Niederwald monument, Rüdesheim am Rhein, Germany


Niederwalk-Denkmal
1900s
Publisher: Knackstedt & Nather, Hamburg

Google Street VIew

The monument was constructed to commemorate the founding of the German Empire in 1871 after the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The first stone was laid on 16 September 1871 by Kaiser Wilhelm I. The sculptor was Johannes Schilling, and the architect was Karl Weißbach. The total cost of the work is estimated at one million gold marks. The monument was inaugurated on 28 September 1883. The 38 metres (125 ft) tall monument represents the union of all Germans. The central figure is the 10.5 metres (34 ft) tall Germania figure. Her right hand holds the recovered crown, and her left holds the Imperial Sword. Beneath Germania is a large relief depicting Kaiser Wilhelm I riding a horse with the nobility, army commanders, and soldiers. The relief has the lyrics to “Die Wacht am Rhein” (Watch on the Rhine) engraved. The right side of the monument is considered the “peace statue”, while the left is considered the “war statue.”
Wikipedia

[Via Google Translate]
Standing in front of the Niederwald monument is impressive because of its sheer size. The entire facility is 38.18 meters high and weighs around 75 tons in total. The most striking and at the same time largest part is the Germania placed on the upper pedestal and visible from afar . It alone reaches a height of 12.5 meters and weighs around 32 tons. The main inscription commemorating the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of the empire is carved into the base at her feet. It reads in capital letters: “In memory of the unanimous, victorious uprising of the German people and the reestablishment of the German Reich 1870-1871”. Directly below is the main relief, which depicts a total of 133 people. These are primarily generals and princes who played an important role in the founding of the empire and in the preceding war against France. You can also see a Prussian guard with a flag and a Saxon infantryman carrying a drum. Wilhelm I is depicted in the center of the relief. He is the only figure sitting on a horse and surrounded by all the others. This emphasizes its importance once more. All people shown are life-size.
Niederwalddenkmal.de :: Alles Rund um das Niederwalddenkmal

Tugendbrunnen/Fountain of Virtues, Nuremberg


Nürnberg, Tugendbrunnen
1910s
Publisher: Hermann Martin

Google Street VIew

(Via Google Translate)
The Tugendbrunnen was built between 1584 and 1589 during the sensuous Renaissance period by the Nuremberg ore founder Benedikt Wurzelbauer. Like the beautiful fountain [Schönen Brunnen], it is one of the symbols of the city of Nuremberg and is located on the north side of the Lorenzkirche on Lorenzer Platz. Seven human figures and six putti adorn the bronze fountain column, which is divided into three floors and rises from an octagonal basin. The seven figures represent the seven virtues of the Middle Ages, with six putti between them.
Bayern Online

Fountain with a central column with three storeys with statues:
Top: Gerechtigkeit – Justice, blindfolded woman with scales and sword, with behind here a crane.
Middle: six music-making putti with coats of arms (each coat of arms appears twice):
Great arms of Nürnberg (eagle with a king’s head)
Holy Roman Empire (crowned, double-headed eagle)
Small arms of Nürnberg (eagle and red bends)
Lower: six virtues
Glaube – Faith, woman with chalice and cross.
Liebe – Charity, woman with two children.
Hoffnung – Hope, woman with anchor.
Tapferheit – Fortitude, armoured woman with gun and lion.
Mäßigkeit – Temperance, woman pouring wine from a jug in a goblet.
Geduld – Patience, woman with lamb.
Statues – Hither & Thither

Richard Wagner’s Grave, Bayreuth, Germany


Bayreuth. | Grab Rich. Wagners.
c.1900
Publisher: Ottmar Zieher, Munich

Google Street View.

Wilhelm Richard Wagner); 22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, “music dramas”). . . . After the festival, the Wagner family journeyed to Venice for the winter. Wagner died of a heart attack at the age of 69 on 13 February 1883 at Ca’ Vendramin Calergi, a 16th-century palazzo on the Grand Canal.[145] The legend that the attack was prompted by argument with Cosima over Wagner’s supposedly amorous interest in the singer Carrie Pringle, who had been a Flower-maiden in Parsifal at Bayreuth, is without credible evidence. After a funerary gondola bore Wagner’s remains over the Grand Canal, his body was taken to Germany where it was buried in the garden of the Villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth.
Wikipedia.

Cathedral, Cologne, Germany


CÖLN a. Rh.
Dom – Südseite (160 m hoch)
Grundsteinlegung 15. August 1248. Vollendet 15. Okt. 1880.
Baukosten seit 1824: 20¾ Millionon
[Cathedral – south side (160 m high) Foundation stone laid August 15, 1248. Completed Oct. 15, 1880. Building costs since 1824: 20¾ million]
Publisher “Dr. Trenkler Co.”

