Hôtel des Invalide, Paris


PARIS — Hôtel des Invalides — Entrée Principale
1910s
Publisher: “J. H.”
On the back are stamps from the French Red Cross & the Musée de l’Armée

Google Street View.

The Hôtel des Invalides was commissioned in 1670 by Louis XIV in order to provide accommodation and hospital care for wounded soldiers. In 1815, after Napoleon’s abdication, over 5,000 survivors of the Great Army were listed there. Napoleon inspected the place and visited his men in 1808, 1813 and 1815. The chapel of the Invalides was built at the end of the 17th century by Jules-Hardouin Mansart and contains Napoleon’s tomb. In 1840, during the ‘Return of the Ashes’, a law passed on 10th June ordered the construction of the Emperor’s tomb below the dome of the Invalides.
Napoleon.org

Under the authority of Louis XIV, the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart had the Invalides’ royal chapel built from 1677 onwards. The Dome was Paris’ tallest building until the Eiffel Tower was erected. The many gilded decorations remind us of the Sun King, who issued an edict ordering the Hôtel des Invalides to be built for his army’s veterans. During the Revolution, the Dome became the temple of the god Mars. In 1800, Napoleon I decided to place Turenne’s tomb there and turned the building into a pantheon of military glories.

In 1840, Napoleon had been buried on Saint Helena Island since 1821, and King Louis-Philippe decided to have his remains transferred to Les Invalides in Paris. In order to fit the imperial tomb inside the Dome, the architect Visconti carried out major excavation work. The body of the Emperor Napoleon I was finally laid to rest there on 2 April 1861.
Musée de l’Armée


PARIS — Hôtel des Invalides
Chapelle du Dôme et Tombeau de Napoléon
Le tombeau en granit rouge de Finlande présent de l’Empereur Nicolas de Russie. 12 figures colossales de Pradier, representant les victories of Napoleon, entourent le sarcophage. Hauteur 5m. ? 5 1/4 drapeaux, pris à Austrerlitz entourant thé monument. Le pourtour est en marbre blanc.
]The tomb if of red granite from Finland presented by Emperor Nicolas of Russia. 12 colossal figures, representing the victories of Napoleon surround the sarcophagus. Height 5m. ? flags, taken in Austerliz, surround the monument. The outer edge is white marble]
1910s
Publisher: “J. H.”

Google Street View.

The Dôme des Invalides (originally Chapelle royale des Invalides) is a large former church in the centre of the Les Invalides complex, 107 metres (351 ft) high. The dôme was designated to become Napoleon’s funeral place by a law dated 10 June 1840. Ousted in 1815 by the allied armies, Napoleon had stayed so popular in France that Louis-Philippe, the King of France from 1830 to 1848, returned his “ashes” in 1840. (His “ashes” mean his “mortal remains”; Napoleon was not cremated). The excavation and erection of the crypt, which heavily modified the interior of the domed church, took twenty years to complete and was finished in 1861. The Dôme des Invalides (originally Chapelle royale des Invalides) is a large former church in the centre of the Les Invalides complex, 107 metres (351 ft) high.
Wikipedia.

An immense circular crypt has been dug beneath the dome, within which, on three shafts of green marble, the sarcophagus containing the emperor’s coffin will repose. The block of porphyry which the curious are now flocking to see on the Quai d’Orsay is destined to cover the sarcophagus. A lower gallery, paved in mosaics and lined with marble bas-reliefs, representing the principal events in the Emperor’s life, will admit the public to circulate about the sarcophagus. Twelve colossal statues in white marble–of which six are already placed–will sustain an upper gallery, whence it may be looked down on and its details examined from above. These allegorical statues, from the chisel of Pradier, represent the principal branches of human activity–Science, Legislation, War, Arts, &c. A magnificent altar of black marble veined with white rises in front of the tomb. Four large and beautiful columns, also of black and white marble, support the canopy of carted and gilt wood. Ten broad steps, each cut from a single block of Carrara marble, lead up to the funeral altar. Beneath this altar is the passage to the lower gallery above spoken of, whose entrance is guarded on either side by the tombs, in black marble, of Bertrand and Duroe–dead marshals keeping wait at the door of the imperial dead. The marbles employed in the construction of this tomb cost not less than a million and a half (£60,000) in the rough;–the sculptures and bas-reliefs executed by Simart cost 600,000 francs (£24,000.) The block of porphyry for the covering of the sarcophagus weighs 45,000 kilogrammes : its extraction and carriage to Paris cost 140,000 francs (£5 600.) It comes from the shore of Lake Onega. Between the tombs of Bertrand and Duroe a shrine will be erected to receive the sword of Austerlilz, the Imperial Crown, and eighty standards captured under the Empire.
(Hobart) Courier, 14 July 1849


