Cathedral, Cologne, Germany

CÖLN a. Rh.
Dom – Südseite (160 m hoch)
Grundsteinlegung 15. August 1248. Vollendet 15. Okt. 1880.
Baukosten seit 1824: 20¾ Millionon
[Cathedral – south side (160 m high) Foundation stone laid August 15, 1248. Completed Oct. 15, 1880. Building costs since 1824: 20¾ million]
Publisher “Dr. Trenkler Co.”

Google Street View.

Virtual tour (in German)

“Cologne Cathedral on September 4th, 1842, cornerstone ceremony for the restart of construction work,” Georg Osterwald, 1842 (from Wikimedia Commons)

Begun in 1248, the building of this Gothic masterpiece took place in several stages and was not completed until 1880. Over seven centuries, its successive builders were inspired by the same faith and by a spirit of absolute fidelity to the original plans. Apart from its exceptional intrinsic value and the artistic masterpieces it contains, Cologne Cathedral bears witness to the strength and endurance of European Christianity. No other Cathedral is so perfectly conceived, so uniformly and uncompromisingly executed in all its parts.

Cologne Cathedral is a High Gothic five-aisled basilica (144.5 m long), with a projecting transept (86.25 m wide) and a tower façade (157.22 m high). The nave is 43.58 m high and the side-aisles 19.80 m. The western section, nave and transept begun in 1330, changes in style, but this is not perceptible in the overall building. The 19th century work follows the medieval forms and techniques faithfully, as can be seen by comparing it with the original medieval plan on parchment.

At 157 m (515 ft), the cathedral is currently the tallest twin-spired church in the world, the second tallest church in Europe after Ulm Minster, and the third tallest church in the world. It is the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe and has the second-tallest spires. The towers for its two huge spires give the cathedral the largest façade of any church in the world. The choir has the largest height-to-width ratio, 3.6:1, of any medieval church.

Construction of Cologne Cathedral began in 1248 but was halted in the years around 1560, unfinished. Work did not restart until the 1840s, and the edifice was completed to its original Medieval plan in 1880. Cologne’s medieval builders had planned a grand structure to house the reliquary of the Three Kings and fit its role as a place of worship for the Holy Roman Emperor. Despite having been left incomplete during the medieval period, Cologne Cathedral eventually became unified as “a masterpiece of exceptional intrinsic value” and “a powerful testimony to the strength and persistence of Christian belief in medieval and modern Europe”. Only the telecommunications tower is higher than the Cathedral

Construction of cathedral, 1855 (from Wikimedia Commons)

Innsbruck, Austria

Kloster Wilten-Innsbruck
Publisher: C. Lampe [? covered by writing], Innsbruck

Google Street View.

Innsbruck, the “Bridge over the Inn”, is the capital of Austria’s Tirol and home to one of Europe’s most delightful historic old town centres. Surrounded by the craggy peaks of the Austrian Alps, it scores both as an Alpine playground and as a showcase for Habsburg Empire heritage.
Tyrol, Austra

(Via Google Translate)
Wilten Abbey is a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1138 by Bishop Reginbert von Brixen in Wilten , a district of Innsbruck at the foot of the Bergisel , the capital of the Austrian state of Tyrol. . . . Abbot Dominikus Löhr (1651–1687) laid the foundation stone for the baroque church building after the collapsing tower of the predecessor, Abbot Andreas Mayr, had completely destroyed the Gothic building. The actual consecration of the church and the high altar was carried out on October 18, 1665 by the Prince Bishop of Brixen, Sigmund Alfons Graf Thun . Emperor Leopold I was present in person. The north tower was completed in 1667, but the south tower was only half the height of the church roof, since the court architect Christoph Gumpp had died in 1672

Friends Meetinghouse, Amesbury, USA

Amesbury, Mass. – Interior
Friends Meteing House showing Whittier’s Pew
Publisher: Hugh C. Leighton., Manufacturers, Portland, Me