Google Street View.

Virtual tour (in German)

“Cologne Cathedral on September 4th, 1842, cornerstone ceremony for the restart of construction work,” Georg Osterwald, 1842 (from Wikimedia Commons)

Begun in 1248, the building of this Gothic masterpiece took place in several stages and was not completed until 1880. Over seven centuries, its successive builders were inspired by the same faith and by a spirit of absolute fidelity to the original plans. Apart from its exceptional intrinsic value and the artistic masterpieces it contains, Cologne Cathedral bears witness to the strength and endurance of European Christianity. No other Cathedral is so perfectly conceived, so uniformly and uncompromisingly executed in all its parts.

Cologne Cathedral is a High Gothic five-aisled basilica (144.5 m long), with a projecting transept (86.25 m wide) and a tower façade (157.22 m high). The nave is 43.58 m high and the side-aisles 19.80 m. The western section, nave and transept begun in 1330, changes in style, but this is not perceptible in the overall building. The 19th century work follows the medieval forms and techniques faithfully, as can be seen by comparing it with the original medieval plan on parchment.
UNESCO

At 157 m (515 ft), the cathedral is currently the tallest twin-spired church in the world, the second tallest church in Europe after Ulm Minster, and the third tallest church in the world. It is the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe and has the second-tallest spires. The towers for its two huge spires give the cathedral the largest façade of any church in the world. The choir has the largest height-to-width ratio, 3.6:1, of any medieval church.

Construction of Cologne Cathedral began in 1248 but was halted in the years around 1560, unfinished. Work did not restart until the 1840s, and the edifice was completed to its original Medieval plan in 1880. Cologne’s medieval builders had planned a grand structure to house the reliquary of the Three Kings and fit its role as a place of worship for the Holy Roman Emperor. Despite having been left incomplete during the medieval period, Cologne Cathedral eventually became unified as “a masterpiece of exceptional intrinsic value” and “a powerful testimony to the strength and persistence of Christian belief in medieval and modern Europe”. Only the telecommunications tower is higher than the Cathedral
Wikipedia..

Construction of cathedral, 1855 (from Wikimedia Commons)

New Palace, Potsdam, Germany

A colossal palace building, its high tambour dome recognizable from afar, rises up at the western end of the Hauptallee (the main promenade) in Sanssouci Park: the Neues Palais (New Palace). In strong contrast to the intimate and rather modest Sanssouci Palace the large palace complex served official, representational needs. Grand banquet halls, splendid galleries and regally designed suites, not to mention Sanssouci’s Baroque palace theater in the southern wing, await visitors in its interior.
Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg

When the Seven Years’ War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Hubertusburg in 1763, and Prussia had survived the latter without territorial losses, Frederick the Great resumed his construction activities. The New Palace was erected in the western part of Park Sanssouci between 1763 and 1769. Frederick’s New Palace marks the symbolic end of an era, since after its completion no further baroque palaces were built in Prussia.
Sanssouci Park Potsdam

The New Palace is a palace situated on the western side of the Sanssouci park in Potsdam, Germany. . . In an architectural form, Frederick the Great sought to demonstrate the power and glories of Prussia attributing it as fanfaronade, an excess of splendor in marble, stone and gilt. For the King, the New Palace was not a principal residence, but a display for the reception of important royals and dignitaries.
. . .
After the death of Frederick the Great in 1786, the New Palace fell into disuse and was rarely occupied as a residence or entertainment venue. However, starting in 1859 it became the summer residence of the German Crown Prince, Frederick William, later German Emperor Frederick III. The palace was the preferred residence of Frederick and his empress, Victoria, throughout the 99 Days’ Reign. During the short reign of Frederick III, the palace was renamed “Friedrichskron Palace” (Schloss Friedrichskron) and a moat was dug around the palace. The accession of Wilhelm II saw renovation and restoration within the palace being carried out with the installation of steam heating, bathrooms in state apartments and electrification of the chandeliers which Frederick the Great had collected from across Europe. Until 1918, it remained the preferred residence of Wilhelm II and the Empress Augusta Viktoria. After the November Revolution and the abdication of Wilhelm II, the New Palace became a museum and remained such until the Second World War.
Wikipedia.

