Neighbourhood of Al-Darb al-Ahmar & Funerary Mosque of Amir Aytimish al-Bajasi, Cairo


Une rue du Caire
[A street in Cairo]
1900s
Publisher: Vegnios & Zacbos

Google Street View.

The area south of Cairo’s city walls, between Bab Zuweila and the Citadel, was initially the site of Fatimid and Ayyubid-era cemeteries. Under the prosperous reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad (between 1293 and 1341) the population of the city reached its peak and the area began to be developed in earnest. The city expanded southwards and many Mamluk elites were eager to build new establishments closer to the Citadel, the seat of the sultan’s power. Al-Nasir himself encouraged this development and even built some of the palaces northwest of the Citadel for his amirs (such as the Palace of Amir Qawsun), just as he was building his own palaces inside the Citadel. The Bab al-Wazir Cemetery also developed next to the neighbourhood at this time, just outside the old Ayyubid city walls.

As a result of this period’s development, most of the neighbourhood’s notable historic monuments date from the 14th century. From the late 14th century onward, however, Cairo suffered from the Black Plague and its population declined and did not recover until centuries later. Nonetheless, the area did develop further during the Ottoman period. The Qasaba of Radwan Bey (now part of the Tentmakers’ Street), for example, was a commercial urban complex developed in the 17th century along the old Qasaba road (now al-Mu’izz Street) and partly aimed at promoting urbanization of the area. The area received further urbanization impetus during the 19th century when Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha again redeveloped the nearby Citadel as a seat of power. He granted various plots of land in al-Darb al-Ahmar to important army officers who were thus encouraged to build in the area. The district was a center of craftsmanship for generations, but in recent years it has suffered from the liberalization of Egypt’s economy and the neighbourhood is hampered by poverty
Wikipedia.

Aytmish was an emir of Sultan Barquq who became a regent for Barquq’s son Farag, and subsequently fled Cairo when Farag came to power and was killed in Damascus in 1400/802 AH. His foundation here includes a mosque, tomb chamber, and sabil, along with funduq/rab adjacent to the mosque which may survive partially in the structure to the right of the main facade. A seperate haw-kuttab outside of the Bab al-Wazir were also included in the foundation. The (empty) tomb chamber has a distinctive brick and plaster dome, with ribs that rise straight up for the first quarter of the dome, then bend to the right and spiral up to the top, an example of the experimentation with ribbing that was popular from 1360 to 1400. . . The grille below is not original and the ground level has now risen above the bottom of the window. The Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe restored the stonework on the main facade. The interior of the mosque is plain, and is in use as a neighborhood mosque. There is a newly-tiled mihrab, a damaged painted wooden ceiling over the main iwan, and a roof with a lantern over the courtyard.
ArchNet

Safi, Morocco


SAFI. – La Grande Mosquée et la Rade
[The Grand Mosque and the Roadstead (harbour)]

Google Street View.

Built in the 12th century by the Almoravids as a place of worship, the Great Mosque of Safi has had a turbulent history. It has seen different civilizations come and go, it has been destroyed, rebuilt, and fallen into disrepair again, and for a period even served as a horse stable. Now, nearly nine centuries later, this important part of the Moroccan cultural heritage has been renovated and returned to its former glory. Just one mystery remains: why is the minaret separate from the rest of the mosque?
Marocopedia (video)

(Via Google Tranlate)
In the 15th century, Safi opened up to European trade. The Portuguese even appreciated its natural harbor so well that they seized it in 1488, by a combined operation, by land and by sea, mounted from their base in Mogador (Essaouira). Around the city, they raise a wall and build a fortress by the sea. But this occupation does not last long, because from 1541, the Portuguese who have just lost the city of Agadir evacuate Safi voluntarily. This does not interrupt trade with Europe, which on the contrary is intensifying. The French have their part in it. After 1541, the city played a major role in Morocco, as one of the safest and largest seaports in the country. . . . After Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah built the city of Mogador , he prohibited foreign trade in all Moroccan ports except his newly built city. Consequently, Safi ceased to play a leading role in Moroccan trade.
Wikipedia.

