Niederwald monument, Rüdesheim am Rhein, Germany

Publisher: Knackstedt & Nather, Hamburg

Google Street VIew

The monument was constructed to commemorate the founding of the German Empire in 1871 after the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The first stone was laid on 16 September 1871 by Kaiser Wilhelm I. The sculptor was Johannes Schilling, and the architect was Karl Weißbach. The total cost of the work is estimated at one million gold marks. The monument was inaugurated on 28 September 1883. The 38 metres (125 ft) tall monument represents the union of all Germans. The central figure is the 10.5 metres (34 ft) tall Germania figure. Her right hand holds the recovered crown, and her left holds the Imperial Sword. Beneath Germania is a large relief depicting Kaiser Wilhelm I riding a horse with the nobility, army commanders, and soldiers. The relief has the lyrics to “Die Wacht am Rhein” (Watch on the Rhine) engraved. The right side of the monument is considered the “peace statue”, while the left is considered the “war statue.”

[Via Google Translate]
Standing in front of the Niederwald monument is impressive because of its sheer size. The entire facility is 38.18 meters high and weighs around 75 tons in total. The most striking and at the same time largest part is the Germania placed on the upper pedestal and visible from afar . It alone reaches a height of 12.5 meters and weighs around 32 tons. The main inscription commemorating the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of the empire is carved into the base at her feet. It reads in capital letters: “In memory of the unanimous, victorious uprising of the German people and the reestablishment of the German Reich 1870-1871”. Directly below is the main relief, which depicts a total of 133 people. These are primarily generals and princes who played an important role in the founding of the empire and in the preceding war against France. You can also see a Prussian guard with a flag and a Saxon infantryman carrying a drum. Wilhelm I is depicted in the center of the relief. He is the only figure sitting on a horse and surrounded by all the others. This emphasizes its importance once more. All people shown are life-size. :: Alles Rund um das Niederwalddenkmal

Tugendbrunnen/Fountain of Virtues, Nuremberg

Nürnberg, Tugendbrunnen
Publisher: Hermann Martin

Google Street VIew

(Via Google Translate)
The Tugendbrunnen was built between 1584 and 1589 during the sensuous Renaissance period by the Nuremberg ore founder Benedikt Wurzelbauer. Like the beautiful fountain [Schönen Brunnen], it is one of the symbols of the city of Nuremberg and is located on the north side of the Lorenzkirche on Lorenzer Platz. Seven human figures and six putti adorn the bronze fountain column, which is divided into three floors and rises from an octagonal basin. The seven figures represent the seven virtues of the Middle Ages, with six putti between them.
Bayern Online

Fountain with a central column with three storeys with statues:
Top: Gerechtigkeit – Justice, blindfolded woman with scales and sword, with behind here a crane.
Middle: six music-making putti with coats of arms (each coat of arms appears twice):
Great arms of Nürnberg (eagle with a king’s head)
Holy Roman Empire (crowned, double-headed eagle)
Small arms of Nürnberg (eagle and red bends)
Lower: six virtues
Glaube – Faith, woman with chalice and cross.
Liebe – Charity, woman with two children.
Hoffnung – Hope, woman with anchor.
Tapferheit – Fortitude, armoured woman with gun and lion.
Mäßigkeit – Temperance, woman pouring wine from a jug in a goblet.
Geduld – Patience, woman with lamb.
Statues – Hither & Thither

Gänsemännchen Fountain, Nuremberg, Germany

On back:
Nürnberg Gänsemännchen
“S. Solden’sche Verlagsbuchh. (A. Zemsch). Nurnberg”

Google Street View (current location).

(via Google Translate)
The Goose Man Fountain is one of the oldest fountains in the city of Nuremberg . The fountain is located north of Nuremberg ‘s main market in the St. Sebald district . The name Goose Man refers to the bronze fountain figure, which depicts a farmer with two geese under his arm. . . . The ore founder Pankraz Labenwolf made the bronze goose figure in the Renaissance period, around 1550. As a template, he used a wooden model by the carver Hans Peisser , which is currently in the Fembohaus City Museum in Nuremberg. The bronze fountain figure with the two geese under the arm is based on a farmer, probably in the traditional costume of the Knoblauchsland north of Nuremberg. The fountain has a squat shaft. Above it is a renewed goblet-like sandstone basin, in the middle of which is a goose man on a pedestal. The fountain basin is surrounded by a rosettestudded wrought-iron trellis. The water drains through the two goose beaks and two tubes on the figure base.

