New Palace, Potsdam, Germany

A colossal palace building, its high tambour dome recognizable from afar, rises up at the western end of the Hauptallee (the main promenade) in Sanssouci Park: the Neues Palais (New Palace). In strong contrast to the intimate and rather modest Sanssouci Palace the large palace complex served official, representational needs. Grand banquet halls, splendid galleries and regally designed suites, not to mention Sanssouci’s Baroque palace theater in the southern wing, await visitors in its interior.
Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg

When the Seven Years’ War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Hubertusburg in 1763, and Prussia had survived the latter without territorial losses, Frederick the Great resumed his construction activities. The New Palace was erected in the western part of Park Sanssouci between 1763 and 1769. Frederick’s New Palace marks the symbolic end of an era, since after its completion no further baroque palaces were built in Prussia.
Sanssouci Park Potsdam

The New Palace is a palace situated on the western side of the Sanssouci park in Potsdam, Germany. . . In an architectural form, Frederick the Great sought to demonstrate the power and glories of Prussia attributing it as fanfaronade, an excess of splendor in marble, stone and gilt. For the King, the New Palace was not a principal residence, but a display for the reception of important royals and dignitaries.
. . .
After the death of Frederick the Great in 1786, the New Palace fell into disuse and was rarely occupied as a residence or entertainment venue. However, starting in 1859 it became the summer residence of the German Crown Prince, Frederick William, later German Emperor Frederick III. The palace was the preferred residence of Frederick and his empress, Victoria, throughout the 99 Days’ Reign. During the short reign of Frederick III, the palace was renamed “Friedrichskron Palace” (Schloss Friedrichskron) and a moat was dug around the palace. The accession of Wilhelm II saw renovation and restoration within the palace being carried out with the installation of steam heating, bathrooms in state apartments and electrification of the chandeliers which Frederick the Great had collected from across Europe. Until 1918, it remained the preferred residence of Wilhelm II and the Empress Augusta Viktoria. After the November Revolution and the abdication of Wilhelm II, the New Palace became a museum and remained such until the Second World War.
Wikipedia.

The New Palace is a baroque palace and consists of a three-winged corps de logis (residential wing) around a courtyard with low side wings. The three-wing system has a front length of 220 meters. The facade is characterized by a reddish brick pattern and fluted Corinthian pilasters made of sandstone in colossal order. The red brick was only painted on for cost reasons. . . . The middle section of the two-and-a-half-storey building – with a mezzanine – is crowned by a huge, functionless 55 meter high main dome. The Three Graces group is located on the dome. The dome is only used for architectural decoration and has no other purpose. It does not contain any space. The two single-storey pavilion-like side wings have an L-shaped floor plan. They also each have a dome.
Best of Potsdam


On back:
Potsdam — Neues Palais | Jaspisgalerie
c.1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Google Street View.

(Via Google Translate)
The marble gallery to the south led to the king’s apartments. Red jasper and white Carrara marble dominate the picture in this long hall. French doors let a lot of light into the interior. Three ceiling paintings connected by a rich gold ornament symbolize the times of day – the night, the morning and the noon. They are works by the painter Bernhard Rode. The division of fields and framing stucco are based on the ceiling design of the much smaller gallery in Sanssouci Palace.
Wikipedia..


On back:
Potsdam — Neues Palais | Muschel- oder Grottensaal
c.1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Google Street View.

As a visitor, you first enter the vestibule. Then you come to the grotto or shell hall. Over 20,000 different minerals, ores, fossils, shells and snails, rocks and artefacts adorn and decorate the garden room designed as a grotto. The hall was originally designed a little more simply, but the walls were further enriched with minerals, fossils and semi-precious stones in the 19th century.
Best of Potsdam

On the ground floor behind the vestibule is the Grotto Hall, attributed to Carl von Gontard, with walls encrusted with shells, stones, marble, quartz and semi-precious stones, which were enriched in the 19th century. Part of the design of the Groto Hall is a marble floor depicting marine animals and plants and an 1806 ceiling painting, Venus and Amor, the Three Graces and Putti. Attributed to Johann Gottfried Niedlich, the painting has replaced an earlier work. Niches around the room contain statuary and fountains, with cut crystal chandeliers hung in the arches.
Wikipedia.

Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna


On back:
Ehem. kaiserl. Lustschloß Schönbrunn Wien
Groß Galerie
A volt császári kastély Schönbrunnban
A nagy Galeria.
Ancien château de plaisance impérial de Schoenbrunn, Vienne.
Grande galerie.
Schoenbrunn, the Old Imperial Castle of Pleasure, Vienna
Great Lobby
Palazzo imperiale pristino di Schoenbrunn, Vienna.
Galleria grande
c. 1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Schönbrunn Palace was the main summer residence of the Habsburg rulers, located in Hietzing, Vienna. The name Schönbrunn (meaning “beautiful spring”) has its roots in an artesian well from which water was consumed by the court. The 1,441-room Rococo palace is one of the most important architectural, cultural, and historic monuments in the country. The history of the palace and its vast gardens spans over 300 years, reflecting the changing tastes, interests, and aspirations of successive Habsburg monarchs. . . . The Schönbrunn Palace in its present form was built and remodelled during the 1740–50s during the reign of empress Maria Theresa who received the estate as a wedding gift. Franz I commissioned the redecoration of the palace exterior in the neoclassical style as it appears today. Franz Joseph, the longest-reigning emperor of Austria, was born at Schönbrunn and spent a great deal of his life there. He died there, at the age of 86, on 21 November 1916. Following the downfall of the Habsburg monarchy in November 1918, the palace became the property of the newly founded Austrian Republic and was preserved as a museum.
Wikipedia.

After the death of Emperor Ferdinand II in 1637, the estate became the dower residence of his art-loving widow, who needed the appropriare architectural setting for her busy social life. She therefore had a château de plaisance built around 1642, which was accompanied by the renaming of the Katterburg to Schoenbrunn, a change of name first documented in the same year. In 1683 the château de plaisance and its deer park fell victim to the depredations of Turkish troops during the siege of Vienna. From 1686 the estate was in the possession of Emperor Leopold I, who decided that he would make the estate over to his son and heir Joseph, and have a splendid new residence built for him.

Soon afterwards the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, an architect who had received his training in Rome and had been recommended by patrons from the nobility, arrived at court. In 1688 he presented the Emperor with a preliminary set of designs for a new palace, the so-called Schoenbrunn I-Project, and in 1693 Leopold I commissioned concrete plans for the construction of a grand hunting lodge, on which work started in 1696. The new edifice was partly built on the existing foundations of the château de plaisance that had been destroyed by the Turks. The construction of the lateral wings was delayed from 1701 owing to the War of the Spanish Succession and the attendant financial constraints, and came to a complete halt after Joseph’s sudden death.
Schönbrunner Schlossstraße Knozerta

Over forty metres long and almost ten metres wide, the Great Gallery provided the ideal setting for court functions. From the mid-eighteenth century onwards, it was used for balls, receptions and as a banqueting hall. The tall windows and the crystal mirrors facing them on the opposite wall together with the white-and-gold stucco decoration and the ceiling frescos combine to form a total work of art in its own right, resulting in one of the most magnificent Rococo ceremonial halls in existence.
Schloss Schönbrunn


On back:
Ehem. kaiserl. Lustschloß Schönbrunn. Wien.
Chinesisches. Rundkabinett.
Schoenbrunn, the Old Imperial Castle of Pleasure.
Chinese Rotunda.
Ancien château de plaisance impérial de Schoenbrunn. Vienne.
Rotonde chinoise.

c. 1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

To either side of the Small Gallery are the East Asian Cabinets, until recently known erroneously as Chinese cabinets. Only the right-hand cabinet can correctly be termed Chinese in reference to the Chinese porcelain displayed there, while the left-hand east cabinet should be referred to as the Japanese Oval Cabinet. Both rooms have a distinctly intimate character and were used by Maria Theresa for small social gatherings, for example for playing cards. Before the rooms were decorated as we see them today, the Round Cabinet was used as a small conference room, in which the so-called ‘tables de conspiration‘ took place. These were secret conferences at which meals were served to the participants by means of a moveable table winched up from the room on the floor below, so that they would not be disturbed or eavesdropped upon by the servants.
Schloss Schönbrunn

“Vue du château de Schönbrunn à Vienne, au début du XXe siècle.” [View of Schonbrunn Palace, early 2oth cenury] (from Wikimedia Commons).