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A group of Friends first met for worship in Amesbury in 1705 on Friend Street. In 1851 the present Meetinghouse was completed. It is in the Greek Revival style and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Amesbury Meeting’s best-known member is John Greenleaf Whittier. Whittier, the famous poet, and social activist served as the clerk of the building committee that supervised construction of the Meetinghouse. A plaque on the end pew of the meetinghouse commemorates Whittier.
Amesbury Quakers

The Amesbury Friends Meetinghouse is located west of downtown Amesbury, on the south side of Friend Street, at the southwest corner of its junction with Greenleaf Street. It is a simple 1+1⁄2-story wood-frame building, with a gabled roof and clapboarded exterior. The main facade is three bays wide, with sash windows flanking a center entrance, and a smaller window in the gable above. The building sides each have three windows. The interior has a vestibule spanning the building width, leading to the main chamber, with a gallery above. The main chamber has movable partitions, which can be raised and lowered by means of pulleys. These facilitate both the conduct of services by the entire congregation, and the conduct of business meetings, which were historically segregated by sex.

The Amesbury congregation of the Society of Friends is the oldest in northeastern Massachusetts, dating to 1657. Initially meeting in what is now southern New Hampshire to avoid persecution by the Puritan authorities of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, they built their first meeting house in 1705. The present building is their fourth, and was completed in 1851. The poet John Greenleaf Whittier, a member of long standing in the congregation and by then already well known, was a leading force on the building committee. The building’s comparatively large size is a reflection of the congregation’s importance as a host of the regional quarterly meetings.[2] From 1851 to 1962, the meetinghouse hosted the Salem Quarterly meeting. The Amesbury Monthly Meeting of Friends is a current thriving congregation, with Meeting for Worship every Sunday at 10 AM. The facing bench displays a small plaque that reads, “Whittier’s Bench.”

Lambaesis/Tazoult, Algeria

Dated 1916
Publisher: Neurden & Co

Lambaesa was founded by the Roman military. The camp of the third legion (Legio III Augusta), to which it owes its origin, appears to have been established between AD 123–129, in the time of Roman emperor Hadrian, whose address to his soldiers was found inscribed on a pillar in a second camp to the west of the great camp still extant. However, other evidence suggests it was formed during the Punic Wars. The town is built 622 m above sea level in the plain and on the spurs of the Djebel Asker.
By AD 166 mention is made of the decurions of a vicus, 10 curiae of which are known by name; and the vicus became a municipium probably at the time when it was made the capital of the newly founded province of Numidia. Lambaesis was populated mainly by Romanized Berbers and by some Roman colonists with their descendants: Latin was the official and commonly used language (even if local Berbers spoke their own language mixed with Latinisms).

Lambaesis once served as the capital of Roman Numidia and was, for a long time, the partner and sometime rival of nearby Timgad. . . . Lambaesis consisted of a military camp – not unlike a modern military base, with barracks, armoury, hospital and so on – surrounded by a wall and watchtowers, and civilian camps outside the perimeter.
Lonely Planet

Eleven km SE of Batna and 140 km from Constantine, the settlement was the headquarters of the legate of the Third Augustan Legion from the 2d c. A.D. When the province of Numidia was officially created in 197-198, it became the capital. . . . This camp is scarcely visible except by aerial photography. It has been wrongly called the “camp of the auxiliaries.” Probably it was a camp built by the soldiers for the imperial visit. We know now that an earlier camp, dating to A.D. 81, existed in the district called the civilian town, S of the modern built-up area. The N district was mainly occupied by the large camp (500 x 420 m). This camp was greatly damaged when in 1851 a penitentiary was built in the SW part; the village built later on was also constructed on the ruins.
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

LAMBESE. – La Voie et la Porte Nord.
Publisher: Ley & Fils

Google Street VIew (approximate)