PARIS — Hôtel des Invalides — Le Tombeau de Napoléon I
La Crypte – Sarcophage de Napoléon I — Au centre de la Crypte se dresse le sarcpohage posé sur un socle de granit vert des Vosges. Aucune sculpture inutile n’en dépare la sévere et majestesueuse simplicité. Le corps de l’Empereur, revetu de l’uniforme de chasseurs de la Vicille Garde, est renfermé la dans 6 enveloppes.
[The Crypt — Sarcophagus of Napoleon I — In the centre of the Crypt stands the sarcophagus on a base of green granite from Vosges. No unnescessary sculpture detracts from the severe and majestic simplicity. The body of the Emperor, dressed in the uniform of the Vicille Garde, is enclosed within 6 containers. ]
On the back are stamps from the French Red Cross & the Musée de l’Armée
Handwritten on the back:
Given by Russia to France as a tribute to the Great Napoleon. Casket containing Napoleon’s body He lies with his favorite military dress on with his sword & cap by his side. His wish was for his body to lie on the banks of the River Seine & this has been carried out.


PARIS. — Hôtel des Invalides — Chapelle Napoleon
Le moulage de la téte de l’Empereur Napoléon, Cénotaphe de Cherbourg, la Couronne d’or; dans le fond le poêle funéraire.
1910s
Publisher: “J. H.”

Death mask, golden crown & funeral shroud

Floods, Paris


PARIS INONDÉ (janvier 1910). — Rue Saint-Charles (Grenelle)
[Paris flooded (January 1910). Saint Charles Street (Grenelle)]
c.1910

Google Street View.

FLOODS IN FRANCE
ALL QUARTERS AFFECTED.
PARIS STREETS SUBMERGED. WIDESPREAD DESTRUCTION.

LONDON, Jan. 23.
Several streets in Paris are flooded, and residents along the quays are using boats. Inundations at the electric power stations caused a partial interruption of the metropolitan and East Parisian tramway services. Floods in the valleys of the Rhone, Aube, Loire, and Meuse have resulted in enormous damage.

Jan. 24.

The Seine is 12ft above its normal height at this season of the year, and, owing to falls of snow and heavy rains, continues to rise. Parisians have become alarmed at the flooding of the underground railways. Three lines have ceased running owing to sections being submerged. There is also is a danger that the river will reach the level of the sewers. The bear pit in the Zoological Gardens is flooded, and many streets leading to the Seine are submerged.

Parliament has been asked to vote £80,00 for the relief of the victims. The Rhone has risen 13ft. Disasters are reported from many provincial districts.
Sydney Morning Herald, 25 January 1910


Crue de la Seine
Paris – Pont au Change – 28 Janier 1910
[Flood of the Seine]
1910
Publisher: E. le Delay

Google Street View.

The present floods throughout a great part of France would appear to be unprecedented. Certainly the like have never been experienced Paris. Happily in the French capital the houses nowhere abut directly on the river banks which throughout the entire length are protected by broad embankments, otherwise the damage would assuredly be greater As it is 20,000 people have been given from their homes[?] in the low=lying districts bordering the river. The greatest hardships seem to have been felt in the south-eastern portion where the Seine, having received the waters of its tributary the Marne, enters the city with a width of 636ft[?] and begins its meandering course of seven miles through the heart of Paris.

