floor. Made of wood, it has lambrequins and large windows. In good weather, fabric awnings protect the terrace. Its dimensions are 39.39 meters long and 17.30 meters wide and 7.84 meters high under the ceiling in the central part. The cover is in zinc slate. This new casino projects 10 meters from the extended line of the facade of the Oppenheim house (block 15) and rests on a masonry base (AD Somme, 99 O 2594). In 1890, the central body included the performance hall as well as a location for the orchestra, a room for small horses and a coffee room in the left pavilion, a conversation room and a reading room in the pavilion of law.

In 1897, the casino scene was enlarged by the architect Edouard Boeuf, for a price of 1,000 francs. In 1907, a covered and glazed terrace was added on the side facades and on the front facade, on the plans of the architects Dupont and Lasnel, installed respectively in Mers-les-Bains and Eu. This gallery receives a café and a track of ‘ music hall’ with orchestra. At that time, the Grand Salon was transformed into a theater. In 1911, a rental lease was signed with Magherini (owner residing in Paris) until 1922, when we learn that the building consists of: a large main building in the beach esplanade composed of a basement -ground and a ground floor with glazed terrace; the basement is intended to serve as a cellar and equipment shed. Magherini may assign part of it to his personal accommodation. The ground floor is divided into eight rooms including in the center the performance hall and the music hall. According to the Joanne guide of 1912, the curtain of the theater is painted by Chapron. The garden adjoining the casino extends to the main road. There are six tennis courts . . . Requisitioned by the German army during the Second World War, the casino was destroyed in September 1943 to facilitate the installation of artillery pieces
Région Hauts-de-France – Inventaire général.

Panathenaic Stadium, Athens

Le Stade II – Stadion II – The Stadium II.

On back:
Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιον
[Panathenaic Stadium]

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The Panathenaic Stadium or Kallimarmaro is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece. One of the main historic attractions of Athens, it is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble. A stadium was built on the site of a simple racecourse by the Athenian statesman Lykourgos (Lycurgus) c. 330 BC, primarily for the Panathenaic Games. It was rebuilt in marble by Herodes Atticus, an Athenian Roman senator, by 144 AD and had a capacity of 50,000 seats. After the rise of Christianity in the 4th century it was largely abandoned. The stadium was excavated in 1869 and hosted the Zappas Olympics in 1870 and 1875. After being refurbished, it hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896 and was the venue for 4 of the 9 contested sports.

Ruins of the Panathenaic Stadium, 1835 (from Wikimedia Commons

A few centuries later and after the site lay buried in soil and stripped of its valuable marble, the Panathenaic Stadium was set to start a new life as the idea of hosting the first modern Olympics in Athens took hold from the mid 1800’s.

When the French gathered a world congress in 1894 to discuss the concept of a modern Olympic Games, it was agreed that Paris would host it in 1900 to coincide with their World Fair of the same year. The Greek representative Dimitrios Vikelas saw an opportunity and suggested that Athens host the Olympics in 1896, but did so without the consent of the Greek government. The world congress agreed but the problem for Vikelas was that Greece had declared bankruptcy a year earlier and the government could not fund an Olympic Games on Greek soil. Vikelas however was adamant that holding the first Olympic Games in Athens was an honour and something that Greece deserved. He gained support from Crown Prince Constantine and they devised a plan to privately fund the games by lobbying George Averoff, the wealthy merchant from Egypt and one of Greece’s largest benefactors. Averoff obliged and financed the construction of the Panathenaic Stadium, insisting it be built entirely of marble from Mt Penteli, as was used to construct the Acropolis.