Two streets, one running E-W, the other N-S, divided the large camp into four parts of unequal size. At the intersection is a rectangular building (36.6 x 23 m) called the praetorium. It forms a sort of quadruple arch of triumph. On the outside it is adorned with pilasters and Corinthian columns; it has large arched openings. South of this building extended a flagged court (65 x 37 m) surrounded on three sides by a portico onto which a series of rooms opened.
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

On level ground about two-thirds of a mile from the centre of the ancient town stands the camp, its site now partly occupied by the penitentiary and its gardens. It measures 1,640 feet (500 m) by 1,476 feet (450 m), and in the middle rise the ruins of a building commonly called, but incorrectly, the praetorium. This noble building, which dates from 268, is 92 feet (28 m) long by 66 feet (20 m) broad and 49 feet (15 m) high; its southern façade has a splendid peristyle half the height of the wall, consisting of a front row of massive Ionic columns and an engaged row of Corinthian pilasters.

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Certose di Firenze/Florence Charterhouse, Florence, Italy

Firenze Certosa
Chiostro grande
[The large Cloister]
Publisher: Stengel & Co, Dresden

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Florence Charterhouse (Certosa di Firenze or Certosa del Galluzzo) is a charterhouse, or Carthusian monastery, located in the Florence suburb of Galluzzo, in central Italy. The building is a walled complex located on Monte Acuto, at the point of confluence of the Ema and Greve rivers. The charterhouse was founded in 1341 by the Florentine noble Niccolò Acciaioli, Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples, but continued to expand over the centuries as the recipient of numerous donations.

Founded in the first half of the fourteenth century, by the will of Niccolò Acciaiuoli (1310- 1365), belonging to one of the richest banking families in Florence and ambassador to the Angevin Court of the Kingdom of Naples, the Certosa del Galluzzo is a monastic complex located south of the city on the top of Monte Acuto and surrounded by the Greve and Ema streams. Dedicated to the martyr S. Lorenzo (3rd century AD), it was completed and embellished until the 16th century, although other valuable works continued until the 18th century and beyond. . . . After the unification of Italy (1860), the law of the Italian government of 1866, which suppressed religious orders, also affected the Carthusian community. The monks, this time, appealed to the king of Italy who allowed them to remain as custodians of the Charterhouse – a real exception at that time – which was thus declared a national monument
Certose di Firenze

The Florence Charterhouse is one of the places to visit in secret Florence. It was built at the behest of the rich Florentine banker Niccolò Acciaiuoli, who had important political roles in the Kingdom of Naples and was Viceroy of Apulia at the Angevin Court. He wanted to build the Charterhouse for the Carthusian order. . . . It is actually not just one building but a complex of several buildings consisting of:
Palazzo Acciaiuoli with its Pinacoteca, which houses five important frescoes by Pontormo and other works by artists such as Perugino and Ghiralndaio;
the monastery and the guesthouse, designed to accommodate the monastery’s guests;
the Church of San Lorenzo and the Oratory of Santa Maria Nuova;
the Crypt and the Parlatoium;
the Chiostrino dei Monaci, the Sala del Capitolo and the Refectory;
the Chiostro Grande and the Chiostrino dei Fratelli Conversi, from which the activities for the good functioning of the Charterhouse were managed;
the Women’s Chapel.
The Art Post Blog: Florence Charterhouse and the Women’s Chapel

Certosa – Il Chiostro grande
[The large Cloister]
Publisher: Francesco Pineider

Among the important parts of this monastery is the church dedicated to San Lorenzo, with typically Mannerist architecture, full of frescoes and paintings with a lavish marble altar from the 16th century and a crypt which keeps many historic tombs, mostly belonging to the Acciaoli family. From the church you can reach the large Renaissance cloister, adorned with a big well and pottery by Andrea and Giovanni della Robbia(15th-16th century), which opens onto the cells, some of which can still be visited. Each cell is made up of a bedroom and a room for praying, both austerely furnished and overlooking an isolated garden. From this cloister you can access what is called the Conversi, a small area consisting of two overlaid loggias, and from here you can access the refectory.
Visit Tuscany