The New Palace is a baroque palace and consists of a three-winged corps de logis (residential wing) around a courtyard with low side wings. The three-wing system has a front length of 220 meters. The facade is characterized by a reddish brick pattern and fluted Corinthian pilasters made of sandstone in colossal order. The red brick was only painted on for cost reasons. . . . The middle section of the two-and-a-half-storey building – with a mezzanine – is crowned by a huge, functionless 55 meter high main dome. The Three Graces group is located on the dome. The dome is only used for architectural decoration and has no other purpose. It does not contain any space. The two single-storey pavilion-like side wings have an L-shaped floor plan. They also each have a dome.
Best of Potsdam


On back:
Potsdam — Neues Palais | Jaspisgalerie
c.1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Google Street View.

(Via Google Translate)
The marble gallery to the south led to the king’s apartments. Red jasper and white Carrara marble dominate the picture in this long hall. French doors let a lot of light into the interior. Three ceiling paintings connected by a rich gold ornament symbolize the times of day – the night, the morning and the noon. They are works by the painter Bernhard Rode. The division of fields and framing stucco are based on the ceiling design of the much smaller gallery in Sanssouci Palace.
Wikipedia..


On back:
Potsdam — Neues Palais | Muschel- oder Grottensaal
c.1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Google Street View.

As a visitor, you first enter the vestibule. Then you come to the grotto or shell hall. Over 20,000 different minerals, ores, fossils, shells and snails, rocks and artefacts adorn and decorate the garden room designed as a grotto. The hall was originally designed a little more simply, but the walls were further enriched with minerals, fossils and semi-precious stones in the 19th century.
Best of Potsdam

On the ground floor behind the vestibule is the Grotto Hall, attributed to Carl von Gontard, with walls encrusted with shells, stones, marble, quartz and semi-precious stones, which were enriched in the 19th century. Part of the design of the Groto Hall is a marble floor depicting marine animals and plants and an 1806 ceiling painting, Venus and Amor, the Three Graces and Putti. Attributed to Johann Gottfried Niedlich, the painting has replaced an earlier work. Niches around the room contain statuary and fountains, with cut crystal chandeliers hung in the arches.
Wikipedia.

Gänsemännchen Fountain, Nuremberg, Germany


On back:
Nürnberg Gänsemännchen
“S. Solden’sche Verlagsbuchh. (A. Zemsch). Nurnberg”

Google Street View (current location).

(via Google Translate)
The Goose Man Fountain is one of the oldest fountains in the city of Nuremberg . The fountain is located north of Nuremberg ‘s main market in the St. Sebald district . The name Goose Man refers to the bronze fountain figure, which depicts a farmer with two geese under his arm. . . . The ore founder Pankraz Labenwolf made the bronze goose figure in the Renaissance period, around 1550. As a template, he used a wooden model by the carver Hans Peisser , which is currently in the Fembohaus City Museum in Nuremberg. The bronze fountain figure with the two geese under the arm is based on a farmer, probably in the traditional costume of the Knoblauchsland north of Nuremberg. The fountain has a squat shaft. Above it is a renewed goblet-like sandstone basin, in the middle of which is a goose man on a pedestal. The fountain basin is surrounded by a rosettestudded wrought-iron trellis. The water drains through the two goose beaks and two tubes on the figure base.
Wikipedia.

In the absence of clear documentation (alas!) art historians are nevertheless unanimous in ascribing the Gänsemännchen Fountain to Labenwolf. He created the fountain from about 1550 to 1560. Thus Dürer’s drawings of Frankonian peasants and specifically of the “Goose-Man,” demonstrated a step-by-step evolution which culminated in the creation of this fountain. The location of the fountain was on the Goosemarket (Gänsemarkt), which later on became the Fruit Market (Obstmarkt). When World War II broke out, the fountain was moved to its present location in the Court of the New City Hall, Hauptmarkt 18. The flesh and blood “Goose-Man” came from the so-called Garlic Country (Knoblauchland) in the immediate vicinity of Nuremberg. It can easily be guessed what the farmers grew there. He was reputed to be a drunkard. After he sold his geese, he spent his money on wine and returned home empty-handed, albeit full in other respects. No doubt, this droll peasant was a unique specimen, a well-known “character” of his day.
Stein Collectors International

Nuremberg’s most famous city fountain is the Renaissance era Gänsemännchenbrunnen (The Geeseman Fountain) cast in brass. The modest fountain features a man carrying two plump geese, hence earning its famous title. The fountain is presently located at Rathausplatz, since 1945, but was originally in the Gänsemarkt (Goose market), at the southern end of the fruit market behind Frauenkirche. The figure has often been mistaken as a peasant or farmer, owing to its popular appeal, however, he is dressed in the fine period attire of an affluent Renaissance citizen. The figure’s meaning, purpose and subject have remained mysterious for centuries although the fountain’s facture has traditionally been associated with the brass caster Pankraz Labenwolf, an apprentice of the Vischer family of Nuremberg brass casters, who had established his own workshop by 1523 and foundry by 1537.