Mosque & Masoleum of Sidi Abderrahmane, Algiers

Master list for Algiers


Alger – La Mosquée de Sidi Abderhaman
1920s
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

Sidi Abderrahmane is a mosque and mausoleum named after the city’s patron saint. The main building was constructed in 1627, and the mosque where locals pray was added in 1696. The mosque also has a small graveyard, where some very notable people are buried, including Sidi Abderrahmane himself.
GPSMyCity

It was decided in 1020 H/1611 that the sepulchre of Sidi Abdarrahman al-Thaalibi, the patron saint of Al-Djazair, who died in AH 877/AD 1470, should be covered with a qubba (dome). Later on, in AH 1108/AD 1696, Dey al-Hadj Ahmad al-Atchi ordered the square mausoleum to be transformed into a prayer hall, notably through the introduction of a mihrab. Four pairs of columns that are semi-engaged in the walls enable the transition from a square layout to an octagonal one, to accommodate the dome that covers the hall. As well as the two marble columns that flank it on either side, the mihrab is decorated with faïence tiles. The qubba encloses a certain number of sepulchres, including those of Sidi Abdarrahman and Sidi Boudjemaa, and the function and living quarters and buildings could have been constructed with the revenues from the zawiya. Within the enclosure, a small cemetery holds the tombs of illustrious or notable persons such as Sidi Boudouma, Sidi Ouaddah or Dey ‘Umar.
Museum With No Frontiers: Discover Islamic Art

Sultan Hassan, Al-Rifa’i & Al-Mahmoudia Mosques, Cairo, Egypt


Cairo – The Mosque Sultan Hassan, El Rifaieh and El Mahmoudieh
“1930” is written on the back, this seems likely.
Publishers: Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo

(left) Mosque of Sultan Hassan

(centre) Al-Rifa’i Mosque

(right)Al-Mahmoudia Mosque

Al-Mahmoudia Mosque or the Mosque of Mahmud Pasha is a historic mosque in the city of Cairo, Egypt. . . . The mosque dates back to the Ottoman era in 1567 during the administration of Mahmud Pasha who is buried in the mosque. The name of the mosque is derived from him.The mosque is attached with the mausoleum of Mahmud Pasha which is accessible through the door on the mihrab wall. Mahmud Pasha was shot dead near the mosque after being accused of oppressing the Egyptian people.

The design of the mosque is unique in its architectural style which follows the Mamluk tradition for the main building and partly based on the Ottoman architecture for the minaret in particular. The minaret is decorated with a ring with muqarnas and a cone shaped obelisk on top. It is noted to be smaller than the other mosques in the same area, and it is partly due to the building was built on top of the pile of stones, and it is required to climb up stairs to the mosque. The mosque has four sides, and two of them have entrance gate on it. The gates are ornamented with two lines of windows filled with plasters and maroon glass works, with muqarnas on top of them facing toward the balconies.
Wikipedia.

The mosque built by Mahmud Pasha in 1567 is an early Cairene Ottoman official religious architecture which follows the Mamluk tradition. The positioning of the domed burial chamber behind the prayer hall to face the Citadel and the construction of the minaret on a semicircular buttress protruding from a corner next to the mausoleum show that it used the nearby Madrasa of Sultan Hasan as its model. The minaret, however, is Ottoman.
ArchNet

Al-Rifa’i Mosque, Cairo


CAIRO – The Mosque El Rifaiyeh
Publisher: Lehnert & Landrock (1904+)

Google Street View.

Al-Rifa’i Mosque is located in Midan al-Qal’a adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. Now, it is also the royal mausoleum of Muhammad Ali’s family. The building is located opposite the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, which dates from around 1361, and was architecturally conceived as a complement to the older structure. This was part of a vast campaign by the 19th century rulers of Egypt to both associate themselves with the perceived glory of earlier periods in Egypt’s Islamic history and modernize the city. The mosque was constructed next to two large public squares and off of several European style boulevards constructed around the same time. The Al-Rifa’i Mosque was constructed in two phases over the period between 1869 and 1912 when it was finally completed.
Wikipedia.

The original structure was a Fatimid mosque, which was then transformed into a shrine for Ali abu Sheibak. Finally, Ottoman queen Kosheir Hanim commissioned the current design of the mosque and put in charge of the construction the architect Hussein Pasha Fahmi. Part of the plan was to have a mausoleum for the royal family as part of the extension, which was made by imported building materials from Europe, such as Italian marble. In addition to traditional raw materials, cement has also been employed in the construction of the mosque—a first for any Islamic monument in Egypt—signaling the transition into modern times.
Ministry of Tourism & Antiquities: Egypt’s Monuments

This monument represents a turning point in the cultural and political history of Egypt. It looks onto straight boulevards and open squares, two aspects of European city planning introduced during the reign of Muhammad ‘Ali and his successors, who sought to transform Egypt’s traditional society into a cosmopolitan one. Designed as a free-standing monument, the Mosque of al-Rifa’i responds to its site by presenting four fully articulated facades in addition to a highly decorated, Mamluk-style dome and minaret.
ArchNet

Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, Ahmedabad, India


Carved Windows, Ahmedabad
c.1910

Google Street View

Early in Ahmedabad’s history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion. Sidi Saiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches.
Wikipedia

