Where Montgomery Fell (Battle of Quebec 1775), Quebec

Where Montgomery Fell, Quebec, Canada
c. 1910 (image 1906)
Publisher: The Valentine & Sons Publishing Co, Montreal & Toronto

Here stood
The Undaunted Fifty
Defeating Montgomery
At the Pres-de-Ville Barricade
On the last day of
Commanding at

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Two hundred and thirty-five years ago tonight [31 December 2010], American soldiers attacked the city of Quebec during a raging blizzard in a desperate attempt to capture Canada early in the Revolutionary War. Two separate American expeditions converged in the vicinity of Quebec City in December 1775. One led by General Richard Montgomery had moved up Lake Champlain from Albany, captured Montreal, and came to Quebec from the southwest. The other force, commanded by Benedict Arnold, had originated in Cambridge from the colonial forces gathered around Boston . . . Because Canada had only become a British possession sixteen years earlier, the Americans hoped to recruit many French Canadian residents to their cause, but most either ignored the Americans or sided with the handful of British defenders of the city. Without a popular uprising and lacking artillery sufficient to overcome the walls of the city, Montgomery and Arnold decided that their only chance of success was to attack during a snowstorm. The opportunity arose on New Year’s Eve. Montgomery led his force from the west along the banks of the Saint Lawrence. Arnold would come in from the northeast, skirting the walls of the upper city. The Americans hoped to first capture the lower city and then move upward to the main portion of Quebec. Montgomery’s force met with some initial success, but the snow obscured a heavily defended British-Canadian blockhouse. As Montgomery and his aides passed nearby, those inside fired a cannon which wiped out the American command group, causing the rest of the force to immediately retreat. Arnold fared little better. He made it into the lower city, but the narrow streets of the old town restricted his ability to maneuver. Arnold was shot in the foot and was evacuated by his men. Those who stayed behind were soon surrounded and surrendered.
RichardHowe.com: The Battle of Quebec: December 31, 1775

A storm broke out on December 30, and Montgomery once again gave orders for the attack. Brown and Livingston led their militia companies to their assigned positions that night: Brown by the Cape Diamond redoubt, and Livingston outside St. John’s Gate (fr). When Brown reached his position between 4 am and 5 am, he fired flares to signal the other forces, and his men and Livingston’s began to fire on their respective targets.] Montgomery and Arnold, seeing the flares, set off for the lower town. Montgomery led his men from Wolfe’s Cove down the steep, snow-heaped path towards the outer defenses The storm had turned into a blizzard, making the advance a struggle. As they advanced over the ice-covered rocky ground, the bells of the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church began to ring, signaling the militiamen to arm themselves, as sentries manning the walls of Quebec City saw the American lanterns in the blizzard.

Montgomery’s men eventually arrived at the palisade of the outer defenses, where an advance party of carpenters sawed their way through the wall. Montgomery himself helped saw through the second palisade, and led 50 men down a street towards a two-story building. The building formed part of the city’s defenses, and was in fact a blockhouse occupied by 39 Quebec militia and 9 sailors armed with muskets and cannons. Montgomery unsheathed his sword as he led his men down the street as the blizzard raged. The defenders opened fire at close range, and Montgomery was killed instantly, shot through the head by a burst of grapeshot while most of the men standing beside him were either killed or wounded.[76] The few men of the advance party who survived fled back towards the palisade.

Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal

Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal
Publisher: Valentine & Sons, Montreal & Toronto

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The Royal Victoria Hospital was established in 1893 in the historic Golden Square Mile through donations by two public-spirited Scottish immigrants, the cousins Donald Smith, 1st Lord Strathcona, and George Stephen, 1st Lord Mount Stephen. In 1887, they announced a joint gift of C$1,000,000 for the construction of a free hospital in Montreal and purchased a site on Mount Royal for a further C$86,000. The site they bought was the old Frothingham estate that covered ten acres of land. During 1897 and 1898, Smith and Stephen gave another C$1,000,000 between them in Great Northern Railroad securities to establish an endowment fund to maintain the hospital. Stephen and Smith attached one caveat to their generous contribution to the City of Montreal: the hospital’s land and its buildings must only ever be used for healing. The founders intended the Royal Vic “to be for the use of the sick and ailing without distinction of race or creed,” and when it opened in 1893 it was hailed as the “finest and most perfectly equipped (hospital) on the great American continent”. The hospital originally had 150 employees, including 14 medical doctors.
. . .
The original hospital was designed by the Scottish architect Henry Saxon Snell, who from the 1860s had made a name for himself in England and Scotland as a leading specialist in the design of hospitals, particularly in London. Constructed of Montreal limestone, the original Royal Vic is distinguished by its crenelated structures and romantic turrets framing generous sun porches at the corners of its imposing medical and surgical wards. Snell’s aesthetic plans for the Royal Vic were inspired by the Scottish baronial style of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. From a medical perspective, his design of the Royal Vic was influenced by the ideas of Florence Nightingale as a Pavilion Hospital, in which the separation and isolation of both patients and diseases were thought to discourage the spread of infection. The original part of the building was completed in 1893. The hospital was later enlarged by the addition of new wings of the same architectural style. The H pavilion opened in 1905 as the nurses’ residence).