In the absence of clear documentation (alas!) art historians are nevertheless unanimous in ascribing the Gänsemännchen Fountain to Labenwolf. He created the fountain from about 1550 to 1560. Thus Dürer’s drawings of Frankonian peasants and specifically of the “Goose-Man,” demonstrated a step-by-step evolution which culminated in the creation of this fountain. The location of the fountain was on the Goosemarket (Gänsemarkt), which later on became the Fruit Market (Obstmarkt). When World War II broke out, the fountain was moved to its present location in the Court of the New City Hall, Hauptmarkt 18. The flesh and blood “Goose-Man” came from the so-called Garlic Country (Knoblauchland) in the immediate vicinity of Nuremberg. It can easily be guessed what the farmers grew there. He was reputed to be a drunkard. After he sold his geese, he spent his money on wine and returned home empty-handed, albeit full in other respects. No doubt, this droll peasant was a unique specimen, a well-known “character” of his day.
Stein Collectors International

Nuremberg’s most famous city fountain is the Renaissance era Gänsemännchenbrunnen (The Geeseman Fountain) cast in brass. The modest fountain features a man carrying two plump geese, hence earning its famous title. The fountain is presently located at Rathausplatz, since 1945, but was originally in the Gänsemarkt (Goose market), at the southern end of the fruit market behind Frauenkirche. The figure has often been mistaken as a peasant or farmer, owing to its popular appeal, however, he is dressed in the fine period attire of an affluent Renaissance citizen. The figure’s meaning, purpose and subject have remained mysterious for centuries although the fountain’s facture has traditionally been associated with the brass caster Pankraz Labenwolf, an apprentice of the Vischer family of Nuremberg brass casters, who had established his own workshop by 1523 and foundry by 1537.

No documents are known regarding the purpose, subject or commission for the fountain. Modern local customs believe the Geeseman was a farmer from the garlic country of Northern Nuremberg who sought to sell his geese at the market, but sensing their fate they began to cry-out, inspiring the farmer to have a change-of-heart and return home with his adopted pets. . . . The sculpture’s unusual iconography and subject can be explained by certain events unfolding in Nuremberg during the advent of the Reformation and the city’s metamorphosis in the shifting tide of religious and social reorganization. The figure represents Philip Melanchthon, collaborator of Martin Luther and intellectual leader for Luther’s reformist principles. When Nuremberg adopted Protestantism in 1525 there was a sudden interruption in Nuremberg’s educational system which had formerly depended upon the church and its resources to educate its citizens. Anticipating such a problem, Martin Luther, in 1524, delivered an appeal to German cities to “establish and maintain Christian schools.”4 The Nuremberg councilmen took subsequent action to attract Philip Melanchthon to their city to help initiate and direct their first city-run school. Although invited, Melanchthon did not opt to fill a position as director, but arrived in November of 1524 enthusiastically recruiting and organizing the city’s educational program. In address to the city’s leadership, Melanchthon inaugurated Nuremberg’s first academy at St. Egidien on 23 May 1526.
Renaissance Brnoze

Stephanplatz Fountain, Karlsruhe, Germany

On back:
Karlsruhe — Der Stephansbrunnen
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Edmond von König, Heidleberg

Google Street View.

(Via Google Translate)
In 1903, the architect Hermann Billing , who was a member of the artists’ commission, was commissioned to create a fountain for the center of the square without a design competition. Billing planned a fountain basin under a columned hall, in the center of which is the figure of a spring nymph should be placed. The production of the bronze figure was entrusted to the young sculptor Hermann Binz (1876-1946).

However, the naked nymph met with opposition from the city council, so Billing and Binz modified the designs so that the nymph should be placed at the edge of the pool on a flat base and without the canopy. The columns then only carry a ring-shaped open entablature. The water was supposed to flow into the basin from gargoyles in the form of faces on the pillars, the faces were directed towards the nymph. That has been approved. When the construction of the fountain was completed in the summer of 1905, there were surprises, ridicule and rejections, because not everyone liked both the naked bronze figure and the faces. Binz had worked out the faces as caricatures of well-known Karlsruhe personalities, especially those city councilors who had rejected the first draft.

