Tugendbrunnen/Fountain of Virtues, Nuremberg


Nürnberg, Tugendbrunnen
1910s
Publisher: Hermann Martin

Google Street VIew

(Via Google Translate)
The Tugendbrunnen was built between 1584 and 1589 during the sensuous Renaissance period by the Nuremberg ore founder Benedikt Wurzelbauer. Like the beautiful fountain [Schönen Brunnen], it is one of the symbols of the city of Nuremberg and is located on the north side of the Lorenzkirche on Lorenzer Platz. Seven human figures and six putti adorn the bronze fountain column, which is divided into three floors and rises from an octagonal basin. The seven figures represent the seven virtues of the Middle Ages, with six putti between them.
Bayern Online

Fountain with a central column with three storeys with statues:
Top: Gerechtigkeit – Justice, blindfolded woman with scales and sword, with behind here a crane.
Middle: six music-making putti with coats of arms (each coat of arms appears twice):
Great arms of Nürnberg (eagle with a king’s head)
Holy Roman Empire (crowned, double-headed eagle)
Small arms of Nürnberg (eagle and red bends)
Lower: six virtues
Glaube – Faith, woman with chalice and cross.
Liebe – Charity, woman with two children.
Hoffnung – Hope, woman with anchor.
Tapferheit – Fortitude, armoured woman with gun and lion.
Mäßigkeit – Temperance, woman pouring wine from a jug in a goblet.
Geduld – Patience, woman with lamb.
Statues – Hither & Thither

Gänsemännchen Fountain, Nuremberg, Germany


On back:
Nürnberg Gänsemännchen
“S. Solden’sche Verlagsbuchh. (A. Zemsch). Nurnberg”

Google Street View (current location).

(via Google Translate)
The Goose Man Fountain is one of the oldest fountains in the city of Nuremberg . The fountain is located north of Nuremberg ‘s main market in the St. Sebald district . The name Goose Man refers to the bronze fountain figure, which depicts a farmer with two geese under his arm. . . . The ore founder Pankraz Labenwolf made the bronze goose figure in the Renaissance period, around 1550. As a template, he used a wooden model by the carver Hans Peisser , which is currently in the Fembohaus City Museum in Nuremberg. The bronze fountain figure with the two geese under the arm is based on a farmer, probably in the traditional costume of the Knoblauchsland north of Nuremberg. The fountain has a squat shaft. Above it is a renewed goblet-like sandstone basin, in the middle of which is a goose man on a pedestal. The fountain basin is surrounded by a rosettestudded wrought-iron trellis. The water drains through the two goose beaks and two tubes on the figure base.
Wikipedia.

In the absence of clear documentation (alas!) art historians are nevertheless unanimous in ascribing the Gänsemännchen Fountain to Labenwolf. He created the fountain from about 1550 to 1560. Thus Dürer’s drawings of Frankonian peasants and specifically of the “Goose-Man,” demonstrated a step-by-step evolution which culminated in the creation of this fountain. The location of the fountain was on the Goosemarket (Gänsemarkt), which later on became the Fruit Market (Obstmarkt). When World War II broke out, the fountain was moved to its present location in the Court of the New City Hall, Hauptmarkt 18. The flesh and blood “Goose-Man” came from the so-called Garlic Country (Knoblauchland) in the immediate vicinity of Nuremberg. It can easily be guessed what the farmers grew there. He was reputed to be a drunkard. After he sold his geese, he spent his money on wine and returned home empty-handed, albeit full in other respects. No doubt, this droll peasant was a unique specimen, a well-known “character” of his day.
Stein Collectors International

Nuremberg’s most famous city fountain is the Renaissance era Gänsemännchenbrunnen (The Geeseman Fountain) cast in brass. The modest fountain features a man carrying two plump geese, hence earning its famous title. The fountain is presently located at Rathausplatz, since 1945, but was originally in the Gänsemarkt (Goose market), at the southern end of the fruit market behind Frauenkirche. The figure has often been mistaken as a peasant or farmer, owing to its popular appeal, however, he is dressed in the fine period attire of an affluent Renaissance citizen. The figure’s meaning, purpose and subject have remained mysterious for centuries although the fountain’s facture has traditionally been associated with the brass caster Pankraz Labenwolf, an apprentice of the Vischer family of Nuremberg brass casters, who had established his own workshop by 1523 and foundry by 1537.

No documents are known regarding the purpose, subject or commission for the fountain. Modern local customs believe the Geeseman was a farmer from the garlic country of Northern Nuremberg who sought to sell his geese at the market, but sensing their fate they began to cry-out, inspiring the farmer to have a change-of-heart and return home with his adopted pets. . . . The sculpture’s unusual iconography and subject can be explained by certain events unfolding in Nuremberg during the advent of the Reformation and the city’s metamorphosis in the shifting tide of religious and social reorganization. The figure represents Philip Melanchthon, collaborator of Martin Luther and intellectual leader for Luther’s reformist principles. When Nuremberg adopted Protestantism in 1525 there was a sudden interruption in Nuremberg’s educational system which had formerly depended upon the church and its resources to educate its citizens. Anticipating such a problem, Martin Luther, in 1524, delivered an appeal to German cities to “establish and maintain Christian schools.”4 The Nuremberg councilmen took subsequent action to attract Philip Melanchthon to their city to help initiate and direct their first city-run school. Although invited, Melanchthon did not opt to fill a position as director, but arrived in November of 1524 enthusiastically recruiting and organizing the city’s educational program. In address to the city’s leadership, Melanchthon inaugurated Nuremberg’s first academy at St. Egidien on 23 May 1526.
Renaissance Brnoze

Stephanplatz Fountain, Karlsruhe, Germany


On back:
Karlsruhe — Der Stephansbrunnen
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Edmond von König, Heidleberg

Google Street View.