Saint-Louis Gate, Quebec, Canada

Porte St-Louis – Quebec – St. Louis Gate
Publisher: Lorenzo Audent Enr

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The Saint-Louis Gate is one of the entry points in the fortified walls surrounding Old Québec. On the inside of the walls, rue Saint-Louis stretches from the gate to Château Frontenac, while on the outside can be found the Parliament Building and Grande Allée. This iconic gate is part of the fortification system comprising bastions, gates and defensive structures that account for Québec City’s renown as a fortified colonial city and the reason Old Québec was named a UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Only three other gates that were part of the original fortifications survive: the Kent, Saint-Jean and Prescott gates.
Quebec Cite

St. Lewis Gate, which now goes by its French name, Porte Saint-Louis, was the first part of the fortifications to be removed,. Three more of the five narrow gates that controlled access to the city centre followed suit in the name of easing traffic congestion. In 1878 construction work began on a new Porte Saint-Louis. The gate—which is still standing today—was built on the same site, but was a big improvement on the original in looks and size. It was the first major component of the plan put forward by Lord Dufferin and architect William Lynn to see the light of day. The same stones were used to preserve the gate’s historical charm, and attractive medieval-style turrets were added along with a broad archway to keep traffic moving.
Ville de Quebec

The ramparts of Quebec City is a city wall that surrounds the western end of Old Quebec’s Upper Town in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The ramparts date back to the 17th century, with the ramparts having undergone a succession of modifications and improvements throughout its history. The city walls extends 4.6 kilometres (2.9 mi), with the southern portions of the ramparts forming a part of the Citadelle of Quebec. . . . There are four main city gates built into the ramparts that provide access to Old Quebec’s Upper Town including Kent Gate, Prescott Gate, Saint-Jean Gate, and Saint-Louis Gate. During the mid-18th century, the ramparts had three city gates, although several other gates were later built in the mid-19th centuries.[18] However the demolition of two city gates, Palace Gate and Hope Gate in the 19th century left the ramparts with a total of four city gates. Plans were in place to demolish the Saint-Jean and Saint-Louis gates in 1871, although intervention from Lord Dufferin prevented their demolition. . . . Saint-Louis Gate is built on rue Saint-Louis whose location back to the late 17th century. However, the present gate was built in 1878, built to replace the older gate with a gate that was more “aesthetically pleasing”. Like Saint-Jean Gate, the doors of Saint-Louis Gate were closed at night, disrupting local traffic until they were permanently removed in 1871.

Lookout, Mount Royal, Montreal

MONTREAL.–La Terrasse d’Observatoire au Mont-Royal.
(The “look out” on Mount Royal.)

Published: European Post Card Co, Montreal

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360 Cities (panorama)

Montréal had become an important industrial and commercial town with wealthy families, working-class neighbourhoods and a commercial port. In the midst of all this, the mountain. Always majestic, but already fragile. Many felt that the mountain should be preserved and offered to Montrealers as a place of nature, beauty and well-being in the form of a great park. In 1859, positions in favour of the creation of a park on Mount Royal became crystal-clear when a land owner cut down the trees on his vast Peel Street lot next to the mountain to sell as firewood. A decision fully supported by the community was then made: there would be a park on the mountain.

As of 1872, the City of Montréal undertook the necessary land purchases for the future park. In 1874, renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted was commissioned to design the new park. On May 24, 1876, the official inauguration of Mount Royal Park drew a large crowd. Despite the lack of landscaping and notable departure from Olmsted’s initial design, one thing was clear—the park was set to become a very popular site.
Mount Royal in Montreal

The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a Mount Royal Chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Built in 1906, it is named for the Petun chief Kondiaronk, whose influence led to the Great Peace of Montreal in 1701.