Niederwald monument, Rüdesheim am Rhein, Germany


Niederwalk-Denkmal
1900s
Publisher: Knackstedt & Nather, Hamburg

Google Street VIew

The monument was constructed to commemorate the founding of the German Empire in 1871 after the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The first stone was laid on 16 September 1871 by Kaiser Wilhelm I. The sculptor was Johannes Schilling, and the architect was Karl Weißbach. The total cost of the work is estimated at one million gold marks. The monument was inaugurated on 28 September 1883. The 38 metres (125 ft) tall monument represents the union of all Germans. The central figure is the 10.5 metres (34 ft) tall Germania figure. Her right hand holds the recovered crown, and her left holds the Imperial Sword. Beneath Germania is a large relief depicting Kaiser Wilhelm I riding a horse with the nobility, army commanders, and soldiers. The relief has the lyrics to “Die Wacht am Rhein” (Watch on the Rhine) engraved. The right side of the monument is considered the “peace statue”, while the left is considered the “war statue.”
Wikipedia

[Via Google Translate]
Standing in front of the Niederwald monument is impressive because of its sheer size. The entire facility is 38.18 meters high and weighs around 75 tons in total. The most striking and at the same time largest part is the Germania placed on the upper pedestal and visible from afar . It alone reaches a height of 12.5 meters and weighs around 32 tons. The main inscription commemorating the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of the empire is carved into the base at her feet. It reads in capital letters: “In memory of the unanimous, victorious uprising of the German people and the reestablishment of the German Reich 1870-1871”. Directly below is the main relief, which depicts a total of 133 people. These are primarily generals and princes who played an important role in the founding of the empire and in the preceding war against France. You can also see a Prussian guard with a flag and a Saxon infantryman carrying a drum. Wilhelm I is depicted in the center of the relief. He is the only figure sitting on a horse and surrounded by all the others. This emphasizes its importance once more. All people shown are life-size.
Niederwalddenkmal.de :: Alles Rund um das Niederwalddenkmal

The Captain’s Well, Amesbury, USA


The Captain’s Well,
Made famous by Whittier,
Amesbury, Mass.
Postmarked 1916

Google Street View.

Amesbury poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, wrote a poem entitled, The Captain’s Well, about the perilous adventures of Captain Valentine Bagley II. While Bagley was a ship’s carpenter, his ship, the Commerce of Boston, was stranded on the coast of Arabia in July of 1792. He and the ship’s crew had to walk through the Arabian Desert to find help. Thirty four started the journey, only eight survived. When Captain Bagley eventually returned to Amesbury, Massachusetts, he fulfilled a promise he had made while suffering in the desert. He had vowed to dig a well for all to use, so that no man should suffer from thirst as he did.

By the time Whittier wrote his poem, in 1889, the well had fallen into disrepair. In the late 1890s, the well was cleaned up, a canopy built over it and a pipe installed to connect it to the town water system. Later, the wooden canopy was replaced by a permanent monument engraved with Whittier’s poem.
The Macy-Colby House

“Pity me, God! for I die of thirst;
Take me out of this land accurst;
“And if ever I reach my home again,
Where earth has springs, and the sky has rain,
“I will dig a well for the passers-by,
And none shall suffer from thirst as I.
. . .
Now the Lord be thanked, I am back again,
Where earth has springs, and the skies have rain,
“And the well I promised by Oman’s Sea,
I am digging for him in Amesbury.”
His kindred wept, and his neighbors said:
“The poor old captain is out of his head.”
But from morn to noon, and from noon to night,
He toiled at his task with main and might;
And when at last, from the loosened earth,
Under his spade the stream gushed forth,
And fast as he climbed to his deep well’s brim,
The water he dug for followed him,
He shouted for joy: “I have kept my word,
And here is the well I promised the Lord!”
The long years came and the long years went,
And he sat by his roadside well content;
He watched the travellers, heat-oppressed,
Paused by the way to drink and rest
“The Captain’s Well”, John Greenleaf Whittier

Where Montgomery Fell (Battle of Quebec 1775), Quebec


Where Montgomery Fell, Quebec, Canada
c. 1910 (image 1906)
Publisher: The Valentine & Sons Publishing Co, Montreal & Toronto

Plaque:
Here stood
The Undaunted Fifty
Safeguarding
CANADA
Defeating Montgomery
At the Pres-de-Ville Barricade
On the last day of
1775
GUY CARLETON
Commanding at
Quebec

Google Street View.