Armoury, Governor’s Palace, Valletta, Malta


The Armoury, Governor’s Palace.
1900s

Ever since its construction by the Order of St John [in the 16th century], this Palace was richly embellished with collections of works of art and heritage items, some of which still grace its walls. While some of these were purposely produced to form part of the historic fabric of the building, others were acquired, transferred or presented at different times throughout the chequered history of the Palace. Destined for grandiosity, right from its beginning, this Palace was one of the first buildings which were constructed at the heart of the new city of Valletta, founded by Grand Master Jean de Valette. Successive Grand Masters enlarged and developed this building to serve as their official residence. Later, during the British Period, it served as the Governor’s Palace, and was the seat of Malta’s first constitutional parliament in 1921.
Heritage Malta

The Palace Armoury is an arms collection housed at the Grandmaster’s Palace in Valletta, Malta. It was the main armoury of the Order of St. John in the 17th and 18th centuries, and as such it was the last arsenal established by a crusader military order.
. . .
In 1604, the Order’s arsenal was transferred to the Grandmaster’s Palace by Alof de Wignacourt, and was housed in a large hall at the rear of the building. At the time, it contained enough arms and armour for thousands of soldiers. The armoury was rearranged under Manuel Pinto da Fonseca’s magistracy in the 18th century. Parts of the armoury are believed to have been removed and shipped to France during the French occupation of Malta in 1798–1800, as part of “the organised robbery of art treasure and historic treasures” carried out by Napoleon. In the early 19th century, the armoury was altered by the British with the addition of Egyptian style column-like supports. These were removed and returned to England in 1855. In the late 1850s, the armoury was restored under the personal direction of Governor John Gaspard Le Marchant, and it opened to the public as a museum in 1860
Wikipedia.

Dungeon of the Château de Loches, Loches, France


41 — LOCHES (L-et-L.) — Donjon. Cachot du Duc d’Alençon
(Dungeon. Prison of the Duc d’Alençon.)
1920s
Published by  Levy & Neurdein

Street View (exterior)

The castle (sometimes also called simply “dungeon”) of Loches, in the eponymous commune of Indre-et-Loire, 40 km south-east of Tours, is a castle built in the eleventh century in the heart of a city royal which also includes a “home” (palace) and a collegiate. The whole city situated on a rocky outcrop is surrounded by a wall. The dungeon was built between 1013 and 1035 by the Count of Anjou Foulques Nerra. It resists several seats and over the centuries, is equipped with new elements: a curtain (XII), towers (XIII), a house for its governor (XIV), a round tower and a barbican (XV). The fortified building is composed of two parts: the large dungeon, rectangular in shape of about 25 by 14 meters, formerly adorned with a crown, and a fore-body adjoining its north face, called “little dungeon”. The thickness of the walls varies from 3.40 m at the base to 2.60 m at the summit. In the 15th century, the castle became a royal prison, a vocation that he kept until the Revolution, then changing into a prison from 1801 to 1926.
France-Voyage

John II of Alençon (Jean II d’Alençon) (2 March 1409 – 8 September 1476) was a French nobleman. He succeeded his father as Duke of Alençon and Count of Perche as a minor in 1415, after the latter’s death at the Battle of Agincourt. He is best known as a general in the Last Phase of the Hundred Years’ War and for his role as a comrade-in-arms of Joan of Arc.

John was discontented with the Treaty of Arras, having hoped to make good his poverty through the spoliation of the Burgundians. He fell out with Charles VII, and took part in a revolt in 1439–40, (the Praguerie) but was forgiven, having been a lifelong friend of the king. He took part in the invasion of Normandy in 1449, but he had unwisely entered into correspondence with the English since 1440. (He had also accepted the Order of the Golden Fleece at this time.) Shortly after testifying at the “rehabilitation trial” of Joan of Arc in 1456, he was arrested by Jean de Dunois and imprisoned at Aigues-Mortes. In 1458, he was convicted of lèse-majesté and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted and he was imprisoned at Loches. He was released by Louis XI upon terms at his accession in 1461, but he refused to keep them and was imprisoned again. He was tried a second time before the Parlement of Paris and sentenced to death again on 18 July 1474, and his Duchy was confiscated. However, the sentence was not carried out, and he died in prison in the Louvre in 1476.
Wikipedia.


LOCHES (L-et-L.) –Le Donjon – Sculptures dans le mur la Salle d’Armes
The Dungeon – Sculptures in the wall (Room of Arms)
1910s
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)


Detailed plain of the chateau (from Wikimedia Commons)


Detailed view of the dungon (from Wikimedia Commons)

Palace, Thanjavur, India


Tanjore. Interior of Palace
Publisher: D. Macropolo & Co, Calcutta

Google Street View (approximate).