(Via Google Translate)
The fountain was designed in 1905 by the architect Hermann Billing . The original design envisaged a spring mermaid placed on a pedestal, in the spirit of Art Nouveau , but it did not yet include the rotunda with the male faces. The draft was hotly debated in the municipal council. The depiction of a naked woman in such a prominent position was felt by some council members to be inappropriate. Nevertheless, the draft was finally released and Hermann Billing was allowed to realize it, including artistic modifications. He did this together with the sculptor Hermann Binz. Since Billing was obviously annoyed by the discussion in the municipal council, he designed the fountain in such a way that the municipal council members, in addition to him and Binz, also look at the naked woman. Oberbaurat Reinhard Baumeister, who preferred to see a girl in traditional costume, is even scratched by a mermaid on the beard.
Stadtwiki Karksruhe

Teichmann fountain, Bremen, Germany

Bremen | Teichmannsbrunnen

Google Street View.

The Teichmann fountain was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1899. The multipartite bronze ensemble was situated in a square fountain basin; the frame was made of Niedermendig basalt lava. A ship, threatened by mermaids and marine animals was depicted being pulled over the rocks by a Triton. A sailor on the helm was visible in the back part of the ship, the bow bore an upright Mercury with an olive branch and a bag of money. The edge of the boat bore the name “Teichmann”. The fountain was deconstructed between the 20th and 23rd April 1940 for the German metal donation programme.
Kunst im öffentlichen raum Bremen

Teichmann-Brunnen in Bremen, 1906, (from Wikimedia Commons)

Teichmann Fountain, a boat with Mercury, Neptune and Nixies in bronze by Rudolf Maison was a gift of Kaufmann Gustav Adolph Teichmann (died 1892) to replace an old well and stood from 28 November 1899 until melted down for scrap metal in 1940.

The Captain’s Well, Amesbury, USA

The Captain’s Well,
Made famous by Whittier,
Amesbury, Mass.
Postmarked 1916

Google Street View.

Amesbury poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, wrote a poem entitled, The Captain’s Well, about the perilous adventures of Captain Valentine Bagley II. While Bagley was a ship’s carpenter, his ship, the Commerce of Boston, was stranded on the coast of Arabia in July of 1792. He and the ship’s crew had to walk through the Arabian Desert to find help. Thirty four started the journey, only eight survived. When Captain Bagley eventually returned to Amesbury, Massachusetts, he fulfilled a promise he had made while suffering in the desert. He had vowed to dig a well for all to use, so that no man should suffer from thirst as he did.

By the time Whittier wrote his poem, in 1889, the well had fallen into disrepair. In the late 1890s, the well was cleaned up, a canopy built over it and a pipe installed to connect it to the town water system. Later, the wooden canopy was replaced by a permanent monument engraved with Whittier’s poem.
The Macy-Colby House

“Pity me, God! for I die of thirst;
Take me out of this land accurst;
“And if ever I reach my home again,
Where earth has springs, and the sky has rain,
“I will dig a well for the passers-by,
And none shall suffer from thirst as I.
. . .
Now the Lord be thanked, I am back again,
Where earth has springs, and the skies have rain,
“And the well I promised by Oman’s Sea,
I am digging for him in Amesbury.”
His kindred wept, and his neighbors said:
“The poor old captain is out of his head.”
But from morn to noon, and from noon to night,
He toiled at his task with main and might;
And when at last, from the loosened earth,
Under his spade the stream gushed forth,
And fast as he climbed to his deep well’s brim,
The water he dug for followed him,
He shouted for joy: “I have kept my word,
And here is the well I promised the Lord!”
The long years came and the long years went,
And he sat by his roadside well content;
He watched the travellers, heat-oppressed,
Paused by the way to drink and rest
“The Captain’s Well”, John Greenleaf Whittier

Where Montgomery Fell (Battle of Quebec 1775), Quebec

Where Montgomery Fell, Quebec, Canada
c. 1910 (image 1906)
Publisher: The Valentine & Sons Publishing Co, Montreal & Toronto

Here stood
The Undaunted Fifty
Defeating Montgomery
At the Pres-de-Ville Barricade
On the last day of
Commanding at

Google Street View.