Firenze Contorni Certosa
Il Chiostro grande col Cimitero e il Pozzo
[The large Cloister with the Cemetry and the Well]
Publishers: Garzini & Pezzini, Milan

Neighbourhood of Al-Darb al-Ahmar & Funerary Mosque of Amir Aytimish al-Bajasi, Cairo

Une rue du Caire
[A street in Cairo]
Publisher: Vegnios & Zacbos

Google Street View.

The area south of Cairo’s city walls, between Bab Zuweila and the Citadel, was initially the site of Fatimid and Ayyubid-era cemeteries. Under the prosperous reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad (between 1293 and 1341) the population of the city reached its peak and the area began to be developed in earnest. The city expanded southwards and many Mamluk elites were eager to build new establishments closer to the Citadel, the seat of the sultan’s power. Al-Nasir himself encouraged this development and even built some of the palaces northwest of the Citadel for his amirs (such as the Palace of Amir Qawsun), just as he was building his own palaces inside the Citadel. The Bab al-Wazir Cemetery also developed next to the neighbourhood at this time, just outside the old Ayyubid city walls.

As a result of this period’s development, most of the neighbourhood’s notable historic monuments date from the 14th century. From the late 14th century onward, however, Cairo suffered from the Black Plague and its population declined and did not recover until centuries later. Nonetheless, the area did develop further during the Ottoman period. The Qasaba of Radwan Bey (now part of the Tentmakers’ Street), for example, was a commercial urban complex developed in the 17th century along the old Qasaba road (now al-Mu’izz Street) and partly aimed at promoting urbanization of the area. The area received further urbanization impetus during the 19th century when Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha again redeveloped the nearby Citadel as a seat of power. He granted various plots of land in al-Darb al-Ahmar to important army officers who were thus encouraged to build in the area. The district was a center of craftsmanship for generations, but in recent years it has suffered from the liberalization of Egypt’s economy and the neighbourhood is hampered by poverty

Aytmish was an emir of Sultan Barquq who became a regent for Barquq’s son Farag, and subsequently fled Cairo when Farag came to power and was killed in Damascus in 1400/802 AH. His foundation here includes a mosque, tomb chamber, and sabil, along with funduq/rab adjacent to the mosque which may survive partially in the structure to the right of the main facade. A seperate haw-kuttab outside of the Bab al-Wazir were also included in the foundation. The (empty) tomb chamber has a distinctive brick and plaster dome, with ribs that rise straight up for the first quarter of the dome, then bend to the right and spiral up to the top, an example of the experimentation with ribbing that was popular from 1360 to 1400. . . The grille below is not original and the ground level has now risen above the bottom of the window. The Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe restored the stonework on the main facade. The interior of the mosque is plain, and is in use as a neighborhood mosque. There is a newly-tiled mihrab, a damaged painted wooden ceiling over the main iwan, and a roof with a lantern over the courtyard.

Safi, Morocco

SAFI. – La Grande Mosquée et la Rade
[The Grand Mosque and the Roadstead (harbour)]

Google Street View.

Built in the 12th century by the Almoravids as a place of worship, the Great Mosque of Safi has had a turbulent history. It has seen different civilizations come and go, it has been destroyed, rebuilt, and fallen into disrepair again, and for a period even served as a horse stable. Now, nearly nine centuries later, this important part of the Moroccan cultural heritage has been renovated and returned to its former glory. Just one mystery remains: why is the minaret separate from the rest of the mosque?
Marocopedia (video)

(Via Google Tranlate)
In the 15th century, Safi opened up to European trade. The Portuguese even appreciated its natural harbor so well that they seized it in 1488, by a combined operation, by land and by sea, mounted from their base in Mogador (Essaouira). Around the city, they raise a wall and build a fortress by the sea. But this occupation does not last long, because from 1541, the Portuguese who have just lost the city of Agadir evacuate Safi voluntarily. This does not interrupt trade with Europe, which on the contrary is intensifying. The French have their part in it. After 1541, the city played a major role in Morocco, as one of the safest and largest seaports in the country. . . . After Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah built the city of Mogador , he prohibited foreign trade in all Moroccan ports except his newly built city. Consequently, Safi ceased to play a leading role in Moroccan trade.