The project moved ahead at a furious pace and although not without complication (bad weather delayed the excavation of all the marble required to complete the stadium) the new stadium was ready in time to host the first modern Olympic Games in March 1896. Greek athlete Spyridon Louis won the Marathon race, bringing a whole new level of joy to the country. Whilst Greece of the 1890’s was still trying to evolve following the aftermath of 400 years of Turkish occupation, Athens had taken a major step forward, re-introducing Greece back into the fold of Europe.
Why Athens

Grosser Garten, Dresden, Germany

Palais (Altertums-Museum)
Dresden – Königl Grosser Garten
Publisher: Rudolf Brauneis, Dresden

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The Großer Garten is a Baroque style park in central Dresden. It is rectangular in shape and covers about 1.8 km². Originally established in 1676 on the orders of John George III, Elector of Saxony, it has been a public garden since 1814. Pathways and avenues are arranged symmetrically throughout the park. The Sommerpalais, a small Lustschloss is at the center of the park.Ori ginally established outside the old walls of the city, the park was surrounded by urban areas by the second half of the 19th century. Dresden Zoo and Dresden Botanical Garden were added late in the 19th century.

The most impressive park in the region, the Grand Garden, is located at the heart of the Saxon capital. The 147-hectare garden, inspired by its French counterparts, was commissioned by Elector John George III in 1678. The two main avenues converge at the Palace that is now used as a venue for festivals and exhibitions. The Palace is surrounded by the baroque section of the garden. The remaining part is designed as an English landscape park with winding paths, small forests and bodies of water.
Grosser Garten Dresden

“Plan des Großen Gartens von 1850”,(from Wikimedia Commons).

Waterfill Gardens, Zaragosa, Mexico

Main Building – Waterfill Gardens
Juarez Mts. –  From Corridor | Refreshment Dispensary
Postmarked 1933
Publisher: Curt Tecih & CO
On back:
A place of refinement
Zaragoza – Chihuahua, Mexico
12 Miles East of El Paso, Texas, down the beautiful Valley Drive to Ysleta, Texas. Turn at Alexanders Store 1 mile south to International Bridge and the beautiful Waterfill Gardens in Mexico

Waterfill Gardens has been designed especially for YOU . . . offering the best in foods, music and liquid pleasures. There’ll be souvenirs–FREE–Saturday for every visiting lady and gentlemen. Mr. McKitrick, who is well known by many El Pasoans and visitors to Juarez, is now catering manager at Waterfill Gardens. He is waiting for the opportunity to serve and please you. ?d you know Bill Franklin. Well, he’s in charge of the music. That means the best in entertainment. Waterfill Gardens offers you everything superb–and an atmosphere of refinement and rest. Plan now to drive down for the opening. A good time is assured you.
El Paso Times, 17 Oct 1931,

Waterfill Gardens at Zaragoza and in Mexico across the border from Ysleta is proving a very popular resort this summer. The newly constructed club offers a pleasing combination of genuine Spanish Colonial architecture with the most modern appointments. An investment of over $100,000 in U. S. currency has provided an exceptionally fine cabaret, restaurant, tap-room and amusement center. Situated in a 500 acre tract of land it offers accomodations for 750 guests. Waterfill Gardens specializes in meeting the demands for family parties and it is not an unusual sight to see an entire family from grandparents to the smallest children enjoy an afternoon in the pleasant and sociable surroundings.
El Paso Times, 26 May 1938

Fire Chief J. T. Sullivan and the City Council will meet one day during the coming week to discuss the problems of whether to send El Paso fire equipment to Juarez and Juarez valley fires, Mayor J. E. Anderson said Saturday. Chief Sullivan Friday night refused to send equipment to fight a fire at Waterfill Gardens, Zaragosa, across the Rio Grande from Ysleta. and the famous resort burned to the ground.
El Paso Times, 16 July 1939

Main Building – Waterfill Gardens

Juarez Mts. –  From Corridor

Refreshment Dispensary

YMCA, Omaha, USA

Interior of Y.M.C.A Building, Omaha,Neb.
Postmarked 1909
Publisher: Curt Teich Co.

Google Street View (exterior).