Two hundred and thirty-five years ago tonight [31 December 2010], American soldiers attacked the city of Quebec during a raging blizzard in a desperate attempt to capture Canada early in the Revolutionary War. Two separate American expeditions converged in the vicinity of Quebec City in December 1775. One led by General Richard Montgomery had moved up Lake Champlain from Albany, captured Montreal, and came to Quebec from the southwest. The other force, commanded by Benedict Arnold, had originated in Cambridge from the colonial forces gathered around Boston . . . Because Canada had only become a British possession sixteen years earlier, the Americans hoped to recruit many French Canadian residents to their cause, but most either ignored the Americans or sided with the handful of British defenders of the city. Without a popular uprising and lacking artillery sufficient to overcome the walls of the city, Montgomery and Arnold decided that their only chance of success was to attack during a snowstorm. The opportunity arose on New Year’s Eve. Montgomery led his force from the west along the banks of the Saint Lawrence. Arnold would come in from the northeast, skirting the walls of the upper city. The Americans hoped to first capture the lower city and then move upward to the main portion of Quebec. Montgomery’s force met with some initial success, but the snow obscured a heavily defended British-Canadian blockhouse. As Montgomery and his aides passed nearby, those inside fired a cannon which wiped out the American command group, causing the rest of the force to immediately retreat. Arnold fared little better. He made it into the lower city, but the narrow streets of the old town restricted his ability to maneuver. Arnold was shot in the foot and was evacuated by his men. Those who stayed behind were soon surrounded and surrendered. The Battle of Quebec: December 31, 1775

A storm broke out on December 30, and Montgomery once again gave orders for the attack. Brown and Livingston led their militia companies to their assigned positions that night: Brown by the Cape Diamond redoubt, and Livingston outside St. John’s Gate (fr). When Brown reached his position between 4 am and 5 am, he fired flares to signal the other forces, and his men and Livingston’s began to fire on their respective targets.] Montgomery and Arnold, seeing the flares, set off for the lower town. Montgomery led his men from Wolfe’s Cove down the steep, snow-heaped path towards the outer defenses The storm had turned into a blizzard, making the advance a struggle. As they advanced over the ice-covered rocky ground, the bells of the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church began to ring, signaling the militiamen to arm themselves, as sentries manning the walls of Quebec City saw the American lanterns in the blizzard.

Montgomery’s men eventually arrived at the palisade of the outer defenses, where an advance party of carpenters sawed their way through the wall. Montgomery himself helped saw through the second palisade, and led 50 men down a street towards a two-story building. The building formed part of the city’s defenses, and was in fact a blockhouse occupied by 39 Quebec militia and 9 sailors armed with muskets and cannons. Montgomery unsheathed his sword as he led his men down the street as the blizzard raged. The defenders opened fire at close range, and Montgomery was killed instantly, shot through the head by a burst of grapeshot while most of the men standing beside him were either killed or wounded.[76] The few men of the advance party who survived fled back towards the palisade.

Collapse of bridge, Angers, France

ANGERS – Catastrophe de la Basse-Chaine (10 April 1850)
225 soldats du 11e Léger furent noyés á la suite de la rupture du Pont
Publisher: A. Bruel, Angers

Angers Bridge, also called the Basse-Chaîne Bridge, was a suspension bridge over the Maine River in Angers, France. It was designed by Joseph Chaley and Bordillon, and built between 1836 and 1839. The bridge collapsed on 16 April 1850, while a battalion of French soldiers was marching across it, killing over 200 of them. The bridge spanned 102 m (335 ft), with two wire cables carrying a deck 7.2 m (24 ft) wide. Its towers consisted of cast iron columns 5.47 m (17.9 ft) tall.

Soldiers stationed in the region frequently used the bridge, and two battalions of the same regiment had crossed earlier that day. The third battalion arrived during a powerful thunderstorm when the wind was making the bridge oscillate. When the soldiers began to cross, their bodies acted as sails, further catching the wind. Survivors reported that they had been walking as if drunk and could barely keep themselves from falling, first to one side and then to the other. As usual in crossing that bridge, the soldiers had been ordered to break step and to space themselves farther apart than normal. However, their efforts to match the swaying and keep their balance may have caused them to involuntarily march with the same cadence, causing resonance. In any case, the oscillation increased. At a time when the bridge was covered with 483 soldiers and four other people (though the police had prevented many curiosity seekers from joining the march), the upstream anchoring cable on the right bank broke in its concrete mooring, three to four meters underground, with a noise like “a badly done volley from a firing squad”. The adjacent downstream cable broke a second later, and the right-bank end of the deck fell, making the deck slope very steeply and throwing soldiers into the river. Many of those who fell were saved by their fellow soldiers who had not yet crossed and by residents of Angers who came to the rescue, but a total of 226 people died.