No fewer than 30 bridges span the river within the city built and several of these have had to be closed to traffic owing to the flood waters having submerged the roadway. The terminals of the Lyons and Orleans railways on opposite banks of the river have, the cable tells us, suffered considerable damage. The Quai d’Austerlitz, a fine thoroughfare which skirts the latter station on the left bank has also been undermined by water. The loss in goods and merchandise generally along the quays of the Seine must be enormous and one can picture the scene presented as the swirling torrent carried everything before it.
Sydney Morning Herald, 29 January 1910 (Extract)

ALL CENTRAL PARIS SUBMERGED.

The cup of Parisian bitterness is not yet full. The excited crowds which lined the quays of Paris on Friday, and greeted with shouts of joy the discovery that the waters were receding, have seen their high hopes blasted, for the flood fiend only relaxed his clammy grip in order that he might grasp and lay waste a more extensive area of the city of pleasure. Further violent rains on Friday caused the Seine to rise higher than it has ever been before, with the result that a great part of the city along either bank is completely inundated.

If it were merely a matter of the river overflowing its banks, the situation would be grave enough, but unfortunately the choking of the drains and sewers has added unforeseen terrors to those already heaped upon the stricken residents. Streets and roadways have been burst open by the pressure of the waters, others have collapsed, cellars and basements have been invaded, gas and water pipes have been wrenched away, and other service mains dismantled. In hundreds of instances houses have been rendered uninhabitable; in others people have been imprisoned for days by the engulfing waters, and have had to fight for their lives with famished and desperate rats, and cry pleadingly from their windows for bread.
Sydney Morning Herald, 31 January 1910

THE PARIS FLOOD.
QUARTER, OF A MILLION IN DISTRESS.
RIVERS FALLING.
STRAIGHTENING THE SEINE DEMANDED BY THE PEOPLE.

LONDON, Jan. 30.
Seven thousand residents of Gennevilliers, 21 miles from the city wall, adjacent to the numerous Paris market gardens, have been rescued from the flood waters.
Parisians are demanding the straightening of the course of the Seine at whatever cost, like Peter the Great Canal, in the River Neva, which has served as an outlet for that river in time of floods. When the quays were built along the Seine the river bed was restricted in order to deepen the stream. This has largely caused the present disaster.

M. Millerand, Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, estimates that 8000 Parisians are homeless and foodless. Direct telegraphic and telephonic communication with London has practically ceased.

The Seine fell 5 inches on Saturday, and the Marne, Aube, and Alane 6 feet.
Sydney Morning Herald, 1 February 1910


INONDATIONS DE PARIS (Janvier 1910). — Pont de Solférino
[Flooding of Paris (January 1910). — Solferino Bridge]
c.1910
Publisher: Levy Sons & Co. (1895-1919)

Google Street View.

The passerelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor, formerly known as passerelle Solférino (or pont de Solférino), is a footbridge over the River Seine in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is served by the Metro station Assemblée Nationale. For a century, a cast iron bridge inaugurated by Napoleon III in 1861 allowed vehicles to cross between quai Anatole-France and quai des Tuileries. Built by the engineers of the Pont des Invalides, Paul-Martin Gallocher de Lagalisserie and Jules Savarin, it was named after the June 1859 French victory of the Battle of Solferino. Having weakened over time (particularly due to barges crashing into it), it was demolished and replaced in 1961 with a steel footbridge.
Wikipedia.

Tuileries Gardens, Paris


Panorama de Paris. – Les Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Maps.