The YMCA of Greater Omaha’s roots in the Omaha metropolitan area are woven into the fabric of the community. Founded in 1866 by a Union Pacific employee, the Y first began its impact on the Omaha area as a place to serve young Christian men working on the transcontinental railroad.
YMCA of Greater Omaha

Omaha was a rough and tumble place in the mid-19th century and there was nothing really beyond bars and saloons to entertain young men. In 1868, bylaws for the Young Men’s Christian Association were introduced to Omaha, giving young men something else to do other than hang out in bars and brothels. The YMCA provided lectures and social events for men. The YMCA was interested in improving the spirit, mind and body of young men.

“The first few years the primary focus was meetings. Leadership meetings, lots of religious study classes – bible study,” said UNO history major Marcia Bennett. As the city grew the YMCA grew offering more programs to young men.

“It was all kinds of recreational activities, but then also education was the major focus classes for literally everything advertising scuba diving you could find all kinds of classes to take, during the Great Depression there was a really wide variety just so they could train people to do everything just to get them a job,” said Bennett.
YMCA of Greater Omaha celebrates 150 years

Falls Hut, kunanyi/Mt Wellington, Tasmania

Falls Hut, Hobart in Winter 1910.
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Other huts

In 1888 a recreational hut was built besides the King’s Sawpits, where the original sawyer’s huts had once been located. From that point onwards, the huts were “a fundamental part … of the mountain experience to locals for over one hundred years” (Lee Andrews & Associates Heritage Consulting, p38). In the period 1890-1910 the hut building reached its peak. In all, through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, around forty small huts were built on the mountain. They were used as weekend retreats, bases for walking and skiing, or even as homes. They were built of local bush materials, with small touches of refinement, such as ornate mantelpieces, verandahs, bush lattice gables, bridges, fern gardens and cellars. One hut had a piano. Some were linked with telephone wire to warn of approaching guests.
Tasmania Stories

[Falls Hut was] built 1897, originally one room, then two rooms built on, the first subsequently being used as a toolshed. A two-level bridge was built here in 1901. George Mason, a well-known ranger and builder of the original Richards Monument, was the proprietor.
kunanyi/Mt Wellington History

Falls Hut, Cascade, Hobart

Falls Hut, Cascades, Hobart, Tas
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Falls Hut, Cascades, Hobart
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Rustic Bridge, Cascades, Hobart, Tas
Publisher: McVilly & Little

Falls Hut was one of the better-known huts which featured frequently on postcards from around 1900 to 1920. Visitors came from interstate and overseas to sample the hut members’ hospitality. The hut was built in 1891 and renovated in 1903 with a new wing and an amazing rustic bridge.
List the Mountain

Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, USA

Fairmont Hotel, on Nob Hill, San Francisco, Cal.
Publisher: Pacific Novelty Co., San Francisco
Prnter: A.F. Broad, 48 3rd Street, San Francisco

The Fairmont San Francisco is an AAA Four-Diamond luxury hotel at 950 Mason Street, atop Nob Hill in San Francisco, California. The hotel was named after mining magnate and U.S. Senator James Graham Fair (1831–94), by his daughters, Theresa Fair Oelrichs and Virginia Fair Vanderbilt, who built the hotel in his honor. . . . The hotel was nearly completed before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Although the structure survived, the interior was heavily damaged by fire, and opening was delayed until 1907. Architect and engineer Julia Morgan was hired to repair the building because of her then innovative use of reinforced concrete, which could produce buildings capable of withstanding earthquakes and other disasters.

Fairmont San Francisco is the city’s grande dame, a Beaux-Arts masterpiece where notable events happen — and have ever since it opened its venerable doors in 1907. The fabled history permeates the walls — you feel it as soon as you step into the sumptuous lobby. The hotel has hosted world leaders, diplomats, entertainment stars, cultural icons, and also staged star-studded galas and internationally impactful events. Fairmont San Francisco earned the moniker “White House of the West” for having welcomed every U.S. President visiting the city since the hotel’s inception. This flagship has also witnessed numerous historic firsts. A pioneer in the industry, Fairmont San Francisco introduced America to hotel concierge services, and was the first hotel in the city to house honey beehives on its rooftop garden to raise awareness of the world’s collapsing bee colony population.
Fairmont San Francisco

