Trekroner Sea Fortress, Copenhagen


On back:
Luftfoto afTrekroner
Airphoto of the ancient forterers of “Trekroner”
Luffphoto der alten Festung “Trekroner”
c.1940
Publisher: K. Witt-Mollers

Trekroner Søfort (literally Three Crowns Sea Fortress) is a sea fort at the entrance to the Copenhagen harbour. From 1713 until after World War I, Trekroner Fort was part of the fortifications of Copenhagen. The original location of Trekroner Fort was a few hundred meters north of the current one. In 1713, three old ships of the line were sunk to form the basis for a battery. One of the ships was called Trekroner, and she gave her name to the fort.

Construction of the current fort began in 1787. The fort was an important part of the Danish line of defense during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801. The fort also was engaged during the British attack on Copenhagen in 1807. From 1818 to 1828 and in 1860, the fort was strongly enhanced, but its military significance diminished after the First World War. In 1934 it was sold to the Copenhagen harbour services. During the German occupation of Denmark the Germans used the fortress as a barracks. After the war it was used for a few years as a prison for German officers and the former German ambassador to Denmark. Afterwards, it fell vacant until 1984, when it was opened to the public. Trekroner Fort is one of three artificial islands that were created to defend the entrance to Copenhagen’s harbor. (The other two are Middelgrundsfortet and Flakfortet.)
Wikipedia.

Trekroner Sea Fortress is a small, artificial island with two distinctive red barracks, situated at the entrance to Copenhagen Harbour. It was originally part of the Copenhagen Fortifications. Today, visitors have access during summer, allowing them to explore the old gun casements and gloomy, historic cellars, and to enjoy the view of the Copenhagen skyline. The oldest part of the fortress dates back to the late 18th century. Only after the defeat by the Germans in 1864 was it reinforced with the solid casements, ammunition storage and gun batteries. It was decommissioned as a naval fortress in 1932. In the years leading up to the Second World War, it was a favourite summer attraction, with a restaurant, cabaret, theatre and other attractions.
Kobenhavner Gron

Kanonbåde i Trekoners havn,1885 (from Wikimedia Commons, cropped)

The fort is framed by piles and a strong frame structure, that was filled with soil and mud from Copenhagen as well as a deepening of the harbor. As early as 1801, before the fort was completed, it took part against the English in the Battle of the Rhed. The fort was hastily equipped with 66 guns and 660 men, and together with the navy’s ships and some hastily equipped naval batteries the enemy, with the admirals Parker and Nelson at the head, was kept away from Copenhagen. This was, however, not enough to avoid defeat. Again in 1807, Trekroner was active during the English bombardement of Copenhagen.

After the state bankruptcy, there were no funds for the neigher the Army nor the navy, and it was not until 1818 that the king raised the funds for the completion of the Trekroner. It was completed in 1828. The bulwarks were now reinforced with a 3 meter thick sandstone wall covered with granite. In the throat (the backside of the fort), shooting openings were made. In 1838-39 the two barracks buildings were erected at the entrance to the harbor of the fort. During the Danish-Prussian Schleswig wars, the fort was manned by 390 men. During the period 1865-1869, the fort was expanded with the casemate building, batteries with magazines built into the traverses and a mine control station.
Vestvolden.info: The Fortifications of Copenhagen 1886-1920

Storks on roof, Ribe, Denmark


Storkerede i Ribe
(Storks in Ribe)
Publisher: I. Lerche-Simonsen, Gaveboden, Ribe

The stork has for centuries been part of Ribe, and it means a lot to the people of Ribe, which reflects in frequent use of the stork in fairytales, myths, warnings, art, medias and as a souvenir. During summer the nests on top of the town roofs are full of storks and the large number of storks has given Ribe the name ”Town of Storks”.

The stork has been of great importance to many generations of people in Ribe and has spread joy and pride with its arrival every spring. Even though the stork does not visit every year anymore, this big white bird with red legs and beak is still an important part of Ribe. Ribe was earlier known as ”Town of Storks”, and the town has been quite successful in marketing this label. In the 1930’s there were most storks in, from 17 pairs in 1931 to 34 pairs in 1939. And that was the time, when Ribe got its byname. It was truly an impressive sight with storks all over Ribe, and during the best years, around 150 storks gathered at Hovedengen by the end of August, before they started their 12.000 km long migration to South Africa.
Ribe 1300

Stock Exchange, Copenhagen


København — Børsen
On back:
Alex Vincent’s Kunsuorlag, Eneberettiget, No. 14
Postmarked 1911

Google Street View

The Old Stock Exchange dates back to 1625 and is one of the oldest buildings in Copenhagen. King Christian IV had realized the importance of increased trade and commerce, and so he had this grand building erected. At the time of its inauguration, the building had room for at least 40 market stalls. The Old Stock Exchange was then surrounded by water from three sides, so ships could unload their cargo directly at the wharf in front.

The Old Stock Exchange was built in Dutch Renaissance style. King Christian IV had originally covered the roof with lead, but during the Swedish occupation of Copenhagen 1658-59, much of this lead was removed to produce cannon balls, and the holes in the roof were only partly covered with tin and tile. Not until the end of the 19th century was the building roofed with copper. The four intertwined dragon tails of the dragon spire are topped by three crowns, symbolizing the Scandinavian empire (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden).
Visit Copenhagen

Børsen is one of the old buildings in Copenhagen and like Rosenborg Slot and Rundetårn, it is one of the buildings of which we remember King Christian IV. The building is built in Dutch renaissance style but is characterized by the King’s taste, like the garrets on the roof and the spire. In 1618 Christian IV asked the engineer Johan Semb to construct a new part of town, Christianshavn, and a dam was made facing Amager on top of which, the first “Amagerbro” (today known as Knippelsbro) was built. Christian IV had realized the importance of trade and business and decided to make Copenhagen the great trade centre and grand city of the future. However, you cannot have a grand city without an exchange and in 1618 the King asked Lorenz van Steenwinckel to start building Børsen, where the dam facing Christianshavn is connected with land on Slotsholmen.
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Børsen as a market place In the late 16th twenties, Børsen was taken into use by renting out booths for merchants. From the street you could enter the ground floor and visit 40 booths. The whole of Børsen’s first floor contained only one big room with rented booths in the centre and along the windows.
Børsbygningen (More information and photos of rooms)

Børsen was planned by Christian IV as part of his plan to strengthen Copenhagen’s role as a centre for trade and commerce in Northern Europe. A site on the north side of the embankment which connected Copenhagen to the new market town Christianshavn, which was planned on reclaimed land off the coast of Amager. The king charged Lorenz van Steenwinckel with the design of the new building, but Steenwinckel died shortly thereafter. The assignment was then passed on to his brother, Hans van Steenwinckel. The site first had to be prepared since the embankment had not yet stabilized. Construction of the building began in 1620 and was largely completed in 1624 with the exception of the spire (installed in 1625) and details of the east gable (completed in 1640). The building contained 40 trading offices at the ground floor and one large room at the upper floor. The building was in use as a marketplace during the late 1620s.
Wikipedia