Paris: postcards from 1900 (more pictures)

Just across the river from the Orsay Museum, the magnificent Tuileries Gardens are a historical place which afford a haven of greenery in the heart of Paris. They were designed by André Le Nôtre discovered by Fouquet, Louis XIV’s minister of finance, for whom he created the splendid French gardens for his château of Vaux le Vicomte. Le Nôtre, commissioned by Louis XIV, is best known for having landscaped the grounds of Versailles Palace. He gave Paris a royal garden which became a meeting-place for the aristocracy and upper classes. In the 17th century it was often the scene of lavish revelry, and remains today one of the favourite places for Parisians to walk. Located within 5 minutes walk from the Hôtel le Bellechasse via the Solferino foot bridge, the Tuileries offer a typical insight of the unique atmosphere of Paris. The gardens have witnessed many troubled times of the French history and contain many statues, fountains and remarkable trees.
Hotel Le Bellechasse

“Plan du Palais des Tuileries initialement envisagé par Delorme et jardins”, [Plan of the Palace of Tuilleries initally envisions by Delorme & gardens”, 1570s, from Wikimedia Commons
It all began in 1564. Nostalgic for the Florentine palaces of her childhood, Queen Catherine de’ Medici, Henri II’s widow, had a new palace and garden built outside the Paris city walls. The tile factories (tuileries) that had stood on the chosen spot since the Middle Ages gave the new royal residence and garden their name. The garden was completely redesigned in 1664 by Louis XIV’s landscape gardener, André Le Nôtre. At that time, it was opened for the enjoyment of ‘respectable folk’. After several modifications and partial privatisation – notably by Napoleon I then his nephew Napoleon III – it was finally opened to the general public in 1871.
Louvre


Paris. – Jardin des Tuileries
Postmarked 1901

Google Street View.

The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. Created by Catherine de’ Medici as the garden of the Tuileries Palace in 1564, it was eventually opened to the public in 1667 and became a public park after the French Revolution. . . . In 1870, Napoleon III was defeated and captured by the Prussians, and Paris was the scene of the uprising of the Paris Commune. A red flag flew over the Palace, and it could be visited for fifty centimes. When the army arrived and fought to recapture the city, the Communards deliberately burned the Tuileries Palace, and tried to burn the Louvre as well. The ruins, burned out inside but with walls largely intact, were torn down in 1883. The empty site of the palace, between the two pavilions of the Louvre, became part of the garden. Dozens of statues were added to the garden. It also served as the setting for large civic events such as the banquet given during the 1900 Paris Universal Exposition on 22 September 1900, in honour of the twenty-two thousand mayors of France, served under large tents. The Tuilieries garden was filled with entertainments for the public; acrobats, puppet theatres, lemonade stands, small boats on the lakes, donkey rides, and stands selling toys. It was a meeting for major commercial events, such as the first Paris automobile salon in 1898. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, the Gardens hosted the fencing events.
Wikipedia.

“Gezicht op het Palais des Tuileries te Parijs gezien vanaf de Jardin des Tuileries” [View of thr Palace of Tuileries as seen from the Garden of Tuileries], 18th century, from Wikimedia Commons

Château de Malmaison, Paris


On back:
La Château de Malmaison
Façade est
[East facade]

Street View (exterior).

Virtual Tour

The Château de Malmaison is a French château situated near the left bank of the Seine, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of the centre of Paris, in the municipality of Rueil-Malmaison. Formerly the residence of Empress Joséphine de Beauharnais, along with the Tuileries it was the headquarters of the French government from 1800 to 1802, and Napoleon’s last residence in France at the end of the Hundred Days in 1815.
Wikipedia.

The château de Malmaison, purchased by Josephine in 1799 was, together with the Tuileries, the French government’s headquarters from 1800 to 1802. When Napoleon moved to Saint-Cloud, Josephine stayed in Malmaison and commissioned a wide range of improvements to the house. She settled in permanently after her divorce in 1809 and died there on May 29, 1814.
Napolean.org


MALMAISON (S.-et-O.) — La Chambre de Premier Consul aux Tuileries
Chamber of the First Consul in the Tulleries

1910s
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)