Two hundred and thirty-five years ago tonight [31 December 2010], American soldiers attacked the city of Quebec during a raging blizzard in a desperate attempt to capture Canada early in the Revolutionary War. Two separate American expeditions converged in the vicinity of Quebec City in December 1775. One led by General Richard Montgomery had moved up Lake Champlain from Albany, captured Montreal, and came to Quebec from the southwest. The other force, commanded by Benedict Arnold, had originated in Cambridge from the colonial forces gathered around Boston . . . Because Canada had only become a British possession sixteen years earlier, the Americans hoped to recruit many French Canadian residents to their cause, but most either ignored the Americans or sided with the handful of British defenders of the city. Without a popular uprising and lacking artillery sufficient to overcome the walls of the city, Montgomery and Arnold decided that their only chance of success was to attack during a snowstorm. The opportunity arose on New Year’s Eve. Montgomery led his force from the west along the banks of the Saint Lawrence. Arnold would come in from the northeast, skirting the walls of the upper city. The Americans hoped to first capture the lower city and then move upward to the main portion of Quebec. Montgomery’s force met with some initial success, but the snow obscured a heavily defended British-Canadian blockhouse. As Montgomery and his aides passed nearby, those inside fired a cannon which wiped out the American command group, causing the rest of the force to immediately retreat. Arnold fared little better. He made it into the lower city, but the narrow streets of the old town restricted his ability to maneuver. Arnold was shot in the foot and was evacuated by his men. Those who stayed behind were soon surrounded and surrendered.
RichardHowe.com: The Battle of Quebec: December 31, 1775

A storm broke out on December 30, and Montgomery once again gave orders for the attack. Brown and Livingston led their militia companies to their assigned positions that night: Brown by the Cape Diamond redoubt, and Livingston outside St. John’s Gate (fr). When Brown reached his position between 4 am and 5 am, he fired flares to signal the other forces, and his men and Livingston’s began to fire on their respective targets.] Montgomery and Arnold, seeing the flares, set off for the lower town. Montgomery led his men from Wolfe’s Cove down the steep, snow-heaped path towards the outer defenses The storm had turned into a blizzard, making the advance a struggle. As they advanced over the ice-covered rocky ground, the bells of the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church began to ring, signaling the militiamen to arm themselves, as sentries manning the walls of Quebec City saw the American lanterns in the blizzard.

Montgomery’s men eventually arrived at the palisade of the outer defenses, where an advance party of carpenters sawed their way through the wall. Montgomery himself helped saw through the second palisade, and led 50 men down a street towards a two-story building. The building formed part of the city’s defenses, and was in fact a blockhouse occupied by 39 Quebec militia and 9 sailors armed with muskets and cannons. Montgomery unsheathed his sword as he led his men down the street as the blizzard raged. The defenders opened fire at close range, and Montgomery was killed instantly, shot through the head by a burst of grapeshot while most of the men standing beside him were either killed or wounded.[76] The few men of the advance party who survived fled back towards the palisade.
Wikipedia.

Torre Monumental & plaza, Buenos Aires


Buenos Aires
Plaza y Estación Retiro.
[Plaza & Retiro Station]
Dated 1921
Publisher: Z. Fumagalli, Buenos Aires

Google Street View.

Torre Monumental (Spanish for “Monumental Tower”), formerly known as Torre de los Ingleses (“Tower of the English”), is a clock tower located in the barrio (district) of Retiro in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is situated in the Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina (formerly Plaza Britannia) by San Martín Street and Avenida del Libertador. It was a gift from the local British community to the city in commemoration of the centennial of the May Revolution of 1810. After the Falklands War in 1982, the tower’s original name was dropped, though some still call it Torre de los Ingleses.