This screen was basically made so that the mosque remains fully lighted from inside at all times of the day. The size of this artistic jali is around 16 feet and is in semi circular shape. It is situated at the height of around 20 feet above the ground level. The art work on these jails is so fine that a magnifying glass is required to view its internal intricate design in detail. The design consists of the flowers arrangement in various symmetrical shapes. They are made of smooth white stones and the fine engraving is done with human hands. Sadly, there does not seem to be any information about the actual craftsman who designed the jali. But it took around six years to get each of these jalis completed. Around 45 main artists worked on it, day and night.
The Symbol of Ahmedabad

The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, is a sublime ode in stone to the extraordinary architectural legacy of the African diaspora in India. Although their forefathers were originally brought to India as slaves and maritime laborers, the descendants of these Africans rose to positions of power as military commanders in the armies of the sultans and became great patrons of art and architecture. Called Sidis (or Siddis), an appellation of Africans, or Habshis, from the Arabic-Persian word for “people from Abyssinia or Ethiopia,” one of them was Shaykh Sayyid al-Habshi Sultani, or Sidi Saiyyed, who constructed his eponymous mosque.

Built in 1573, the last year of the Gujarat Sultanate before the Mughals invaded, the mosque is one of the finest specimens of the prodigious architectural accomplishments of the Sidis in India. Situated in the heart of the 600-year-old walled city of Ahmedabad, the design of the mosque is entirely in the arcuate system of construction, involving arches, domes, squinches, and vaults. The mosque is set up like a theatre without a fourth wall, celebrated for the intricately carved filigree work on its jalis (screen windows).
Atlas Obscura

Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia


The Ubad Aiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsa
1930s

Google Street View.

The most beautiful mosque in Perak is situated besides the Bukit Chandan Royal Mausoleum, Kuala Kangsar. The mosque was built at the royal command of Sultan Idris Murshidul Azam Shah, the 28th Sultan Perak (1887 – 1916) to fulfil his Royal Highness’ religious vow. Perak Government then instructed Colonel Huxley from the Public Services Office in Kuala Lumpur to design the plan for the mosque. The responsibility fell to Hubbeclk, a civil architect, and the building of the mosque was the responsibility of Caulfield who was Perak chief engineer at that time. On Friday, 26 September 1913, Sultan Idris Murshidul Azam Shah, set the foundation stone for the mosque. The building activity was interrupted for a few years due to the damage to the marbles caused by two elephants belonging to Sultan Idris and Raja Chulan.
The order of the marbles from Italy was interrupted caused by the World War I. In 1917, the most beautiful mosque in Perak was officially opened by Sultan Abdul Jalil Nasaruddin Shah, who replaced Sultan Idris who passed away in 1916. The cost of building the mosque at that time was estimated at RM200,000.

Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council

The mosque was built during the reign of the 28th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Idris Murshidul Adzam Shah I Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar Teja, who commission its construction as thanksgiving for his recovery from an illness that plagued him in his later years. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on 26 September 1913. The construction of the mosque was interrupted several times, once when two elephants belonging to the sultan’s and Raja Chulan fought, ran over and damaged the Italian marble tiles. The outbreak of the first world war also affected its construction. The mosque was finally completed in late 1917 at a total cost of $24,000 or RM200,000 – a considerable sum at that time. It was officially declared open by Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamtullah Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Adzam Shah I Rahmatullah, successor to Sultan Idris who had died during its construction.
Wikipedia.

The Ubudiah Mosque was the brainchild of the 28th Sultan of Perak, Sultan Idris Murshidul’adzam Shah (1887-1916). Legend has it that following his return from England in 1911 (His Highness went to England to witness the coronation of King George V), His Highness the Sultan fell ill. He chose to stay in Port Dickson for respite. Whilst convalescing in Port Dickson, he made a vow to build a mosque in Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar, if he fully recuperated as thanksgiving. After his return to Kuala Kangsar when his health greatly improved, His Highness commanded Colonel Huxley of the Public Works Department, Kuala Lumpur, to design a mosque which he wanted to build.
Heritage Buildings of Malaysia

Nabi Daniel Mosque, Alexandria, Egypt


ALEXANDRIA. – Nebi Daniel Mosque.
c.1910
Publisher: Livadas & Coutsicos

Google Maps.