The linear and graceful style that characterises the interior decor of the Château de Malmaison is directly influenced by 18th century art but also features the innovative and visionary mark of the two architects Percier and Fontaine. Their style, created from a combination of Antiquity and Renaissance which they both immersed themselves in on their trip to Rome, is reflected in this old residence which became the archetype of consular style. There are no shortage of archaeological and historical references: Doric pilasters and stucco columns in the vestibule, decorative motifs inspired by Roman and Pompeian paintings on the library ceiling and in the dining room, and military trophies for bravery painted on the doors of the council chamber. While the mahogany arcs and columns in the library echo the Palladian-style motifs, the painted ceiling alludes to the literary authors whose works Bonaparte appreciated, and the council chamber with its fabric walls supported by fasces and pikes brings to mind the army tents used to decorate parks in Europe.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau


MALMAISON. — La Chambre de Josephine. – C.M.
The Bedroom of Josephine

c.1910
Publisher: C. Malcuit

The most significant transformation was that of Joséphine’s bedchamber, which was given the shape of an almost circular tent thanks to a red sheet enhanced with golden embroidery that was hung on the walls. The ceiling was covered in a painting by Blondel representing Juno on his chariot, and the walls were decorated with numerous mirrors as well as eight flower paintings by Redouté.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau

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Paris Mint, France


PARIS — Hôtel des Monnaies- Cour d’Honneur – Façade sud
South facade
c. 1920

Google Street View.

Following the partition of the Carolingian Empire – made official in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun – imperial power waned significantly. At the time, numerous coin striking workshops were scattered right across the territory that constitutes modern-day France. . . . For several centuries, the number of royal workshops varied. Some were repeatedly closed and reopened due to financial crises, while the needs of the king (financing wars, etc) and new territories annexed by the crown also caused frequent fluctuations in how many were active at any one time. At the end of 1689 there were 22 in total, yet barely two years later this number had risen to 27. The regional workshops gradually disappeared and in 1870 only three remained: Bordeaux, Paris and Strasbourg. By 1878, only Monnaie de Paris was still in operation.
Monnaie de Paris

The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France’s coins. Founded in AD 864 with the Edict of Pistres, it is the world’s oldest continuously running minting institution. . . . A Neoclassical edifice, the Hôtel de la Monnaie was designed by Jacques-Denis Antoine and built from 1767–1775 on the Left Bank of the Seine. The Monnaie was the first major civic monument undertaken by Antoine, yet shows a high level of ingenuity on the part of the architect. Today it is considered a key example of French Neoclassicism in pre-Revolutionary Paris. The building is typified by its heavy external rustication and severe decorative treatment. It boasts one of the longest façades on the Seine; its appearance has been likened to the Italian palazzo tradition.
Wikipedia.


PARIS — Hôtel des Monnaies- Cour d’Honneur – Le Grand Escalier
The Grand Staircase.
c. 1920

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Paris Metro, Paris


PAIRS — Le Métropolitain
Paris — The Metropolitan (Alma-Marceau station)

c.1950
Pubisher: Bobillard?

RTAP (official website)

The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain, is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau. It is mostly underground and 214 kilometres (133 mi) long. . . . The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle). The system expanded quickly until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s. The network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations.
Wikipedia.

Gare du Nord (Northern Railway Station) & Boulevard du Denain, Paris


PARIS – La Gare du Nord et le Boulevard Denain
Northern Railway Station
c.1910
Publishers: J. Cormault & E. Papeghin, Paris

Google Street View.

Media Centre for Art History: panorama of a station platform

The Gare du Nord (English: station of the North or North station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France. The station accommodates trains between the capital and Northern France via the Paris–Lille railway, as well as to international destinations in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. . . . The chairman of the Chemin de Fer du Nord railway company, James Mayer de Rothschild, chose the French architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff to design the current station. Construction of the new complex was carried out between May 1861 to December 1865; the new station actually opened for service while still under construction during 1864. The façade was designed around a triumphal arch and used many slabs of stone. The building has the usual U-shape of a terminus station.
Wikipedia.