(Via Google Translate)
In 1903, the architect Hermann Billing , who was a member of the artists’ commission, was commissioned to create a fountain for the center of the square without a design competition. Billing planned a fountain basin under a columned hall, in the center of which is the figure of a spring nymph should be placed. The production of the bronze figure was entrusted to the young sculptor Hermann Binz (1876-1946).

However, the naked nymph met with opposition from the city council, so Billing and Binz modified the designs so that the nymph should be placed at the edge of the pool on a flat base and without the canopy. The columns then only carry a ring-shaped open entablature. The water was supposed to flow into the basin from gargoyles in the form of faces on the pillars, the faces were directed towards the nymph. That has been approved. When the construction of the fountain was completed in the summer of 1905, there were surprises, ridicule and rejections, because not everyone liked both the naked bronze figure and the faces. Binz had worked out the faces as caricatures of well-known Karlsruhe personalities, especially those city councilors who had rejected the first draft.
Wikipedia.

(Via Google Translate)
The fountain was designed in 1905 by the architect Hermann Billing . The original design envisaged a spring mermaid placed on a pedestal, in the spirit of Art Nouveau , but it did not yet include the rotunda with the male faces. The draft was hotly debated in the municipal council. The depiction of a naked woman in such a prominent position was felt by some council members to be inappropriate. Nevertheless, the draft was finally released and Hermann Billing was allowed to realize it, including artistic modifications. He did this together with the sculptor Hermann Binz. Since Billing was obviously annoyed by the discussion in the municipal council, he designed the fountain in such a way that the municipal council members, in addition to him and Binz, also look at the naked woman. Oberbaurat Reinhard Baumeister, who preferred to see a girl in traditional costume, is even scratched by a mermaid on the beard.
Stadtwiki Karksruhe

Teichmann fountain, Bremen, Germany


Bremen | Teichmannsbrunnen
c.1910

Google Street View.

The Teichmann fountain was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1899. The multipartite bronze ensemble was situated in a square fountain basin; the frame was made of Niedermendig basalt lava. A ship, threatened by mermaids and marine animals was depicted being pulled over the rocks by a Triton. A sailor on the helm was visible in the back part of the ship, the bow bore an upright Mercury with an olive branch and a bag of money. The edge of the boat bore the name “Teichmann”. The fountain was deconstructed between the 20th and 23rd April 1940 for the German metal donation programme.
Kunst im öffentlichen raum Bremen

Teichmann-Brunnen in Bremen, 1906, (from Wikimedia Commons)

Teichmann Fountain, a boat with Mercury, Neptune and Nixies in bronze by Rudolf Maison was a gift of Kaufmann Gustav Adolph Teichmann (died 1892) to replace an old well and stood from 28 November 1899 until melted down for scrap metal in 1940.
Wikipedia.

Kaiser Wilhelm II Fountain, Istanbul


Constantinople
Fontaine de l’empereur Guillaume II.
Kaiser Wilhelm-Brunnen
[Fountaine of Kaiser Wilhelm II]
c.1910

Google Street View.

It’s nice when friends stop by and pay a visit. This, in part, was the thinking behind the construction of the commemorative Kaiser Wilhelm Fountain in Istanbul. But the fountain is a symbol of much more significant events in Turkey’s past. The fountain was built in 1900 to celebrate the second anniversary of German Kaiser Wilhelm’s visit to Turkey and sits at the far end of Sultanahmet Square in the heart of the Old City. It’s constructed in the neo-Byzantine style, with marble columns and a dome whose interior is lined with golden mosaic tiles. It’s a small but lasting tribute to an alliance that both countries would probably rather forget. . . . The Ottoman Empire’s alliance with Germany and subsequent loss in World War I pretty much spelled the end for the Sultan and his friends, but this fountain still stands as a testament to their doomed alliance. With friends like these, who needs enemies?
Atlas Obscura

The German Fountain is a gazebo styled fountain in the northern end of old hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square), Istanbul, Turkey and across from the Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmed I. It was constructed to commemorate the second anniversary of German Emperor Wilhelm II’s visit to Istanbul in 1898. It was built in Germany, then transported piece by piece and assembled in its current site in 1900. . . . During his reign as German Emperor and King of Prussia, Wilhelm II visited several European and Eastern countries. His trip started in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire on 18 October 1898 during the reign of Abdülhamid II. . . .The Emperor’s primary motivation for visiting was to construct the Baghdad Railway, which would run from Berlin to the Persian Gulf, and would further connect to British India through Persia. This railway could provide a short and quick route from Europe to Asia, and could carry German exports, troops and artillery. At the time, the Ottoman Empire could not afford such a railway, and Abdülhamid II was grateful to Wilhelm’s offer, but was suspicious over the German motives.
. . .
The neo-Byzantine style octagonal fountain stands on a base with eight steps rising up to an entry gate. There are seven brass fountain spouts over basins on the remaining sides, and over the central reservoir there is a dome supported by eight porphyry columns. The fountain’s central reservoir stands on a mosaic-tiled platform and surmounted with the bronze dome, which is raised on carved marble arches. There are eight monograms in the arch stonework and they represent the political union of Abdülhamid II and Wilhelm. In four of these medallions, Abdülhamid II’s tughra is written on green background, and in other four Wilhelm’s symbol “W” is written on a Prussian blue background. Also, over “W” there is a crown and below it a “II” is written. The fountain was surrounded with a bronze fence, but unfortunately this has been lost. The outside of the dome is ornately patterned bronze; the dome’s ceiling is decorated with golden mosaics and again with Abdülhamid II’s tughra and Wilhelm II’s symbol.
Wikipedia.