On September 18, 1909 the Argentine National Congress passed Law N° 6368, consisting of an offer by the British residents of Buenos Aires to erect a monumental column to commemorate the centennial of the May Revolution. Although the centenary monument was initially considered to be a column, it ultimately took the form of the clock tower. A 1910 exhibition of project proposals at the Salón del Bon Marché, today the Galerías Pacífico, resulted in the jury’s award to English architect Sir Ambrose Macdonald Poynter (1867–1923), nephew of the founder of the Royal Institute of British Architects. The tower was built by Hopkins y Gardom, with materials shipped from England such as the white Portland stone and the bricks from Stonehouse, Gloucestershire (see below). The technical personnel responsible for the construction also came from England. . . . The inauguration of the building took place on May 24, 1916 and was attended by the President of Argentina Victorino de la Plaza and British dignitaries led by the minister plenipotentiary Reginald Tower.
Wikipedia.

Kaiser Wilhelm II Fountain, Istanbul


Constantinople
Fontaine de l’empereur Guillaume II.
Kaiser Wilhelm-Brunnen
[Fountaine of Kaiser Wilhelm II]
c.1910

Google Street View.

It’s nice when friends stop by and pay a visit. This, in part, was the thinking behind the construction of the commemorative Kaiser Wilhelm Fountain in Istanbul. But the fountain is a symbol of much more significant events in Turkey’s past. The fountain was built in 1900 to celebrate the second anniversary of German Kaiser Wilhelm’s visit to Turkey and sits at the far end of Sultanahmet Square in the heart of the Old City. It’s constructed in the neo-Byzantine style, with marble columns and a dome whose interior is lined with golden mosaic tiles. It’s a small but lasting tribute to an alliance that both countries would probably rather forget. . . . The Ottoman Empire’s alliance with Germany and subsequent loss in World War I pretty much spelled the end for the Sultan and his friends, but this fountain still stands as a testament to their doomed alliance. With friends like these, who needs enemies?
Atlas Obscura

The German Fountain is a gazebo styled fountain in the northern end of old hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square), Istanbul, Turkey and across from the Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmed I. It was constructed to commemorate the second anniversary of German Emperor Wilhelm II’s visit to Istanbul in 1898. It was built in Germany, then transported piece by piece and assembled in its current site in 1900. . . . During his reign as German Emperor and King of Prussia, Wilhelm II visited several European and Eastern countries. His trip started in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire on 18 October 1898 during the reign of Abdülhamid II. . . .The Emperor’s primary motivation for visiting was to construct the Baghdad Railway, which would run from Berlin to the Persian Gulf, and would further connect to British India through Persia. This railway could provide a short and quick route from Europe to Asia, and could carry German exports, troops and artillery. At the time, the Ottoman Empire could not afford such a railway, and Abdülhamid II was grateful to Wilhelm’s offer, but was suspicious over the German motives.
. . .
The neo-Byzantine style octagonal fountain stands on a base with eight steps rising up to an entry gate. There are seven brass fountain spouts over basins on the remaining sides, and over the central reservoir there is a dome supported by eight porphyry columns. The fountain’s central reservoir stands on a mosaic-tiled platform and surmounted with the bronze dome, which is raised on carved marble arches. There are eight monograms in the arch stonework and they represent the political union of Abdülhamid II and Wilhelm. In four of these medallions, Abdülhamid II’s tughra is written on green background, and in other four Wilhelm’s symbol “W” is written on a Prussian blue background. Also, over “W” there is a crown and below it a “II” is written. The fountain was surrounded with a bronze fence, but unfortunately this has been lost. The outside of the dome is ornately patterned bronze; the dome’s ceiling is decorated with golden mosaics and again with Abdülhamid II’s tughra and Wilhelm II’s symbol.
Wikipedia.

Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes & Holy Water, Lourdes, France