Ball Room, Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, Cal.
Publisher: Newman Post Card Co., Los Angeles

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Fairmont floor plan

The Gold Room boasts some of the Hotel’s finest molding and detailing; it is truly a grand space. Elegant trim and gilded mirrors lines the walls and reflect some classic San Francisco views from the tall windows overlooking the Bay. The chandeliers add emphasis to the high ceilings without obscuring site line for presentations.
Fairmont San Francisco room information brochures

Schlitz Palm Garden, Milwaukee, USA

Interior, Schlitz Palm Garden, Milwaukee
Publisher: E.C. Kropp Co., Milwaukee

Google Street View (approximate) (the tall white building is the same one next door to the hotel in this photo)

Beer gardens and beer halls were key early institutions in the vibrant beer culture that accompanied the development of Milwaukee’s iconic brewing industry. Milwaukeeans and visitors from various ethnic and class backgrounds frequented these establishments located throughout the city to drink beer, listen to music, play games, socialize with friends, neighbors, and family, and partake in the city’s famed gemütlichkeit. Beer gardens and halls were also significant retail outlets for the city’s major breweries, who developed these institutions into extravagant commercial entertainment spaces to help market their brands. . . . Prior to the development of Milwaukee’s municipal park system in the late-nineteenth century, beer gardens fulfilled a growing need for open, public green areas as the city rapidly industrialized and grew denser. Proprietors augmented the city’s natural landscape with ornamental plantings, arbors, nurseries, terraces, animal menageries, and other cultivated elements common to German beer gardens
Encyclopedia of Milwaukeed

The Schlitz Palm Garden opened on June 6, 1896 in downtown Milwaukee next to the Schlitz Hotel. During its prime, the Schlitz Palm Garden was one of the most lavish and popular beer gardens in the city. Topped by a 30 foot dome and regularly featuring concert bands, the Schlitz Palm Garden was a major tourist attraction up until Prohibition caused it to close its doors in March, 1921.
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Archives

After Prohibition forced the Schlitz Palm Garden’s to close its doors in 1921, Schlitz Brewing Co. transformed the location into The Garden Theater, an ornate movie theater.

Source des Célestins, Vichy, France

VICHY — Source des Célestins.
Publisher: Levy Sons & Co

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Translated from French by Google Translate
The Celestins spring pavilion houses the eponymous spring in Vichy , a spa resort in the south-east of the Allier department . Vast oval-shaped hall, opening onto the park by seven arches, it was built in the 1900s in a neoclassical style by the architect Lucien Woog. The name of the Celestins comes from of the former Celestine convent which was located just above the source.

Vichy-Celestins is associated with Vichy, a prestigious spa town located on the banks of the river Allier, in Bourbonnais, a former duchy that today corresponds to the department of Allier in Auvergne. Les Celestins is one of the 14 sources (hot and cold water) that spring in this region located on the foothills of the dormant volcanoes of Auvergne. The source Vichy-Celestins is nestled in the park of the former Couvent des Celestins. . . . Archaeological excavations show that Vichy was already a renowned spa during the Gallo-Roma era, some 2000 years ago. The name ‘Vichy’ evolved from vicus calidus, a name that translates roughly as the town with hot springs. Vichy became a trendy spa in the 18th century after the visit of King Louis XIV. This notoriety was consecrated in the mid 19th century when Napoleon III took the habit of sojourning in Vichy to treat his rheumatism, gout and dermatitis! An elegant Neoclassical building was then built in the Parc des Celestins to showcase the source Vichy-Celestins. This building, located below the site of the former convent, was classified as a historical monument in 1986. The source Vichy-Celestins springs at a constant temperature of 17.3°C and is labelled as a ‘cold water source”. Vichy-Celestins is naturally carbonated; it draws mineral salts and trace elements from the volcanic soil, and is renown for its proven digestive properties.
Travel France Online