The present Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria built at the end of the 18th century. It restored in 1823 by Mohammad Ali. A smaller shrine preexisted on the site. It maybe was the mosque of Dzoul Karnein – the Sire with the two horns -. In fact, Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria contains the remains of the scholar and venerated teacher Prophet Daniel. It also has his companion Sidi Lokman el Hakim, a religious story teller. The Arab legend of the Prophet Daniel appeared during the 9th century He told by two astronomers: Mohammad Ibn Kathir el Farghani and Abou Ma’shar. It mentioned that “a young Jew, Daniel persecuted and chased from Syria. It was by the idolaters whom he tried to convert. Moreover, an old man appeared in a dream urging him to go to war. The war was against the infidels and promising victory over all Asia. In fact . Nabi Daniel acquired many followers in Egypt. It is where he sought refuge and built Alexandria.
Alexandria Portal

In our search for the tomb of Alexander the Great, it should be noted that the ancient city of Alexandria has been sacked many times which, together with other calamities, led to its eventual and almost total decline. . . . In 1803, a Russian prelate from Kieve, the archimandrite Konstantios, attempted to find the tomb, but advises us that, “until the 15th century the location was known, but now even the tradition of the tomb has been lost”. Of course, the tomb was almost certainly lost far earlier than the 15th century. As our modern era overtook ancient times, while no one knew the true location of Alexander the Great’s tomb, local tour guides in Egypt, doubtless due to the repeated requests of tourists, found it prudent to produce such a tomb. Two such buildings found favor amongst these natives, which were not chosen at random, but because of local traditions surrounding the actual tomb. To the earliest of these visitors, they presented the old church of St. Athanasius, which would eventually become the mosque of Attarine. This was very convenient, for in its inner court stood a granite sarcophagus covered with hieroglyphs. . . . The other building that was shown as the tomb of Alexander by the early guides was the Mosque of Nabi Danial, not far away from the Attarine Mosque.
. . .
Mahmoud Bey el Falaki, a noted Egyptian astronomer and engineer, visited the crypt under the Nabi Danial Mosque some ten years after Scilitzis, and reported entering a large room with an arched roof built on the ground level of the ancient city. From this paved room he records that inclined corridors branched out in four different directions. He stated that, “Because of their length and their bad state I could not survey them entirely. The rich quality of the stones used in the construction confirmed my belief that these subterranean passages must have led to the tomb of Alexander the Great”. El Falaki wished to pursue his investigations, but was not an archaeologist and he was forbidden to do so by his superiors. Various wild tales continued to be told however, about this crypt for many years to come.
Tour Egypt: In Search of Alexander the Great

Mosque of Sultan Hassan, Cairo


Cairo – Mosque of Sultan Hassan

Published: Lehnert & Landrock, Cairo


Le Caire — Intérieur de la Mosquée Sultan Hassan
Cairo — Interior of the Mosque of Sultan Hassan
Published: Vegnios & Zachos

Google Maps.

Floor plan (Wikipedia Commons)

360 Cities (360o view of interior)

The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is a monumental mosque and madrassa located in the historic district of Cairo, Egypt. It was built between 1356 and 1363 during the Bahri Mamluk period, commissioned by Sultan an-Nasir Hasan. The mosque was considered remarkable for its massive size and innovative architectural components, and is still considered one of the most impressive historic monuments in Cairo today.

The mosque’s construction is considered all the more remarkable as it coincided with the devastation wrought by the Black Plague, which struck Cairo repeatedly from the mid-14th century onwards. Its construction began in 1356 CE (757 AH) and work proceeded for three years “without even a single day of idleness”. In fact, work appears to have continued even up to 1363, even after Sultan Hasan’s death, before eventually ceasing. An inscription on the mosque notes the name of amir Muhammad ibn Biylik al-Muhsini as the supervisor of the construction of the mosque. Unusually, his name was placed near Sultan Hasan’s in the inscription, which demonstrates how important the undertaking of the project must have been.
Wikipedia

The Complex of Sultan Hasan was built between 1356 and 1363, and included a madrasa, congregational mosque, and mausoleum. The free-standing complex, which had a monumental domed mausoleum flanked by minarets, only one of which survives, is located in a prominent position below the Citadel, toward which the monumental portal is oriented. The muqarnas-hood portal occupies the entire length of the façade. The height of the exterior walls and the arrangement of the windows give the facades a strongly vertical emphasis.
Archnet

Built between 1356 and 1363 by the Mamluk ruler Sultan Hassan, the scale of the mosque is so colossal that it nearly emptied the vast Mamluk Treasury. Historians believe that the builders of this mosque may have used stone from the pyramids at Giza. Early in construction, some design flaws in the colossal plans became apparent. There was going to be a minaret at each corner, but this was abandoned after the one directly above the entrance collapsed, killing 300 people. Another minaret toppled in 1659, then the weakened dome collapsed. The early history witnessed by the mosque was as unstable as its architecture: Hassan was assassinated in 1391, two years before completion, and the roof was used as an artillery platform during coups against sultans Barquq (1391) and Tumanbey (1517).
Sacred Destinations.