LOURDES – La Basilique et les Pyrénées
Postmarked 1913
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes (French: Sanctuaire de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) or the Domain (as it is most commonly known) is an area of ground surrounding the Catholic shrine (Grotto) to Our Lady of Lourdes in the town of Lourdes, France. The Sanctuary is a destination for pilgrimage; sick pilgrims are reputed to be miraculously healed by Lourdes water. This ground is owned and administered by the Roman Catholic Church, and has several functions, including devotional activities, offices, and accommodation for sick pilgrims and their helpers. The Domain includes the Grotto itself, the nearby taps which dispense the Lourdes water, and the offices of the Lourdes Medical Bureau, as well as several churches and basilicas. It comprises an area of 51 hectares, and includes 22 separate places of worship. . . .
The shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, in France, began in the 19th century AD. In 1858 from February 11 to July 16, a 14-year-old peasant girl, called Bernadette Soubirous, saw a vision of the Virgin Mary while playing in the stream with her sister and friend. . . . At the time of the apparitions, the grotto lay well outside town, on common ground which was used by the villagers variously for pasturing animals, collecting firewood, and as a garbage dump, and it had a reputation for being an unpleasant place. . . . Public interest in the apparitions grew, and curious visitors began to be replaced by pilgrims from increasingly far away, drawn by compelling stories of apparitions and miracles. A local priest, Abbé Dominique Peyramale, together with his bishop, Monsignor Bertrand-Sévère Mascarou Laurence, bought the grotto and the land around it from the commune in 1861, 3 years after the apparitions. Immediately they set about modifying the area to make it more accessible to visitors, and started work to build the first of the churches, which is now known as the Crypt.
Wikipedia.


LES PYRÉNÉES
LOURDES — La Grotte
[The Grotto]
Publisher: Alliance Catholique, Lourdes


LES PYRÉNÉES
LOURDES — La Grotte
[The Grotto]
Publisher: Alliance Catholique, Lourdes

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Rusalka Memorial, Tallinn, Estonia


TALLINN. | Russalka mälestussammas Kadriorus
[Russalka memorial in Kadriog]
Postmarked 1929

Google Street View.

Russalka Memorial is a bronze monument sculpted by Amandus Adamson, erected on 7 September 1902 in Kadriorg, Tallinn, to mark the ninth anniversary of the sinking of the Russian warship Rusalka, or “Mermaid”, which sank en route to Finland in 1893. It was the first monument in Estonia made by an Estonian sculptor. The monument depicts an angel holding an Orthodox cross towards the assumed direction of the shipwreck. The model for the angel was the sculptor’s housekeeper Juliana Rootsi, whose grandson is the politician, Tiit Made.
Wikipedia.

On the morning of September 7th 1893 the Rusalka departed from Reval (now Tallinn) in Estonia to sail due north across the Gulf of Finland to Helsingfors (now Helsinki) in Finland. It should be noted that both Estonia and Finland were then ruled by Russia. The distance across open sea was some 55 miles and the Rusalka was escorted by a Rendell-type gunboat Tucha. In reasonable weather conditions the passage should have been a fast and easy one of six or eight hours. The weather did however deteriorate, and the ships lost contact in gale-force winds and rain. The Tucha arrived safely at Helsingfors in mid-afternoon but the Rusalka did not follow. A search was initiated immediately and two days later wreckage was washed ashore on the Finnish coast, including a lifeboat with one dead seaman. The vessel had 177 men on board but this was the only body recovered. Fifteen ships were engaged, fruitlessly, in the search for the Rusalka, continuing for over a month and only being suspended in Mid-October due to the first winter storms. The search was resumed in the middle of the following year, including observation from a balloon towed by one of the ships involved – and all again without success.
Dawlish Chronicles

Roland Statue, Bremen, Germany


Bremen, Roland
1900s
Publisher: Zedler & Vogel

Google Street View.

La Chanson de Roland (The Song of Roland)

The Bremen Roland is a statue of Roland, erected in 1404. It stands in the market square (Rathausplatz) of Bremen, Germany, facing the cathedral, and shows Roland, paladin of the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne and hero of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Roland is shown as protector of the city: his legendary sword (known in chivalric legend as Durendal) is unsheathed, and his shield is emblazoned with the two-headed Imperial eagle. The standing figure is 5.47 m tall, and stands on a 60 cm rostrum. A supporting column, crowned by a baldachin, brings the combined height to 10.21 m. The statue was carved in limestone from the Elm, and was commissioned by the city fathers to replace a wooden one burnt in 1366 by Prince-Archbishop Albert II. It confronts the church as a representation of city rights opposed to the territorial claims of the prince-archbishop.

The inscription on the shield reads: “vryheit do ik ju openbar / d’ karl vnd mēnich vorst vorwar / desser stede ghegheuen hat / des danket god’ is mī radt”. This translates in English to: “Freedom I do manifest to you / which Karl and many noblemen indeed / have given to this place. / Thank God for this is my advice.”
Wikipedia.