The Basse-Chaine Bridge, known as the Angers Bridge, collapsed into the River Mayenne, in western France, just after 11.30 a.m. on Tuesday, April 16th, 1850, killing over 200 and injuring many more.

The suspension road bridge, designed by Joseph Chaley, was authorised in 1835 and built between 1836 and 1839. At the time there was quite a fashion for building suspension bridges in France, but following the Angers disaster, the building of such bridges was halted for over 20 years. On that morning the bridge was being used heavily as there was a military camp nearby. A squadron of hussars had barely cleared the bridge, when the head of the 11th battalion appeared on the other side. The Colonel in charge, Simonet, reported afterwards that he shouted a warning to the men to break into sections as they crossed and for the band to cease playing, but a fierce storm was raging and his words were carried away by the wind. He reported that to do so was usual procedure, but no written order was given. The drummers and some of the band had safely crossed over when, with a terrible crash, the cast iron column on the right bank gave way, crushing those waiting to file onto the bridge. The 102 metre long deck of the bridge then fell, in one piece, into the river taking with it 483 military personnel and 4 civilians – a maid and three children. A plaque erected on the bridge in 1900 commemorates the 223 who died, including the children and their maid.

Repairs had taken place on the bridge the previous year, 1849, as it had been heavily used during the construction of a stone bridge nearby. However, the commission of enquiry formed on April 20th, found that the combination of three factors had caused the disaster – the storm, described at the time as a hurricane, which caused the bridge to sway, the resonating effect of soldiers marching in step and rusted cables. The wire strands of the cables had separated from the concrete moorings, allowing water to penetrate and cause rusting. One cable snapped.
Bridges of Dublin

Image of Pont de la Basse-Chaîne (from Wikimedia Commons)


The following letter from Lieutenant-colonel Simonet, of the same regiment gives a short hut affecting account of the disaster. It is curious that the same officer should be the survivor of the terrible catastrophe which occurred at the battle of Leipsic, when Paniatowski and so many others were drowned in the Elster :—

“Before entering the faubouig of Angers, an aide-de-camp of Gen. Duzer came to me with an order to enter the town by the suspension-bridge, and to draw up my men on the Place d l’Arademie, where he proposBed to review them. I had scarcely resumed my march by column in sections, when the weather, which had been before very fine, suddenly changed to a perfect tempest; a furious wind, and pouring rain. It was then half-past eleven. It was under these gloomy -auspices that I entered on the fatal bridge, after having stopped the band, and broke the regularity of the step, as is usual in such cases. The wind was so high that the floor of the bridge rose and fell from it so much that I had difficulty in keeping my seat on my horse. Scarcely had the section of the advanced guard, the pioneers, and the greater part of the band reached the opposite bank of the river, when suddenly a horrible crash was heard, and the floor of the bridge gave way under our feet. With the exception of the head of the column and the two rear sections, all the rest of the battalion followed the movement on the bridge, and fell into the water. Ah, what a spectacle. Never was there a more heartrending one. My poor mare turned over, left me in the water, and then, suddenly rising, nearly crushed me. I rose and endeavoured to catch her, but Captain Desmarest, my adjutant-major, who was marching behind me, and to whom I owe my life, seizing me by the arm, drew me forcibly lo the left side of the bridge (the water then up to my armpits); then, assisted by some soldiers, I was lifted into a small boat, when one of the inhabitants, an old soldier, received me in his arms in a fainting state. From thence I got into a washerwoman’s boat, and then gained the shore. I was saved, but too earnestly occupied with the fate of my children, my friends, and my comrades, to think of accepting the assistance which was eagerly offered me by the inhabitants and the officers of the garrison.”