No documents are known regarding the purpose, subject or commission for the fountain. Modern local customs believe the Geeseman was a farmer from the garlic country of Northern Nuremberg who sought to sell his geese at the market, but sensing their fate they began to cry-out, inspiring the farmer to have a change-of-heart and return home with his adopted pets. . . . The sculpture’s unusual iconography and subject can be explained by certain events unfolding in Nuremberg during the advent of the Reformation and the city’s metamorphosis in the shifting tide of religious and social reorganization. The figure represents Philip Melanchthon, collaborator of Martin Luther and intellectual leader for Luther’s reformist principles. When Nuremberg adopted Protestantism in 1525 there was a sudden interruption in Nuremberg’s educational system which had formerly depended upon the church and its resources to educate its citizens. Anticipating such a problem, Martin Luther, in 1524, delivered an appeal to German cities to “establish and maintain Christian schools.”4 The Nuremberg councilmen took subsequent action to attract Philip Melanchthon to their city to help initiate and direct their first city-run school. Although invited, Melanchthon did not opt to fill a position as director, but arrived in November of 1524 enthusiastically recruiting and organizing the city’s educational program. In address to the city’s leadership, Melanchthon inaugurated Nuremberg’s first academy at St. Egidien on 23 May 1526.
Renaissance Brnoze

Stephanplatz Fountain, Karlsruhe, Germany


On back:
Karlsruhe — Der Stephansbrunnen
Postmarked 1906
Publisher: Edmond von König, Heidleberg

Google Street View.

(Via Google Translate)
In 1903, the architect Hermann Billing , who was a member of the artists’ commission, was commissioned to create a fountain for the center of the square without a design competition. Billing planned a fountain basin under a columned hall, in the center of which is the figure of a spring nymph should be placed. The production of the bronze figure was entrusted to the young sculptor Hermann Binz (1876-1946).

However, the naked nymph met with opposition from the city council, so Billing and Binz modified the designs so that the nymph should be placed at the edge of the pool on a flat base and without the canopy. The columns then only carry a ring-shaped open entablature. The water was supposed to flow into the basin from gargoyles in the form of faces on the pillars, the faces were directed towards the nymph. That has been approved. When the construction of the fountain was completed in the summer of 1905, there were surprises, ridicule and rejections, because not everyone liked both the naked bronze figure and the faces. Binz had worked out the faces as caricatures of well-known Karlsruhe personalities, especially those city councilors who had rejected the first draft.
Wikipedia.

(Via Google Translate)
The fountain was designed in 1905 by the architect Hermann Billing . The original design envisaged a spring mermaid placed on a pedestal, in the spirit of Art Nouveau , but it did not yet include the rotunda with the male faces. The draft was hotly debated in the municipal council. The depiction of a naked woman in such a prominent position was felt by some council members to be inappropriate. Nevertheless, the draft was finally released and Hermann Billing was allowed to realize it, including artistic modifications. He did this together with the sculptor Hermann Binz. Since Billing was obviously annoyed by the discussion in the municipal council, he designed the fountain in such a way that the municipal council members, in addition to him and Binz, also look at the naked woman. Oberbaurat Reinhard Baumeister, who preferred to see a girl in traditional costume, is even scratched by a mermaid on the beard.
Stadtwiki Karksruhe

Student Karzer, Heidelberg, Germany


Heidelberg, Carzer
c.1930
Publisher: Jacobs Kunstanstalt

Google Street View (approximate).

A Karzer was a designated lock-up or detention room to incarcerate students as a punishment, within the jurisdiction of some institutions of learning in Germany and German-language universities abroad. Karzers existed both at universities and at gymnasiums (similar to a grammar school) in Germany until the beginning of the 20th century. Marburg’s last Karzer inmate, for example, was registered as late as 1931. Responsible for the administration of the Karzer was the so-called Pedell (English: bedel), or during later times Karzerwärter (a warden). While Karzer arrest was originally a severe punishment, the respect for this punishment diminished with time, particularly in the 19th century, as it became a matter of honour to have been incarcerated at least once during one’s time at university. At the end of the 19th century, as the students in the cell became responsible for their own food and drink and the receiving of visitors became permitted, the “punishment” would often turn into a social occasion with excessive consumption of alcohol.
Wikipedia.