Tucked against a front corner of the Quedlinburg Rathaus stands a statue of Roland. The figure is small compared to the massive Roland statue in Bremen. Our tour guide told us that Statues of Roland were the sign of a free market town and a symbol of strength. . . . I started to wonder. How many towns have Roland Statues? What do they stand for? And how did the nephew of Charlemagne, who was killed by the Basque in 778 AD, become such an important symbol in Germany? The answer is not so clear.
. . .
The most common and accepted explanation is that Roland Statues were a sign of autonomy or market rights. The citizens of these Free Cities could hold Markets and uphold the laws without interference from above. They answered only to the Emperor… and not a local Prince, and not necessarily to the Church.
German Girl in America

A Roland statue is a statue of a knight with a drawn sword, signifying the town privileges of a medieval city. Such statues exist in a number of cities notably in northern and eastern Germany, where they are often placed on the market square or in front of the city hall. Examples are also known from Central Europe, Croatia and Latvia, and there are copies in Brazil and the United States. Statues of the mythological Roland, who enjoyed the status as a popular hero, were erected in cities during the Middle Ages as an emblem of the freedom and city rights of a town. In Germany, such a town is sometimes known as a Roland town. Philippe Dollinger notes that although there are several Roland statues in the Baltic Sea area, there is nothing specifically Hanseatic about them. Rather, Roland statues are known mainly from cities that used Saxon Law. The first Roland statues began to appear in the 12th century, placed outside churches. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Roland statues became more common. Especially during the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, such statues became more common, a fact that may be explained by the Emperor’s ambition to portray himself as the heir to Charlemagne’s reign. The earliest Roland statues were made of wood, while later examples were more often made of stone.
Wikipedia.

Lifeboat Memorial, Aldeburgh, England


Lifeboat Memorial, Aldeburgh
c.1910

Google Maps.

The crew from Aldeburgh in Suffolk were responding to reports a ship had run aground in heavy seas on 7 December 1899. Their lifeboat was so battered during its launch it capsized, trapping six men who could not be rescued. A seventh man died of injuries later. . . . The 18-strong crew were attempting to launch one of the Royal National Lifeboat Association (RNLI)’s first self-righting lifeboats when it hit a ridge on the shingle beach. It capsized in shallow water, meaning it was unable to right itself, and the heavy seas pushed it up onto the beach, trapping the six. The rest were thrown into the water and survived, but one was so seriously injured he died three months later.
BBC News.

Lifeboat disaster memorial at Aldeburgh
Seven of the 18 crew lost their lives
The names of the seven are :
John BUTCHER, age 52; Charles CRISP, age 51; Herbert William DOWNING, age 23; Allan Arthur EASTER, age 28; Thomas MORRIS, age 36; James Miller WARD, age 21 and Walter George WARD, age 33.

Geograph (photo of crosses)

Pagodas, Mandalay, Myanmar


Pagodas Mandalay
c.1910

1911 Map of Mandalay

The Sandamuni Pagoda (also Sandamani, because it contains the largest iron Buddha, the “Sandamani”), or Paya, is located to the southeast of Mandalay Hill and bears a resemblance to the nearby Kuthodaw pagoda because of the large number of slender whitewashed ancillary stupas on the grounds. The pagoda complex was erected on the location of King Mindon’s provisional palace, the “Nan Myey Bon Tha.” which he used until his permanent Royal Palace was completed in the center of the Royal City (now Mandalay Fort). It was built as a memorial to King Mindon’s younger half-brother, statesman, reformer, stimulating personality and confidante, the Crown Prince Kanaung, who had helped him seize power from Pagan Min in 1853. Two of Mindon’s sons, Princes Myingun, (or Myint Kun) and Myin Kon Taing disappointed in being excluded from the succession, launched a palace revolution against their father on June 8, 1866, and assassinated Crown Prince Kanaung and three other princes: Malun, Saku and Pyinsi. The princes were buried on the grounds where they died. The royal residence was demolished the next year as the court was moved to the new Royal Palace. In 1874, King Mindon had the pagoda built near the graves of the Crown Prince and the other members of the royal family who lost their lives in the 1866 coup.
Asian Historical Architecture