A letter from Angers says:—
“The lieutenant colonel, an old officer of the Empire, assisted by the adjutant and some of the men, escaped with his life; but although seriously wounded and bruised he would not quit the spot, but remained to watch over the rescue of his companions in arms. It is impossible to describe his solicitude and his coolness in the midst of ihe frightful scenes by which he was surrounded. The inhabitants of the town warmly seconded the exertions of the officers, who forgot themselves to go to the assistance of their soldiers. A grand musical congress was to have place next week at Angers, but in consequence of this catastrophe the committee have decided that it shall not take place.”

The following additional particulars of this terrible catastrophe, are from the Precurseur of Angers, published on the subsequent day:—

“Every one on the spot vied with each other in rendering assistance, and as the soldiers were got out they were led into the houses adjoining, and every, assistance given. A young lieutenant of the 11th (M. Loup) rendered himself conspicuous for his heroic exertions; and a young workwoman, at the imminent danger of her life, jumped into the water, and saved the life of an officer who was sinking. It is impossible for us at this moment to estimate the number of lives that have been lost; of those who escaped with their lives there is scarcely one but has received wounds from the bayonets of his comrades. Several acts of devotion deserve to be mentioned. Several soldiers who had reached the shore unhurt, immediately stripped and swam to the assistance of Ins comrades.

“Ten o’clock -— The muster-roll has just been called over. Of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd companies there only remain 14, 16, and 19 men respectively. The number deficient amounts to 219, to which must be added 33 dead, and 30 wounded in the hospital, making the total loss to the battalion 282. There is reason, however, to hope that there may yet be some in private houses which may not be included in the number of those whose fate has been known.

“Two  o’clock. —- The number of bodies found up to this time amounts to 123. The names of the officers killed or drowned, as yet ascertained, are Capt. Dore, Lieut. Cottez, Sub-lient PorteDrapeau Carette, and Sub-lieuts. Forgues and Lebreck. It appears that some people belonging to the town were walking on the bridge at the time of the accident, for among the bodies found are those of a servant and two children.

THE FUNERAL.-The President of the Republic reached Angers on Thursday night. The list of the dead was, at his request, given him. He passed the whole of Friday morning in visiting the hospital where the wounded are taken care of. He was accompanied by the minister of war and the general officer commanding the department of the Maine and Loire. Several of the survivors are in a state which leaves little hope of their recovery. The orderly officers of the President have also visited the private houses where the wounded took refuge. The greatest attentions are paid to the unfortunate survivors. The funerals of the unhappy victims took place at one o’clock on Thursday, in the church of Angers; the orderly officers, the civil and military authorities filled the church and its approaches. All the shops were closed, and the town wore an appearance of deep sorrow. The usual military honours were paid as the dead were laid in their graves.
The Hobart Town Advertiser, 13 August 1850

Torre Monumental & plaza, Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires
Plaza y Estación Retiro.
[Plaza & Retiro Station]
Dated 1921
Publisher: Z. Fumagalli, Buenos Aires

Google Street View.

Torre Monumental (Spanish for “Monumental Tower”), formerly known as Torre de los Ingleses (“Tower of the English”), is a clock tower located in the barrio (district) of Retiro in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is situated in the Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina (formerly Plaza Britannia) by San Martín Street and Avenida del Libertador. It was a gift from the local British community to the city in commemoration of the centennial of the May Revolution of 1810. After the Falklands War in 1982, the tower’s original name was dropped, though some still call it Torre de los Ingleses.

On September 18, 1909 the Argentine National Congress passed Law N° 6368, consisting of an offer by the British residents of Buenos Aires to erect a monumental column to commemorate the centennial of the May Revolution. Although the centenary monument was initially considered to be a column, it ultimately took the form of the clock tower. A 1910 exhibition of project proposals at the Salón del Bon Marché, today the Galerías Pacífico, resulted in the jury’s award to English architect Sir Ambrose Macdonald Poynter (1867–1923), nephew of the founder of the Royal Institute of British Architects. The tower was built by Hopkins y Gardom, with materials shipped from England such as the white Portland stone and the bricks from Stonehouse, Gloucestershire (see below). The technical personnel responsible for the construction also came from England. . . . The inauguration of the building took place on May 24, 1916 and was attended by the President of Argentina Victorino de la Plaza and British dignitaries led by the minister plenipotentiary Reginald Tower.