Mosque & Masoleum of Sidi Abderrahmane, Algiers

Master list for Algiers

Alger – La Mosquée de Sidi Abderhaman
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

Sidi Abderrahmane is a mosque and mausoleum named after the city’s patron saint. The main building was constructed in 1627, and the mosque where locals pray was added in 1696. The mosque also has a small graveyard, where some very notable people are buried, including Sidi Abderrahmane himself.

It was decided in 1020 H/1611 that the sepulchre of Sidi Abdarrahman al-Thaalibi, the patron saint of Al-Djazair, who died in AH 877/AD 1470, should be covered with a qubba (dome). Later on, in AH 1108/AD 1696, Dey al-Hadj Ahmad al-Atchi ordered the square mausoleum to be transformed into a prayer hall, notably through the introduction of a mihrab. Four pairs of columns that are semi-engaged in the walls enable the transition from a square layout to an octagonal one, to accommodate the dome that covers the hall. As well as the two marble columns that flank it on either side, the mihrab is decorated with faïence tiles. The qubba encloses a certain number of sepulchres, including those of Sidi Abdarrahman and Sidi Boudjemaa, and the function and living quarters and buildings could have been constructed with the revenues from the zawiya. Within the enclosure, a small cemetery holds the tombs of illustrious or notable persons such as Sidi Boudouma, Sidi Ouaddah or Dey ‘Umar.
Museum With No Frontiers: Discover Islamic Art

Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes & Holy Water, Lourdes, France

LOURDES – La Basilique et les Pyrénées
Postmarked 1913
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes (French: Sanctuaire de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) or the Domain (as it is most commonly known) is an area of ground surrounding the Catholic shrine (Grotto) to Our Lady of Lourdes in the town of Lourdes, France. The Sanctuary is a destination for pilgrimage; sick pilgrims are reputed to be miraculously healed by Lourdes water. This ground is owned and administered by the Roman Catholic Church, and has several functions, including devotional activities, offices, and accommodation for sick pilgrims and their helpers. The Domain includes the Grotto itself, the nearby taps which dispense the Lourdes water, and the offices of the Lourdes Medical Bureau, as well as several churches and basilicas. It comprises an area of 51 hectares, and includes 22 separate places of worship. . . .
The shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, in France, began in the 19th century AD. In 1858 from February 11 to July 16, a 14-year-old peasant girl, called Bernadette Soubirous, saw a vision of the Virgin Mary while playing in the stream with her sister and friend. . . . At the time of the apparitions, the grotto lay well outside town, on common ground which was used by the villagers variously for pasturing animals, collecting firewood, and as a garbage dump, and it had a reputation for being an unpleasant place. . . . Public interest in the apparitions grew, and curious visitors began to be replaced by pilgrims from increasingly far away, drawn by compelling stories of apparitions and miracles. A local priest, Abbé Dominique Peyramale, together with his bishop, Monsignor Bertrand-Sévère Mascarou Laurence, bought the grotto and the land around it from the commune in 1861, 3 years after the apparitions. Immediately they set about modifying the area to make it more accessible to visitors, and started work to build the first of the churches, which is now known as the Crypt.

LOURDES — La Grotte
[The Grotto]
Publisher: Alliance Catholique, Lourdes

LOURDES — La Grotte
[The Grotto]
Publisher: Alliance Catholique, Lourdes

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