The Thanjavur Maratha palace was originally constructed by the rulers of Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. The construction of Thanjavur Palace began in 1534 and was completed in 1535, thanks to plenty of local prisoners of war who provided manual labor. The Palace was officially called “Sivagangai Fort” and was held by the Nayak family until April 1674, when the Maratha ruler Venkoji captured it. After the fall of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, it served as the official residence of the Thanjavur Maratha. The Marathas enhanced the original structure and expanded the palace complex.

The Thanjavur Palace is a huge complex that has many architectural features. The massive complex consists of huge halls, wide corridors, multi-storied observation towers and a shady courtyard. As you walk across, you can see that some parts of the complex are in ruins while other parts show that restoration work has been taken up to revive and protect the monument.
Thanjavur Tourism

Petit Trianon, Versailles, France

Master post for Versailles


VERSAILLES. Palais du Petit-Trianon. Le grand Escalier
[Palace of the Petit Trianon. The grand Staircase.]
c.1910
Publisher: Neurdein Studio

In an attempt to gain some brief respite from courtly etiquette, the kings of Versailles built themselves more intimate spaces close to the main palace. Adjoining the Petit Parc, the estate of Trianon is home to the Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon palaces, as well as the Queen’s Hamlet and a variety of ornamental gardens. Construction on the estate began under Louis XIV, who had the Grand Trianon Palace built at the far end of the northern branch of the Grand Canal. The estate is perhaps most closely associated with Queen Marie-Antoinette. The wife of Louis XVI regularly sought refuge at the Petit Trianon, where she commissioned marvellous landscaped gardens centred around a hamlet of cottages built in the rustic style then in vogue.
Chateau de Versailles

The Petit Trianon was built on the site of a botanical garden developed about a decade earlier by Louis XV, within the grounds of the Grand Trianon, Louis XIV’s retreat from the Palace of Versailles to the southeast. It was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762 and 1768. Madame de Pompadour died four years before its completion, and the Petit Trianon was subsequently occupied by her successor, Madame du Barry. Upon his accession to the throne in 1774, the 20-year-old Louis XVI gave the château and its surrounding park to his 19-year-old Queen Marie Antoinette for her exclusive use and enjoyment.

The Petit Trianon is a celebrated example of the transition from the Rococo style of the earlier part of the 18th century to the more sober and refined Neoclassical style of the 1760s and onward. Essentially an exercise on a cube, the Petit Trianon attracts interest by virtue of its four facades, each thoughtfully designed according to that part of the estate it would face. The Corinthian order predominates, with two freestanding and two engaged columns on the side of the formal French garden, and pilasters facing both the courtyard and the area once occupied by Louis XV’s greenhouses.
Wikipedia.

Herrenchiemsee New Palace, Germany


Sschloß Herrenchiemsee
(Castle of Herrenchiemsee)
Publisher: Zierer

Google Street View.

Palace Tour

Herrenchiemsee is a complex of royal buildings on Herreninsel, the largest island in the Chiemsee lake, in southern Bavaria, Germany. Together with the neighbouring isle of Frauenchiemsee and the uninhabited Krautinsel, it forms the municipality of Chiemsee, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Munich. The island, formerly the site of an Augustinian monastery, was purchased by King Ludwig II of Bavaria in 1873. The king had the premises converted into a residence, known as the Old Palace (Altes Schloss). From 1878 onwards, he had the New Herrenchiemsee Palace (Neues Schloss) erected, based on the model of Versailles. It was the largest, but also the last of his building projects, and remained incomplete.
Wikipedia.

In 1873 King Ludwig II of Bavaria acquired the Herreninsel as the location for his Royal Palace of Herrenchiemsee (New Palace). Modelled on Versailles, this palace was built as a “Temple of Fame” for King Louis XIV of France, whom the Bavarian monarch fervently admired.The actual building of this “Bavarian Versailles”, which was begun in 1878 from plans by Georg Dollmann, was preceded by a total of 13 planning stages. When Ludwig II died in 1886 the palace was still incomplete, and sections of it were later demolished.
Herrenchiemsee Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung


Kgl. Schloss Herrenchiemsee
Beratungszimmer

Council Chamber
c.1920
Publisher: Felix Durner,

Sanssouci, Potsdam, Germany


Potsdam | Schloss Sanssouci Mittelbau
1920s
“I. W. B. Serie Rembrandt”

Google Street View.