Parc Monceau, Paris


Parc Monceau
Postmarked 1908

Google Street View.

The Hector Berlioz Website (more old views of park)

When France’s royal family want an absurdist Anglo-Chinese garden filled with an architectural pastiche from around the globe, who dares say no? Parc Monceau was built in 1778 at the request of King Louis XVI’s cousin – the Duke of Chartres, Phillippe d’’Orléans – who dreamt of opening a park that would amaze and surprise all who passed through its gates by foregrounding his eclectic taste in landscape design and architecture. What resulted was a monumental act of public folly, albeit one that possessed a tender charm all its own.

Constructed with a distinct lack of care for either the epoch or people from which he was borrowing, Parc Monceau originally contained a Roman colonnade, a miniature Egyptian pyramid, a Tartar tent, a Dutch windmill, a water lily pond, an enchanted grotto, a temple of Mars, an Italian vineyard and numerous antique statues, all within arms’ reach of each other. At the time of its debut, the garden also featured servants in flamboyant dress and exotic animals like camels. Taken as a whole, none of it it made much sense, but that had never really been the Duke’s point; unlike the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale which was built to mimic foreign cultures for spectatorship, Parc Monceau was built as pure fantasy.
Atlas Obscura.

Parc Monceau had its beginning in 1769 when Louis Philippe, the duke of Chartres, who was also the cousin of Louis XVI and the father of King Louis-Philippe I and who would later become the Duc d’Orléans and be known as Philippe-Egalité, purchased a hectare of land on Boulevard de Courcelles. At this time he had architect Louis-Marie Colignon build a pavillion in the middle of a French-styled garden. During 1773-1778, he acquired twelve more surrounding hectares. He built on this property, with the designing help of painter Carmontelle, a windmill, a minaret, a pyramid, a Chinese pagoda, a Roman temple, a waterfall and the “Naumachie” which is a pond half-encircled by broken Corinthian columns. . . In 1793, the now Duc d’Orléans bought more of the surrounding properties and landscape architect Thomas Blaikie transformed the garden with trees and lawns into an English-styled garden. This was one of the first landscaped parks in Paris and it become a place of festivities.
Paris Walking Tours

After the monarchy was restored, the park was returned to the family of the Duke. During the Second Empire, the family sold lots within the park to real estate developers, who built luxurious town houses, reducing the size of the park by half. The remaining part of the park was purchased by the city of Paris in 1860. All that remained of the original folly was the water lily pond, the stream and the fantasy “tombs”, including the Egyptian pyramid.

In 1860, the park was purchased by the city, and in August 1861 Parc Monceau became the first new public park in Paris to be created by Baron Haussmann as part of the grand transformation of Paris begun by Emperor Louis Napoleon. Two main alleys were laid out from east to west and north to south, meeting in the center of the park, and the alleys within the park were widened and paved, so carriages could drive the park. An ornamental gate 8.3 m (27 ft) high was installed along a newly created avenue, boulevard Malesherbes, curving paths were laid out around the park for strolling. The pavillon de Chartres was also modified by the architect, Gabriel Davioud, who had a graceful classical dome added to the structure. He also built a bridge modeled after the Rialto bridge in Venice over the stream to replace the Chinese bridge by Carmontelle that had once been there. He preserved the other follies remaining from the original garden. Haussmann embellished the park with a rich collection of exotic trees and flowers from around the world.

The park is unusual in France due to its “English” style: its informal layout, curved walkways and randomly placed statues distinguish it from the more traditional, French-style garden. It includes a collection of scaled-down architectural features, or follies — including an Egyptian pyramid, a Chinese fort, a Dutch windmill, and Corinthian pillars. A number of these are masonic references, reflecting the fact that Philippe d’Orléans was a leading freemason. Parc Monceau includes statues of famous French figures including Guy de Maupassant, Frédéric Chopin, Charles Gounod, Ambroise Thomas, Alfred de Musset, and Edouard Pailleron.
Wikipedia.