Established in the 1600s as a means of allowing students to police other students, the karzers were simple rooms where young academics would be sent for minor offenses such as drunken conduct, insulting authorities or staging a duel. The accused would be forced to lodge in the jail for anywhere from a few days to a few weeks, but was still allowed to attend classes and other primary academic functions. Over the years, being thrown into the karzer became a sort of rite of passage for the students, who would actively seek punishment. Eventually visitors were allowed and the jails devolved into party palaces, where the locked-up students would invite people over to celebrate their incarceration, marking the walls with graffiti, often from their respective fraternity houses.

No longer in use, the Heidelberg karzer has been preserved in its original state, including iron frame beds and wooden tables decorated by the etched writings of former students. The walls too have been left perfectly alone, still covered in the centuries-old scrawl of proud delinquents.
Atlas Obscura

(Via Google Translate)
The institution of student detention in Heidelberg dates back to the 14th century, the time when the university was founded, when it still had its own jurisdiction over students. With the establishment of a student prison in the 16th century , imprisonment became common. In Heidelberg, these legal relationships lasted until the beginning of the 20th century.

The colorful murals only date from the last decades of the use of the prison. At that time, serving out the prison sentence in the prison for students was just fun , which made them proud to have been imprisoned here, to have immortalized themselves on the walls with their names and likeness and the badges of their respective student fraternity. At that time, which was strongly influenced by student fraternities, it was customary to arrest the imprisoned students separately according to the type of fraternity ( corps , fraternity , country association, etc.). Otherwise, students from different fraternities could start quarrels among themselves, which could have led to tumultuous conditions during incarceration.
Wikipedia.

Old Palace, Berlin


Berlin. Palais Kaiser Wilhelm I.
c.1900

The Old Palace (German: Altes Palais), also called Kaiser Wilhelm Palace (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Palais), is a former Royal Prussian residence on Unter den Linden boulevard in Mitte, the historic heart and city center of Berlin. It was built between 1834 to 1837 by order of Prince William of Prussia, who later became German Emperor William I, according to plans by Carl Ferdinand Langhans in Neoclassical style. Damaged during the Allied bombing in World War II, the Old Palace was rebuilt from 1963 to 1964 as part of the Forum Fridericianum. . . . The Prussian crown prince Frederick William hired one of the most prominent architects of Germany, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, to design a memorial complex for Frederick the Great. However, after being disappointed with the expensive plans of Schinkel, he accepted the modest concept of the architect Carl Ferdinand Langhans in Neoclassical-style. As the construction of the palace was completed in 1837, the then crown prince William I began using the building as his residence until his death in 1888. The palace was built with a pergola, a mezzanine and a vestibule.
Wikipedia.

(Via Google Translate)
Langhans erected the building in the years 1834 to 1837 in the classical style. It has 13 window axes facing the street with a covered portico -like driveway surrounded by an eagle frieze. Eagles fly at the corners. A green pergola was added to the Opernplatz. Wilhelm’s living and working rooms were on the lower floor of the left part of the building, facing the street and a green inner courtyard at the back, while Augusta’s were on the upper floor, connected by an intimate spiral staircase. The vestibule was located in the central part, the representative staircase and the social rooms above. In the right part, which extended as a much longer side wing from Oranische Gasse to Behrenstraße, there were festival rooms, including the large circular dance hall. Towards Behrenstraße, around a second inner courtyard, were the service and living quarters of the staff, horse stables and a coach house . In everyday operation, the entrance on the narrow Oranische Gasse served as the main entrance and right of way. . . . During the imperial period , the palace developed into one of the most important sights in Berlin. Wilhelm always appeared at the “historic corner window” of his study on the ground floor to watch the guard procession Unter den Linden at the Neue Wache diagonally opposite.
Wikipedia.

Teichmann fountain, Bremen, Germany


Bremen | Teichmannsbrunnen
c.1910

Google Street View.

The Teichmann fountain was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1899. The multipartite bronze ensemble was situated in a square fountain basin; the frame was made of Niedermendig basalt lava. A ship, threatened by mermaids and marine animals was depicted being pulled over the rocks by a Triton. A sailor on the helm was visible in the back part of the ship, the bow bore an upright Mercury with an olive branch and a bag of money. The edge of the boat bore the name “Teichmann”. The fountain was deconstructed between the 20th and 23rd April 1940 for the German metal donation programme.
Kunst im öffentlichen raum Bremen

Teichmann-Brunnen in Bremen, 1906, (from Wikimedia Commons)

Teichmann Fountain, a boat with Mercury, Neptune and Nixies in bronze by Rudolf Maison was a gift of Kaufmann Gustav Adolph Teichmann (died 1892) to replace an old well and stood from 28 November 1899 until melted down for scrap metal in 1940.
Wikipedia.