No other palace is so closely linked with the personality of Frederick the Great as Sanssouci. The name Sanssouci – without a care – should be understood as both the primary wish and leitmotif of the king, because this was the place where he most preferred to retreat in the company of his dogs. The king’s summer residence was ultimately his favorite place and sanctuary in difficult times.
Sanssouci Palace, Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg

Sanssouci is a historical building in Potsdam, near Berlin. Built by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, as his summer palace, it is often counted among the German rivals of Versailles. While Sanssouci is in the more intimate Rococo style and is far smaller than its French Baroque counterpart, it too is notable for the numerous temples and follies in the park. The palace was designed/built by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff between 1745 and 1747 to fulfill King Frederick’s need for a private residence where he could relax away from the pomp and ceremony of the Berlin court.
Wikipedia.


On back:
Potsdam, Sanssouci
Schloß. Musikzimmer.

[Music Room]
c.1930
Publisher: Staatliche Bildstelle/Deutscher Kunstverlag (which Googles translates to: “State Image Agency/German art publisher”)

Google Street View.

The principal entrance area, consisting of two halls, the “Entrance Hall” and the “Marble Hall”, is at the centre, thus providing common rooms for the assembly of guests and the court, while the principal rooms flanking the Marble Hall become progressively more intimate and private, in the tradition of the Baroque concept of state rooms. Thus, the Marble Hall was the principal reception room beneath the central dome. Five guest rooms adjoined the Marble Hall to the west, while the King’s apartments lay to the east – an audience room, music room, study, bedroom, library, and a long gallery on the north side.
Wikipedia.


On back:
Potsdam, Sanssouci
Bibliothek.

[Library]
c.1930
Publisher: Staatliche Bildstelle

Google Street View.

The circular library deviated from the spatial structure of French palace architecture. The room is almost hidden, accessed through a narrow passageway from the bedroom, underlining its private character. Cedarwood was used to panel the walls and for the alcoved bookcases. The harmonious shades of brown augmented with rich gold-coloured Rocaille ornaments were intended to create a peaceful mood. The bookcases contained approximately 2,100 volumes of Greek and Roman writings and historiographies and also a collection of French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries with a heavy emphasis on the works of Voltaire. The books were bound in brown or red goat leather and richly gilded.
Wikipedia.

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Chateau Pierrefonds, Pierrefonds, France


PIERREFONDS. — Le Château. — Vue intérieure de la Colonnade de la Cour d’Honneur. – LL
Interior view of the colonnade
c.1910
Publisher: Levy & Sons

Google Street View (colonnade)
Google Street VIew (exterior).

Wikipedia.

Duke Louis of Orleans (1372-1407), brother of Charles VI, whilst battling with the Duke of Burgundy for royal power, built a fortress at Pierrefonds in 1397. He thus confirmed his power and took control of trade between Flanders and Burgundy.

In 1617, the cattle was dismantled under the order of King Louis XIII to prevent it from becoming a refuge for his enemies. The towers were ripped open. This ruin soon became forgotten until it was bought in 1810 by Napoleon I. Its appearance of a romantic ruin made it a very popular site in the 19th century.

In 1857, the Emperor Napoleon III (1808-1873) wanted to turn Pierrefonds into an imperial residence. This project was never completed and the castle became a museum and was opened to the public in 1867. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814- 1879), the architect entrusted with its restoration, employed architectural concepts to recreate a perfect castle such as might have existed in the Middle Ages. After his death, his son-in-law Maurice Ouradou continued the work until 1885, without ever completing it.
Chateau Pierrefonds guide book

Bey Palace, Tunis


TUNIS. – Palais du Bardo, la Salle de Justice

The fortified military city of Bardo which is the centre of the Husseini power since 1705, witnessed the edification of sumptuous buildings within its walls.
Ali Pacha, the second sovereign of the dynasty between 1735 and 1756, built a first palace with a monumental entrance staircase guarded by lion statues.
Between 1824 and 1835, Hussein Bey built the “Small Tunisian Palace” characterized by Moorish Andalousian style.
Between 1859 and 1864, Mhammed Bey built the harem called “Qasr Al-Badii” which was characterized by an Italianist style.
These latter two residences, which are close to each other, remained the Bey’s residences until 1879. Sadok Bey, who was responsible for the bankruptcy of the kingdom, was obliged to restrain his lifestyle and move to Ksar Said where he had a much more modest residence.

National Bardo Museum


TUNIS – Le Bardo – Le Petit Patio
Possibly 1940s but from an earlier photo
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques Strasbourg